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Chapter 4 Development and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9780367262297 9780429292125 Year: Pages: 54 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Political Science --- History --- Migration --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-14 11:21:03
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This paper puts sub-Saharan Africa’s economic development into perspective. While much did not go as hoped for at independence, much of the region has been on a more promising development trajectory since the mid-1990s, as we illustrate using growth, poverty, and human development indicators. We identify key weaknesses, including lack of structural transformation and the slow rate of employment growth. We refer to global shocks that have played a critical role in sub-Saharan Africa’s economic performance alongside domestic events, policies, and governance. Finally, we discuss a set of critical challenges requiring effective management for sub-Saharan Africa to realize its considerable development potential.

The COST Manual of Laboratory Animal Care and Use

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ISBN: 9781439824924 Year: Pages: 439 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-29 23:58:16
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Judge Your Practices Against This Benchmark Manual COST Action B-24 established four working groups to research and discuss issues relevant to laboratory animal science. These included the housing of animals, environmental needs, refinement of procedures, genetically modified animals, and cost-benefit analysis. Based on the groups’ findings, The COST Manual of Laboratory Animal Care and Use: Refinement, Reduction, and Research provides a consensual European view of best practices for individuals and institutions caring for and working with laboratory animals. What is COST? COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) is an intergovernmental initiative that promotes coordination of nationally funded science and research at a European level. This book focuses on reduction and refinement strategies and includes insightful contributions from 44 experts drawn from various EU countries. Addressing only the most commonly used mammalian species—rats, mice, and rabbits—each chapter of the book follows a similar structure: Objectives outline the breadth of the chapter’s coverage Key Factors summarize the central issues that underpin good practice Questions Unresolved close each chapter, identifying areas of uncertainty and prompting investigations directed at advancing knowledge and application within relevant fields The COST Manual of Laboratory Animal Care and Use: Refinement, Reduction, and Research is the reference sure to be found in the lab coats of those responsible for the care and welfare of animals and those overseeing and conducting activities related to the use of animals for scientific purposes.

Keywords

Animal Care --- COST --- Laboratory --- Manual --- Reduction

Advancing Culture of Living with Landslides: Volume 1 ISDR-ICL Sendai Partnerships 2015-2025

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: WLF: Workshop on World Landslide Forum ISBN: 9783319594699 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 586 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59469-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-19 15:58:39
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This volume contains peer-reviewed papers from the Fourth World Landslide Forum organized by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL), the Global Promotion Committee of the International Programme on Landslides (IPL), University of Ljubljana (UL) and Geological Survey of Slovenia in Ljubljana, Slovenia from May 29 to June 2, 2017. The complete collection of papers from the Forum is published in five full-color volumes.

Growth, Employment, and Poverty in Latin America

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: WIDER Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9780198801085 Year: Pages: 528 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198801085.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: UNU WIDER
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-24 11:01:59
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This book examines the links between economic growth, changing employment conditions, and the reduction of poverty in Latin America in the 2000s. Our analysis answers the following broad questions: Has economic growth resulted in gains in standards of living and reductions in poverty via improved labour market conditions in Latin America in the 2000s, and have these improvements halted or been reversed since the international crisis of 2008? How do the rate and character of economic growth, changes in the various employment and earnings indicators, and changes in poverty and inequality indicators relate to each other? Our contribution is an in-depth study of the multi-pronged growth-employment-poverty nexus based on a large number of labour market indicators (twelve employment and earnings indicators and four poverty and inequality indicators) for a large number of Latin American countries (sixteen of them). The book presents a positive and hopeful set of findings for the period 2000 to 2012/13. Economic growth took place and brought about improvements in almost all labour market indicators and consequent reductions in poverty rates. But not all improvements were equal in size or caused by the same things. Some macroeconomic factors were associated with changes in labour market conditions, some of them always in the welfare-improving direction and some others always in the welfare-reducing direction. Most countries in the region suffered a deterioration in at least some labour market indicators as a consequence of the international crisis of 2008, but the negative effects were reversed very quickly in most countries.

Microbial Connections Between the Subsurface Sulfur Cycle and Other Elemental Cycles

