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Assessing the Performance of Passive Houses in Mediterranean Climate Regions

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ISBN: 9783039289493 / 9783039289509 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-950-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book results from a Special Issue related to the latest progress in the thermodynamics of machines systems and processes since the premonitory work of Carnot. Carnot invented his famous cycle and generalized the efficiency concept for thermo-mechanical engines. Since that time, research progressed from the equilibrium approach to the irreversible situation that represents the general case. This book illustrates the present state-of-the-art advances after one or two centuries of consideration regarding applications and fundamental aspects. The research is moving fast in the direction of economic and environmental aspects. This will probably continue during the coming years. This book mainly highlights the recent focus on the maximum power of engines, as well as the corresponding first law efficiency upper bounds.

Biogenic Amines on Food Safety

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ISBN: 9783039210541 9783039210558 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-055-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Biogenic amines have been known for some time. These compounds are found in varying concentrations in a wide range of foods (fish, cheese, meat, wine, beer, vegetables, etc.) and their formations are influenced by different factors associated to those foods (composition, additives, ingredients, storage, microorganism, packaging, handing, conservation, etc.). The intake of foods containing high concentrations of biogenic amines can present a health hazard. Additionally, they have been used to establish indexes in various foods in order to signal the degree of freshness and/or deterioration of food. Nowadays, there has been an increase in the number of food poisoning episodes in consumers associated with the presence of these biogenic amines, mainly associated with histamines. Food safety is one of the main concerns of the consumer and safety agencies of different countries (EFSA, FDA, FSCJ, etc.), which have, as one of their main objectives, to control these biogenic amines, principally histamine, to assure a high level of food safety.Therefore, it is necessary to deepen our understanding of the formation, monitoring and reduction of biogenic amines during the development, processing and storage of food, even the effect of biogenic amines in consumers after digestion of foods with different levels of these compounds.With this aim, we are preparing a Special Issue on the topic of ""Biogenic Amines in Food Safety"", and we invite researchers to contribute original and unpublished research articles and reviews articles that involve studies of biogenic amines in food, which can provide an update to our knowledge of these compounds and their impacts on food quality and food safety.

Hardwood Reforestation and Restoration

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ISBN: 9783038977308 9783038977315 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-731-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Hardwood-dominated temperate forests (mostly in Eastern North America, Europe, North East Asia) provide valuable renewable timber and numerous ecosystem services. Many of these forests have been subjected to harvesting or conversion to agriculture, sometimes over centuries, that have greatly reduced their former extent and diversity. Natural regeneration following harvesting or during post-agricultural succession has often failed to restore these forests adequately. Past harvesting practices and the valuable timber of some species have led to a reduction in their abundance. The loss of apex predators has caused herbivore populations to increase and exert intense browsing pressure on hardwood regeneration, often preventing it. Particularly important are fruit, nut and acorn bearing species, because of their vital role in forest food webs and biodiversity. Restoring hardwood species to natural forests in which they were formerly more abundant will require a number of forest management actions (e.g., resistant hybrids, deer exclosures/protectors, enrichment planting, underplanting, etc.). Similarly, reforesting areas that were once natural forests will also require new silvicultural knowledge. Global warming trends will intensify the need for interventions to maintain the diversity and function of temperate hardwood forests, as well as for increase hardwood reforestation.

Biochar as Soil Amendment: Impact on Soil Properties and Sustainable Resource Management

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ISBN: 9783039282746 9783039282753 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-275-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The role of biochar in improving soil fertility is increasingly being recognized and is leading to recommendations of biochar amendment of degraded soils. In addition, biochars offer a sustainable tool for managing organic wastes and to produce added-value products. The benefits of biochar use in agriculture and forestry can span enhanced plant productivity, an increase in soil C stocks, and a reduction of nutrient losses from soil and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, biochar composition and properties and, therefore, its performance as a soil amendment are highly dependent on the feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. In addition, due to its characteristics, such as high porosity, water retention, and adsorption capacity, there are other applications for biochar that still need to be properly tested. Thus, the 16 original articles contained in this book, which were selected and evaluated for this Special Issue, provide a comprehensive overview of the biological, chemicophysical, biochemical, and environmental aspects of the application of biochar as soil amendment. Specifically, they address the applicability of biochar for nursery growth, its effects on the productivity of various food crops under contrasting conditions, biochar capacity for pesticide retention, assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, and soil carbon dynamics. I would like to thank the contributors, reviewers, and the support of the Agronomy editorial staff, whose professionalism and dedication have made this issue possible.

