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Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy for Trace-Gas Measurements with High Sensitivity and Low Drift

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Book Series: Karlsruhe Series in Photonics & Communications / Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Institute of High-Frequency and Quantum Electronics (IHQ) ISSN: 18651100 ISBN: 9783866443280 Year: Volume: 5 Pages: 142 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000010030 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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This book discusses the mechanical and opto-electronic design of laser spectrometers for measuring two very important atmospheric gases, namely water vapor and its isotopic ratios, and formaldehyde. For measuring water vapor, shot-noise limited sensitivity has been achieved by a careful choice of system components and data processing. For measuring formaldehyde, a selective sample modulation exploiting the Stark effect has been used to greatly improve the sensitivity.

Understanding Japanese Savings

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in the Growth Economies of Asia ISBN: 9780203645291 9780415129763 9781138810662 9781134793143 9781134793136 9781134793099 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203645291 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:05
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Japan's savings are among the highest in the world, and these high rates have played a valuable role throughout the post-war period. However, over the next several decades, Japan's population will be ageing rapidly. Will this lower Japanese savings rates? Using up-to-date financial and demographical data, author Robert Dekle finds that the answer to this question is an emphatic 'yes'. Understanding Japanese Saving holds key lessons for Western nations undergoing similar demographic transformations as well as developing countries looking to establish public savings institutions.

Keywords

support --- ratio --- investment --- rates --- governments --- intertemporal --- budget --- constraint --- real --- interest

Assessing Prenatal and Neonatal Gonadal Steroid Exposure for Studies of Human Development: Methodological and Theoretical Challenges

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196074 Year: Pages: 80 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-607-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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There is extensive evidence from animal models that gonadal steroids, produced in fetal and neonatal life, act on the developing organism to produce sex differences far beyond the reproductive system. That early gonadal steroid exposure also plays an important role in human development is supported by studies of individuals with disorders of sex determination and differentiation. It is much less clear whether normal variation in gonadal steroid exposure predicts sexually dimorphic health outcomes or within-sex variation. This is largely due to challenges related to the assessment of gonadal steroid exposure in the developing fetus and neonate. Regarding the prenatal period, serial measurements of serum hormone levels in the fetus, for use in studies of later development, are not possible for ethical reasons. Researchers have measured hormones in maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and amniotic fluid; used putative anthropometric indices such as the relative lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D); evaluated common variants in genes related to hormone production, transport, and metabolism; and examined development in opposite sex twins and the offspring of mothers with hyperandrogeny. Each of these approaches has particular strengths and notable weaknesses. Regarding the neonatal period, serial measurements in serum are often impractical for studies of typical development. Salivary hormone assays, frequently used in studies of older children and adults, have not been extensively investigated in neonates. The most appropriate timing for testing is also open to debate. Early work suggested that testosterone levels in males begin to rise after the first postnatal week, peak around the 3rd to 4th months of life, and then drop back to very low levels by 1 year. However a more recent study of 138 infants did not demonstrate this pattern. Testosterone was highest on the day of birth and gradually dropped over the first 6 months. Even less is known about patterns of early estrogen exposure, though highly sensitive bioassays indicated that sex differences are present in early childhood. In addition, the design and interpretation of studies may be impacted by widespread acceptance of conceptual frameworks that are not well-supported empirically. For example, many researchers presume that the free hormone hypothesis, which states that unbound hormone is more readily diffusible into tissues and thus a better measure of actual exposure, is true. However this hypothesis has been challenged on multiple grounds. A second example: it is generally accepted that masculinization of the human brain is primarily mediated by the androgen receptor (in contrast to rodents where the estrogen receptor plays a major role), in part because chromosomal males with complete androgen insensitivity generally espouse a female gender identity. However this is not always the case, and other sexually dimorphic outcomes have not been carefully assessed in CAIS. The aim of this research topic is to gather together experimental and review papers which address the diverse challenges in assessing prenatal and neonatal gonadal steroid exposure for studies of human development with the expectation that this will allow more critical appraisal of existing studies, identify critical research gaps, and improve the design of future studies.

Evolution, Monitoring and Predicting Models of Rockburst: Precursor Information for Rock Failure

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ISBN: 9789811075476 9789811075483 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7548-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: National Natural Science Foundation of China
Subject: Mechanical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 16:34:23
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This open access book focuses on investigating predicting precursor information and key points of rockburst in mining engineering through laboratory experiment, theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and case studies. Understanding the evolution patterns for the microstructure instability of rock is a prerequisite for rockburst prediction. The book provides a guide for readers seeking to understand the evolution patterns for the microstrucure of rock failure, the predicting key point of rock failure and the rockburst predicting model. It will be an essential reference to understand mechanism of rockburst and sheds new light on dynamic disasters prediction. Chapters are carefully developed to cover (1) The evolution patterns for the microstructure instability of rock; (2) Rockburst hazard monitoring and predicting criterion and predicting models. The book addresses the issue with a holistic and systematic approach that investigates the occurrence mechanism of rockburst based on the evolution patterns for the microstructure of rock failure and establishes the predicting model of rockburst.This book will be of interest to researchers of mining engineering, rock mechanics engineering and safety engineering.