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456529 Year: Pages: 213 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-652-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Sulfur has many redox states and is a major metabolite in suboxic and anaerobic environments including, but not restricted to, marine and marginal marine sediments, the water column of oxygen minimum zones, salt marshes and oil wells. Microbially mediated redox cycling of sulfur typically comprises dissimilatory sulfate reduction (MSR), sulfide reoxidation, disproportionation and the oxidation and reduction of sulfur redox intermediates. These processes contribute to the degradation of organic matter, link the cycles of sulfur and carbon, control the production and consumption of methane and are critical for the long term budget of O2 in the atmosphere. Microbial and abiotic processes at redox interfaces also connect the sulfur cycle to the redox cycles of nitrogen, iron and other elements, producing distinctive geochemical and molecular signatures. Studies that couple microbiology with stable isotope geochemistry have informed interpretations of microbial sulfur cycling in modern and past environments. Laboratory-based studies and models of MSR have sought to understand the physiological and environmental controls of the magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation. The fractionations of stable sulfur and oxygen isotopes during MSR are also used to track enzymatic activity during MSR and processes that oxidize sulfide in the presence of environmental oxidants. Outstanding questions in the field concern the importance of oxidative processes within the natural environment, the delivery of oxidants and carbon sources to the zones of sulfate reduction and the ability to detect or reconstruct oxidative processes from the chemical, isotopic, metagenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomics profiles in the environment. Recent studies have emphasized the complex connections between sulfur and methane, iron, nitrogen and other elements. These links may involve the redox cycling of species that occur at concentrations difficult to detect by standard geochemical techniques or that are cycled at very rapid rates (cryptic cycles). Of particular interest is the use of isotope geochemistry to quantify links among various electron acceptors, including sulfate, ferric iron, and nitrate, during the anaerobic methane oxidation. For example, recent geochemical measurements have hinted that microbial sulfate reduction coupled to organic matter oxidation is mechanistically different to when sulfate reduction is coupled to methane oxidation. Recent studies have also suggested a possible contribution of a number of previously uncultured microbial groups in sulfur cycling in sulfidic environments, inspiring further studies of these organisms and their partnerships in anaerobic environments. This Research Topic highlights studies of microbial interactions, processes and communities that couple the sulfur cycle to the cycles of other elements in aphotic environments.

On the Use of Model Order Reduction Techniques for the Elastohydrodynamic Contact Problem

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Technische Mechanik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 16143914 ISBN: 9783731503699 Year: Volume: 27 Pages: XXXII, 125 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000046871 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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The objective of this work is to develop a method which solves the nonlinear elastohydrodynamic contact problem in a fast and precise way using model order reduction techniques. The reduction procedure is based on a projection onto a low-dimensional subspace using different hyper-reduction procedures. The method provides fast and highly accurate reduced order models for stationary and transient, Newtonian and Non-Newtonian EHD line and point contact problems.

Speckle Reduction in Projection Systems

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ISBN: 9783866444188 Year: Pages: XIV, 153 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000012434 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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A speckle pattern is a quasi-random interference pattern which typically emerges when lasers are used as illumination sources in projection applications and which severely degrades the image quality. Since in most projection applications high speckle disturbance is not tolerable, speckle reduction is a major issue. This work gives an introduction into the theoretical description of speckle and investigates different practical methods for speckle reduction in laser projection systems.

Microstructural modeling and computational homogenization of the physically linear and nonlinear constitutive behavior of micro-heterogeneous materials

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Kontinuumsmechanik im Maschinenbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technische Mechanik - Bereich Kontinuumsmechanik ISSN: 2192693X ISBN: 9783866446991 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: V, 173 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000023534 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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Engineering materials show a pronounced heterogeneity on a smaller scale that influences the macroscopic constitutive behavior. Algorithms for the periodic discretization of microstructures are presented. These are used within the Nonuniform Transformation Field Analysis (NTFA) which is an order reduction based nonlinear homogenization method with micro-mechanical background. Theoretical and numerical aspects of the method are discussed and its computational efficiency is validated.

Macroeconomic Policies and Poverty

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in the Modern World Economy ISBN: 9780203005804 9780415700719 9780415649827 9781135994587 9781135994570 9781135994532 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203005804 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:19
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In this volume, world-renowned contributors, including Martin Ravallion, Michael Kremer and Robert Townsend, deal with the institutional characteristics of poverty resulting from the time pattern of aid, the nature of financial systems and the political economy of budgetary decisions. Going beyond the traditional literature on poverty, this original book deals with themes of broad interest to both scholars and policymakers in a clear yet technically sophisticated manner. Departing from conventional methods employed in poverty studies, these innovative essays enquire into the institutional characteristics of poverty, and using current case studies, they examine the crucial idea that periods of crises seriously affect poverty.

Keywords

trade --- liberalisation --- income --- distribution --- heavily --- indebted --- poor --- countries --- reduction --- exchange

Chapter 7 Teaching Children How to Discriminate (What We Learn From the Big Bad Wolf) (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9780415559102 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203348802 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-01 00:05:55
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Since its initial publication, English with an Accent has provoked debate and controversy within classrooms through its in-depth scrutiny of American attitudes towards language. Rosina Lippi-Green discusses the ways in which discrimination based on accent functions to support and perpetuate social structures and unequal power relations. This second edition has been reorganized and revised to include: new dedicated chapters on Latino English and Asian American English discussion questions, further reading, and suggested classroom exercises, updated examples from the classroom, the judicial system, the media, and corporate culture a discussion of the long-term implications of the Ebonics debate a brand-new companion website with a glossary of key terms and links to audio, video, and images relevant to the each chapter's content. English with an Accent is essential reading for students with interests in attitudes and discrimination towards language.

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