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Konditionierung von biogenen Energieträgern aus den Produkten der bioliq®-Schnellpyrolyse

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ISBN: 9783731505754 Year: Pages: XII, 301 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000058225 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Within the bioliq®-process, the organic phase of straw pyrolysis condensates can be gasified directly, while the aqueous phase can be mixed with char to form a slurry, which also can be gasified. For production and storage, several mixers and stirrers are examined. Grinding the porous and elongated char particles decelerates sedimentation and also reduces the viscosity. Thus, higher concentrated slurries can be mixed, which leads to higher stability.

Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications ?

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ISBN: 9783039216628 9783039216635 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-663-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Biomass can be converted to energy, biofuels, and bioproducts via thermochemical conversion processes, such as combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Combustion technology is most widely applied on an industrial scale. However, biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes are still in the research and development stage. The major products from these processes are syngas, bio-oil, and char (called also biochar for agronomic application). Among these products, biomass chars have received increasing attention for different applications, such as gasification, co-combustion, catalysts or adsorbents precursors, soil amendment, carbon fuel cells, and supercapacitors. This Special Issue provides an overview of biomass char production methods (pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, etc.), characterization techniques (e.g., scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption and mass spectrometry), their properties, and their suitable recovery processes.

Keywords

biomass production --- multicriteria model --- ELECTRE III --- combustion --- oxygen enrichment --- low-rank coal char --- char oxidation --- reaction kinetics --- salty food waste --- FT-IR --- pyrolysis --- biochar --- NaCl --- hydrothermal carbonization --- anaerobic digestion --- poultry slaughterhouse --- sludge cake --- energy recovery efficiency --- gasification --- kinetic model --- active site --- chemisorption --- hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) --- Chinese reed --- biocrude --- biochar --- high heating value (HHV) --- biochar --- steam --- gasification --- chemical speciation --- AAEMs --- underground coal gasification --- ash layer --- effective diffusion coefficient --- internal diffusion resistance --- pyrolysis --- hydrothermal carbonization --- biochar engineering --- porosity --- nutrients --- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) --- nitrogen --- biomass --- amino acid --- pyrrole --- NOx --- pyrolysis --- grape marc --- kinetic models --- characterization --- pyrolysis --- Texaco pilot plant --- reactor modelling --- ash fusion temperature (AFT) --- melting phenomenon --- food waste compost --- sawdust --- pyrolysis --- biochar --- thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) --- calorific value --- biogas purification --- coconut shells --- biomass valorization --- textural characterization --- adsorption isotherms --- breakthrough curves --- olive mill solid wastes (OMSWs) --- fixed bed combustor --- pellets --- combustion parameters --- gaseous emissions --- waste wood --- interactions --- interferences --- partial combustion reaction in gasification --- Boudouard reaction in gasification --- MTDATA --- biomass --- steam gasification --- kinetics --- pyrolysis conditions --- thermogravimetric analysis --- characteristic time analysis --- biomass --- combustion --- thermogravimetric analysis --- kinetic parameters --- thermal characteristics --- food waste --- food-waste biochar --- pyrolysis --- NaCl template --- desalination --- biochar --- ash from biomass --- giant miscanthus --- fertilisation --- CO2 adsorption --- CH4 adsorption --- biomass --- activated carbon --- n/a

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Proceedings of the INFN-LNF 2018 Conference

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ISBN: 9783039219681 9783039219698 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-969-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:20:03
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The results presented in this volume highlight some of the most recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology studies, from both the physical and chemical point of view, with an eye also to possible engineering applications. These studies demonstrate directly how effective, and at the same time stimulating is implementing the “cross-fertilization” procedure. Indeed, multidisciplinary research allows one to catch more easily the analogies inherent different areas of science, as well as to take advantage and optimize different methods and techniques, often borrowed from other research areas.In the present Special Issue, we included six published papers. The latter contributions, on the one hand, are developed at the theory level and, on the other hand, show experimental results on the realization and experimental characterization of nanostructured systems, suitable for yielding progress towards the realization of systems and devices, that can ultimately lead to industrial applications. The results show that recent scientific research advances in these areas may provide important steps in the direction of fostering innovation and technological development.