Arid Land Systems: Sciences and Societies

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ISBN: 9783039213474 9783039213481 Year: Pages: 380 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-348-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Understanding deserts and drylands is essential, as arid landscapes cover >40% of the Earth and are home to two billion people. Today's problematic environment–human interaction needs contemporary knowledge to address dryland complexity. Physical dimensions in arid zones—land systems, climate and hazards, ecology—are linked with social processes that directly impact drylands, such as land management, livelihoods, and development. The challenges require integrated research that identifies systemic drivers across global arid regions. Measurement and monitoring, field investigation, remote sensing, and data analysis are effective tools to investigate natural dynamics. Equally, inquiry into how policy and practice affect landscape sustainability is key to mitigating detrimental activity in deserts. Relations between socio-economic forces and degradation, agro-pastoral rangeland use, drought and disaster and resource extraction reflect land interactions. Contemporary themes of food security, conflict, and conservation are interlinked in arid environments. This book unifies desert science, arid environments, and dryland development. The chapters identify land dynamics, address system risks and delineate human functions through original research in arid zones. Mixed methodologies highlight the vital links between social and environmental science in global deserts. The book engages with today's topical themes and presents novel analyses of arid land systems and societies.

Keywords

Central Asia --- landscape --- One Belt --- One Road --- Kazakhstan --- Kyrgyzstan --- infrastructure --- environment --- New Silk Road --- drylands --- wind erosion modelling --- drag partition --- aerodynamic roughness --- remote sensing --- computational fluid dynamics --- cellular automata --- remote sensing --- modelling --- coverage --- grass height --- Cuchillas de la Zarca --- Chobe --- forest resources --- ecosystem services --- non-linear change --- protected areas --- disturbance --- drought --- sustainable livelihoods --- ecotone --- dryland --- KAZA --- Southern Africa --- nomadic pastoralism --- spatial migration model --- Afar --- livestock --- fodder demand --- fodder supply --- Asian dust --- human health --- Mongolia --- Japan --- subarctic agriculture --- Greenland --- soil quality index --- farming at its limits --- air temperature increase --- increase of growing season --- dry lake beds --- dust storm emission --- remote sensing --- Gobi Desert region --- communal rangelands --- property rights --- environmental impacts --- policy implementation --- drylands --- arid region --- LUCC --- driving forces --- snow index --- SPOT VGT --- Kashgar Region --- degrading --- tamarind age --- regeneration --- invasive vine --- vegetation survey --- erosion --- rotational grazing --- continuous grazing --- grassland degradation --- case study of nomadic and settlement grazing system --- remote sensing --- Mongolian grassland --- arid area --- land use change --- soil carbon storage --- global carbon balance --- the Shiyang River Basin --- riparian ecosystems --- Sonoran desert --- remote sensing --- land cover/land use --- drip irrigation --- groundwater --- common-pool resource --- water rights --- local farming --- desert reclamation --- desertification --- river basin development --- political ecology --- water --- vegetation response to precipitation --- dust storm outbreak --- cross correlation analysis --- the Hovmoller diagram --- environmental regime shift --- Gobi desert of Mongolia --- climate hazard --- Asia --- drylands --- risk --- drought --- desert --- Central Asia --- Kyrgyzstan --- infrastructure --- environment --- mining --- social movements --- protest --- environmental justice --- subversive clientelism --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- Sanjiangyuan region --- social–ecological systems --- pastoralism --- partnerships --- co-management --- national parks --- Belt and Road Initiative --- mountains of Central Asia --- pastoralism --- Ethiopia --- South Omo --- Nyangatom --- Jordan River Basin --- water productivity --- Jordan --- Israel --- Palestine --- agriculture --- agricultural water intensity --- decoupling --- water security --- institutional change --- ecosystem services --- economic valuation --- drylands --- absence --- afforestation --- charisma --- China --- conservation --- desertification --- Gobi --- Mongolia

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