A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic and Human Development

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Book Series: Goettinger Studien zur Entwicklungsoekonomik / Goettingen Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9783631587935 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3726/b13871 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:28
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This book contributes to the empirical literature on economic and human development from five different perspectives: the first chapter provides a new statistical test for bimodality of densities with an application to income data. The second chapter analyzes the worlds cross-country distribution of income and challenges the so called Twin Peaks-claim. The third chapter focuses on the world income distribution and resulting implications for poverty reduction, pro-poor growth and the evolution of global inequality. The fourth chapter estimates the welfare effects of recently negotiated Economic Partnership Agreements between the EU and African countries. Finally, the fifth chapter investigates whether democracy leads to higher levels of health and education.

Civil Engineering and Symmetry

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039210022 9783039210039 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-003-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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A topic of utmost importance in civil engineering is finding optimal solutions throughout the life cycle of buildings and infrastructural objects, including their design, manufacturing, use, and maintenance. Operational research, management science, and optimization methods provide a consistent and applicable groundwork for engineering decision-making. These topics have received the interest of researchers and, after a rigorous peer-review process, eight papers have been published in this Special Issue. The articles in this Printed Edition demonstrate how solutions in civil engineering, which bring economic, social, and environmental benefits, are obtained through a variety of methodologies and tools. Usually, decision-makers need to take into account not just a single criterion, but several different criteria and, therefore, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approaches have been suggested for application in five of the published papers; the rest of the papers apply other research methods. Most approaches suggested decision models under uncertainty, proposing hybrid MCDM methods in combination with fuzzy or rough set theory, as well as D-numbers. The application areas of the proposed MCDM techniques mainly cover production/manufacturing engineering, logistics and transportation, and construction engineering and management. We hope that a summary of the Special Issue as provided here will encourage a detailed analysis of the papers included in the Printed Edition.

Solar Energy Applications in Houses, Smart Cities and Microgrids

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ISBN: 9783039280681 9783039280698 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-069-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Five papers were selected for this Special Issue, with three relating to solar energy applications in houses, smart cities, and microgrids; one studying the relationship between the smart city model and the concept of energy sustainability; and one addressing the following two topics: the lack of effectiveness of detection algorithms based on the voltage/frequency displacement concept under voltage-controlled inverters and the applicability limits of others based on the impedance measurement (IM).

Engineering Fluid Dynamics 2018

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ISBN: 9783039281121 9783039281138 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-113-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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“Engineering Fluid Dynamics 2018”. The topic of engineering fluid dynamics includes both experimental as well as computational studies. Of special interest were submissions from the fields of mechanical, chemical, marine, safety, and energy engineering. We welcomed both original research articles as well as review articles. After one year, 28 papers were submitted and 14 were accepted for publication. The average processing time was 37.91 days. The authors had the following geographical distribution: China (9); Korea (3); Spain (1); and India (1). Papers covered a wide range of topics, including analysis of fans, turbines, fires in tunnels, vortex generators, deep sea mining, as well as pumps.

Keywords

axial fan --- rotating stall --- aerodynamic noise --- numerical simulation --- noise spectrum --- centrifugal pump --- radiation noise --- distribution characteristic --- acoustic energy --- experimental research --- thermosyphon --- volume of fluid --- multiphase flow --- evaporation and condensation --- centrifugal pump --- impeller --- blade wrap angle --- blade exit angle --- optimized design --- deep sea mining --- manganese nodules exploitation --- hydraulic collecting --- suction flow field --- dimensional analysis --- circumferential groove casing treatment --- sweep and lean --- CGCT-blade integrated optimization --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- flow around cylinder --- fluid structure interaction (FSI) --- hydrodynamic response --- numerical methods --- simulation and modeling --- vortex induced vibration (VIV) ratio --- gas turbine --- axial gap --- hot streak --- heat transfer --- leading edge --- global optimization --- cavitation inception --- orthogonal test --- CFD simulation --- two-stage axial fan --- numerical simulation --- abnormal blade installation angle --- rotating stall --- Tesla turbine --- fluid dynamics --- disc thickness --- disc spacing distance --- isentropic efficiency --- plug-holing --- tunnel slope --- fire --- natural ventilation --- ventilation performance --- aspect ratio --- evacuation --- fire propagation --- tunnel vehicle fire --- unsteady heat release rate --- flow control --- vortex generators --- source term --- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) --- OpenFOAM --- wind tunnel

Religion and Art: Rethinking Aesthetic and Auratic Experiences in 'Post-Secular' Times

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ISBN: 9783039210329 9783039210336 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-033-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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How can we think of the “aura” of (sacred) contexts and (sacred) works? How to think of individual and collective (esthetic/religious) experiences? What to make of the manipulative dimension of (religious and esthetic) “auratic” experiences? Is the work of art still capable of mediating the experience of the “sacred,” and under what conditions? What is the significance of the “eschatological” dimension of both art and religion (the sense of “ending”)? Can theology offer a way to reaffirm the creative capacities of the human being as something that characterizes the very condition of being human? This Special Issue aspires to contribute to the growing literature on contemporary art and religion, and to explore the new ways of thinking of art and the sacred (in their esthetic, ideological, and institutional dimensions) in the context of contemporary culture.

Wine Traceability

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ISBN: 9783039217687 9783039217694 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-769-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Wine traceability is a central theme in the current world market where consumers are increasingly demanding the quality and origin of food and drink. The wine production chain and wine composition are generally controlled by different laws (International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV), European Union (EU), and national governments) and need specific documentation. Nevertheless, wine production is subject to fraud. Consequently, the improvement of the methods applied to verify the origin and quality of wines is very important to protect wine consumers and producers. In this book, eight different papers—six research papers and two reviews—address the topic from different points of view.

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