Sustainable Utilization of Metals: Processing, Recovery and Recycling

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ISBN: 9783039288854 / 9783039288861 Year: Pages: 388 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-886-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The high demand for advanced metallic materials raises the need for an extensive recycling of metals and such a sustainable use of raw materials. ""Sustainable Utilization of Metals - Processing, Recovery and Recycling"" comprises the latest scientific achievements in efficient production of metals and such addresses sustainable resource use as part of the circular economy strategy. This policy drives the present contributions, aiming on the recirculation of EoL-streams such as Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), multi-metal alloys or composite materials back into metal production. This needs a holistic approach, resulting in the maximal avoidance of waste. Considering both aspects, circular economy and material design, recovery and use of minor metals play an essential role, since their importance for technological applications often goes along with a lack of supply on the world market. Additionally, their ignoble character and low concentration in recycling materials cause an insufficient recycling rate of these metals, awarding them the status of “critical metals”. In order to minimize losses and energy consumption, this issue explores concepts for the optimization concerning the interface between mechanical and thermal pre-treatment and metallurgical processes. Such new approaches in material design, structural engineering and substitution are provided in the chapters.

Keywords

laterites --- scandium --- leaching --- precipitation --- solvent extraction --- manganese --- Zinc --- electrolytic lodes and scrapings --- electrolytic manganese --- metallurgy --- hydrometallurgy --- recycling --- sustainable development --- recycling --- spent catalysts --- zinc --- copper --- Bayan Obo --- REE–Nb–Fe ore --- carbothermal reduction --- kinetics --- NMC batteries --- recycling --- leaching --- solvent extraction --- selective precipitation --- hydrometallurgy --- Bayer process --- trace elements --- vanadium --- gallium --- rare earth elements --- lanthanum --- yttrium --- scandium --- karst bauxite --- bauxite residue --- red mud --- indium --- silver --- jarosite --- recycling --- industrial residue --- process development --- selective extraction --- simultaneous recovery --- pyrometallurgy --- lifetime of steel --- steel scrap --- circulation --- industry sector --- dynamic material flow model --- recycling rate --- material flow analysis --- gold --- copper --- WPCBs --- leaching --- physical separation --- Tin recovery --- steelmaking dust --- zinc recycling --- alkaline leaching --- electric arc furnace --- Li-ion battery --- recycling --- pyrolysis --- microwave assisted pyrolysis --- battery pre-treatment --- super-gravity --- rheorefining --- aluminum alloy --- tramp element --- separation --- jarosite residue --- pyrometallurgy --- circular economy --- slag valorization --- metal recovery --- closed-loop circulation --- environmentally friendly process --- enrichment of Ti --- preparation for recovery --- reduction of Co --- precipitation --- thermal treatment --- hydrometallurgy --- recycling --- cold-bonded briquettes --- blast furnace --- desulfurization --- basic oxygen furnace --- dust --- sludge --- fines --- scandium --- anti-solvent crystallization --- solvent extraction --- precipitation --- ammonium scandium hexafluoride --- chemical equilibrium diagram --- aluminium purification --- iron removal --- intermetallic formation --- polythermal section --- cerium --- flotation --- glass polishing waste --- gravity separation --- leaching --- precipitation --- rare-earths --- recycling --- reuse --- solvent extraction --- neodymium --- dimethyl sulfoxide --- electrodeposition --- bauxite residue --- red mud --- ionic liquids --- scandium recovery --- titanium recovery --- NdFeB magnets --- rare earth elements --- recycling --- recycling potential --- neodymium --- dysprosium --- WPCB --- melting behavior --- flash smelting --- cementation --- copper removal --- cavitation --- pyrolysis --- smartphone --- displays --- halogenation --- indium --- volatilization --- thermodynamics --- recycling --- magnesium --- refining --- recycling --- ultra-high purity --- vacuum distillation --- condensation --- oxygen-depolarized cathodes --- silver leaching --- cryogenic pre-treatment --- negative activation energy --- polishing waste --- rare earths --- waste utilization --- characterization --- leaching --- n/a

Advanced Flame Retardant Materials

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ISBN: 9783039283507 9783039283514 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-351-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Recent disasters caused by the spread of fire in buildings and in transportations remind us of the importance of fire protection. Using flame-retardant materials is one important element of the firefighting strategy, which aims to prevent fire development and propagation. These materials are used in different applications, such as in textiles, coatings, foams, furniture, and cables. The development of more efficient and environmentally friendly flame-retardant additives is an active multidisciplinary approach that has attracted a great deal of interest. Studies have aimed at the development of new, sustainable, and flame-retardant additives/materials, providing high performance and low toxicity. Also studied were their properties during ageing and recycling, as well as modeling physical and chemical processes occuring before ignition and during their combustion. The development of sustainable flame retardants and understanding their modes of action provide a strong link between these topics and cover many fields from organic chemistry, materials engineering, and toxicology, to physics and mathematics.

