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Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Typical Readers and Dyslexics Readers

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454150 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-415-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology --- Education
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Abstract

Reading involves decoding and comprehension components and, to become efficient, it requires a large number of cognitive and linguistic processes. Among those, the phonological awareness, the alphabetic principle, the decoding, the fluency, the lexical development and the text comprehension development. The reading comprehension is strongly related with the development of vocabulary, oral language, linguistic skills, memory skills and ability to make inferences, and the world experiences of each individual. These processes become important only when the professional needs to deal with students presenting difficulties in learning how to read. The difficulty using the knowledge of conversion rules between grapheme and phoneme to the word reading construction characterizes the dyslexia, which is a specific learning disorder with a neurological source. These difficulties presented by students with dyslexia interfere in their learning process impairing the learning development. Knowing and following the reading development and its processes, as well as obtaining the punctuation of fluency abilities and students comprehension allow us to understand what happens when the student presents difficulties to read. This could help in the identification of learning disabilities and in the development of intervention programs.

Vocabulary Development

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ISBN: 9783038977346 9783038977353 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-735-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Education
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Knowledge of word meanings is critical to success in reading. A reader cannot fully understand a text in which the meaning to a significant number of words is unknown. Vocabulary knowledge has long been correlated with proficiency in reading. Yet, national surveys of student vocabulary knowledge have demonstrated that student growth in vocabulary has been stagnant at best. This volume offers new insights into vocabulary knowledge and vocabulary teaching. Articles range from a presentation of theories of vocabulary that guide instruction to innovative methods and approaches for teaching vocabulary. Special emphasis is placed on teaching academic and disciplinary vocabulary that is critical to success in content area learning. Our hope for this volume is that it may spark a renewed interest in research into vocabulary and vocabulary instruction and move toward making vocabulary instruction an even more integral part of all literacy and disciplinary instruction.

Individual Variation and the Bilingual Advantage - Factors that Modulate the Effect of Bilingualism on Cognitive Control and Cognitive Reserve

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039281046 9783039281053 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-105-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The number of bilingual and multilingual speakers around the world is steadily growing, leading to the questions: How do bilinguals manage two or more language systems in their daily interactions, and how does being bilingual/multilingual affect brain functioning and vice versa? Previous research has shown that cognitive control plays a key role in bilingual language management. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that foreign languages have been found to affect not only the expected linguistic domains, but surprisingly, other non-linguistic domains such as cognitive control, attention, inhibition, and working memory. Somehow, learning languages seems to affect executive/brain functioning. In the literature, this is referred to as the bilingual advantage, meaning that people who learn two or more languages seem to outperform monolinguals in executive functioning skills. In this Special Issue, we first present studies that investigate the bilingual advantage. We also go one step further, by focusing on factors that modulate the effect of bilingualism on cognitive control. In the second, smaller part of our Special Issue, we focus on the cognitive reserve hypothesis with the aim of addressing the following questions: Does the daily use of two or more languages protect the aging individual against cognitive decline? Does lifelong bilingualism protect against brain diseases, such as dementia, later in life?

Keywords

multilingualism --- bilingual advantage --- Stroop task --- cognates --- orthographic neighbors --- cognitive control --- controlled language processing --- German as a foreign language --- bilingual advantage --- bilingualism --- cognitive control --- individual differences --- longitudinal studies --- methodology --- bilingualism --- bilingual experiences --- executive functioning --- language proficiency --- language use --- language switching --- interactional contexts --- domain-specific self-concept --- academic achievement --- metacognition --- executive functions --- multilingual children --- reading comprehension --- reading fluency --- spelling --- bilingual language dominance --- Stimulus-Stimulus inhibition --- Stimulus-Response inhibition --- speed-accuracy trade-off --- attention network --- alerting --- orienting --- executive functioning --- interpreting --- translation --- bilingualism --- inhibition --- bilingualism --- early childhood --- attention --- cognitive flexibility --- aging --- bilingualism --- cognitive decline --- cognitive reserve hypothesis --- dementia --- onset --- bilingual advantage --- executive control --- language switching --- shifting --- inhibition --- self-reports --- bilingualism --- Attentional Control Theory --- executive function --- trait anxiety --- rumination --- inhibitory control --- eye tracking --- multilingualism --- cognitive abilities --- inhibition --- switching --- disengagement of attention --- executive function --- cognitive effects --- bilingual advantage --- modulating factors --- bilingualism --- aging --- third-age language learning

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