Advances in Heterocatalysis by Nanomaterials

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ISBN: 9783039288359 / 9783039288366 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-836-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Heterogeneous catalysis played, plays, and will continue to play, a major key role in industrial processes for large-scale synthesis of commodity chemicals of global importance, and in catalytic systems that possess a critical role in energy generation and environmental protection approaches. As a result of the ongoing progress in materials science, nanotechnology, and characterizations, great advances have been achieved in heterogeneous catalysis by nanomaterials. Efficient approaches and advanced methods for the design of nano-structured composite materials (up to atomic level), subject to specific nano-morphologies with enhanced metal–metal and metal–support interactions favorable for catalysis (that enable fine-tuning of the critical properties of the designed catalysts), provide optimized catalysts with outstanding performances in numerous eco-friendly and cost-effective applications. Accordingly, great progress has been achieved involving, for example, emissions control, waste treatment, photocatalytic, bio-refinery, CO2 utilization, and fuel cells applications, as well as hydrocarbon processing for H2, added-value chemicals, and liquid fuels production. The themed Special Issue has succeeded in collecting 10 high-quality contributions that cover recent research progress in the field for a variety of applications (e.g., environment, energy, added-value chemicals/organics synthesis, and bio-transformation) declaring the prospect and importance of nanomaterials in all the directions of heterogeneous catalysis.

Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis

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ISBN: 9783038976943 9783038976950 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-695-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Although the seminal work of Fujishima et al. dates back to 1971, TiO2 still remains the most diffused and studied semiconductor, employed in photo-oxidation processes for cleantech (i.e., polluted water and air treatment), in solar fuel production (mainly hydrogen production by water photo splitting), and in Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) processes by CO2 photoreduction. The eleven articles, among them three reviews, in this book cover recent results and research trends of various aspects of titanium dioxide photocatalysis, with the chief aim of improving the final efficiency of TiO2-based materials. Strategies include doping, metal co-catalyst deposition, and the realization of composites with plasmonic materials, other semiconductors, and graphene. Photocatalysts with high efficiency and selectivity can be also obtained by controlling the precise crystal shape (and homogeneous size) and the organization in superstructures from ultrathin films to hierarchical nanostructures. Finally, the theoretical modeling of TiO2 nanoparticles is discussed and highlighted. The range of topics addressed in this book will stimulate the reader’s interest as well as provide a valuable source of information for researchers in academia and industry.

Biochar as Soil Amendment: Impact on Soil Properties and Sustainable Resource Management

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ISBN: 9783039282746 9783039282753 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-275-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The role of biochar in improving soil fertility is increasingly being recognized and is leading to recommendations of biochar amendment of degraded soils. In addition, biochars offer a sustainable tool for managing organic wastes and to produce added-value products. The benefits of biochar use in agriculture and forestry can span enhanced plant productivity, an increase in soil C stocks, and a reduction of nutrient losses from soil and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, biochar composition and properties and, therefore, its performance as a soil amendment are highly dependent on the feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. In addition, due to its characteristics, such as high porosity, water retention, and adsorption capacity, there are other applications for biochar that still need to be properly tested. Thus, the 16 original articles contained in this book, which were selected and evaluated for this Special Issue, provide a comprehensive overview of the biological, chemicophysical, biochemical, and environmental aspects of the application of biochar as soil amendment. Specifically, they address the applicability of biochar for nursery growth, its effects on the productivity of various food crops under contrasting conditions, biochar capacity for pesticide retention, assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, and soil carbon dynamics. I would like to thank the contributors, reviewers, and the support of the Agronomy editorial staff, whose professionalism and dedication have made this issue possible.

Glassy Materials Based Microdevices

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ISBN: 9783038976189 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-619-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Microtechnology has changed our world since the last century, when silicon microelectronics revolutionized sensor, control and communication areas, with applications extending from domotics to automotive, and from security to biomedicine. The present century, however, is also seeing an accelerating pace of innovation in glassy materials; as an example, glass-ceramics, which successfully combine the properties of an amorphous matrix with those of micro- or nano-crystals, offer a very high flexibility of design to chemists, physicists and engineers, who can conceive and implement advanced microdevices. In a very similar way, the synthesis of glassy polymers in a very wide range of chemical structures offers unprecedented potential of applications. The contemporary availability of microfabrication technologies, such as direct laser writing or 3D printing, which add to the most common processes (deposition, lithography and etching), facilitates the development of novel or advanced microdevices based on glassy materials. Biochemical and biomedical sensors, especially with the lab-on-a-chip target, are one of the most evident proofs of the success of this material platform. Other applications have also emerged in environment, food, and chemical industries. The present Special Issue of Micromachines aims at reviewing the current state-of-the-art and presenting perspectives of further development. Contributions related to the technologies, glassy materials, design and fabrication processes, characterization, and, eventually, applications are welcome.

Keywords

micro-crack propagation --- severing force --- quartz glass --- micro-grinding --- microfluidics --- single-cell analysis --- polymeric microfluidic flow cytometry --- single-cell protein quantification --- glass molding process --- groove --- roughness --- filling ratio --- label-free sensor --- optofluidic microbubble resonator --- detection of small molecules --- chalcogenide glass --- infrared optics --- precision glass molding --- aspherical lens --- freeform optics --- micro/nano patterning --- 2D colloidal crystal --- soft colloidal lithography --- strain microsensor --- vectorial strain gauge --- compound glass --- microsphere --- resonator --- lasing --- sensing --- microresonator --- whispering gallery mode --- long period grating --- fiber coupling --- distributed sensing --- chemical/biological sensing --- direct metal forming --- glassy carbon micromold --- enhanced boiling heat transfer --- metallic microstructure --- microspheres --- microdevices --- glass --- polymers --- solar energy --- nuclear fusion --- thermal insulation --- sol-gel --- Ag nanoaggregates --- Yb3+ ions --- down-shifting --- photonic microdevices --- alkali cells --- MEMS vapor cells --- optical cells --- atomic spectroscopy --- microtechnology --- microfabrication --- MEMS --- microfluidic devices --- laser materials processing --- ultrafast laser micromachining --- ultrafast laser welding --- enclosed microstructures --- glass --- porous media --- fluid displacement --- spray pyrolysis technique --- dielectric materials --- luminescent materials --- photovoltaics --- frequency conversion --- device simulations --- europium --- luminescence --- hybrid materials --- microdevices --- light --- photon --- communications --- waveguides --- fibers --- biosensors --- microstructured optical fibers --- whispering gallery modes --- light localization --- optofluidics --- lab-on-a-chip --- femtosecond laser --- laser micromachining --- diffusion

Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling in Forest Soils

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ISBN: 9783038976820 9783038976837 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-683-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The majority of carbon stored in the soils of the world is stored in forests. The refractory nature of some portions of forest soil organic matter also provides the slow, gradual release of organic nitrogen and phosphorus to sustain long term forest productivity. Contemporary and future disturbances, such as climatic warming, deforestation, short rotation sylviculture, the invasion of exotic species, and fire, all place strains on the integrity of this homeostatic system of C, N, and P cycling. On the other hand, the CO2 fertilization effect may partially offset losses of soil organic matter, but many have questioned the ability of N and P stocks to sustain the CO2 fertilization effect.

Keywords

carbon distribution index --- moisture gradient --- soil organic matter fraction --- soil degradation --- soil available nitrogen --- soil available phosphorus --- temperature --- stand density --- charcoal --- forest soil --- carbon mineralization --- microbial activity --- nitrification --- polyphenols --- temperature --- soil microbial communities --- PLFA --- seasons --- nitrogen dynamics --- gross nitrogen transformations --- Daxing’an Mountains --- climatic factors --- soil nutrients --- forest types --- principal component analyses --- soil structure --- soil pH --- Oxisol --- variable-charge soils --- aluminum accumulator --- seasonal trends --- beech forests --- soil enzymes --- organic matter --- multilevel models --- near natural forest management --- Pinus massoniana plantation --- Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation --- soil greenhouse gas flux --- biolability --- tree-DOM --- dissolved organic matter (DOM) --- carbon --- dissolved organic carbon (DOC) --- stemflow --- throughfall --- alpine forest --- ammonia-oxidizing bacteria --- ammonia-oxidizing archaea --- ammonium --- nitrate --- revegetation --- microbial biomass --- chloroform fumigation extraction --- enzyme activities --- stoichiometric homeostasis --- the Three Gorges Reservoir --- Eucalyptus sp. --- wood volume --- second production cycle --- annual increment average --- soil fertility --- nutrient cycling --- Chamaecyparis forest --- humic substances --- 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR) --- P species --- topography --- net primary productivity --- climate zone --- climate --- soil N --- litter N --- climate change --- manuring --- manure pelleting --- northern temperate --- pyrolysis --- information review --- leaf N:P ratio --- P resorption efficiency --- soil P fractions --- P stock --- stand age

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