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Ethical Programs: Hospitality and the Rhetorics of Software

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ISBN: 9780472072736 9780472052738 9780472900084 9780472121236 Year: Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-01 17:02:26
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Living in a networked world means never really getting to decide in any thoroughgoing way who or what enters your “space” (your laptop, your iPhone, your thermostat…your home). With this as a basic frame-of-reference, James J. Brown’s Ethical Programs examines and explores the rhetorical potential and problems of an hospitality ethos suited to a new era of hosts and guests. Brown reads a range of computational strategies and actors including the general principles underwriting the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which determines how packets of information can travel through the internet, to the Obama election campaign’s use of the power of protocols to reach voters, harvest their data, incentivize and, ultimately, shape their participation in the campaign. In demonstrating the kind of rhetorical spaces networked software establishes and the access it permits, prevents, and molds, Brown makes a major contribution to the emergent discourse of software studies as a major component of efforts in broad fields including media studies, rhetorical studies, and cultural studies.

The impact of the African Charter and the Maputo Protocol in selected African states

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ISBN: 9781920538477 Year: Pages: 331 Language: English
Publisher: Pretoria University Law Press (PULP)
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-09 12:02:30
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About the publicationThe year 2016 was declared by the African Union as the African ‘Year of Human Rights with Particular Focus on the Rights of Women’ to commemorate and celebrate significant milestones in the realisation of human rights on the African continent. The year marks the 35th anniversary of the adoption of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter), 30th year since coming into force of the African Charter and 10 years since the inauguration of the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights.Since its adoption, the African Charter has been supplemented by the Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa (Maputo Protocol). All AU member states (with the exception of new comer South Sudan) are state parties to the African Charter, and 36 of them have accepted the Maputo Protocol.This book assesses the impact and effectiveness of the African Charter and the Maputo Protocol in 17 African countries, namely Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The book is the result of research conducted by selected alumni of the Centre for Human Rights’ LLM in Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa programme.The Centre for Human Rights, which in 2016 is also celebrating 30 years of human rights education, intends to use this research as the basis for a continuously updated database on the impact of the African Charter and Maputo Protocol.Table of ContentsPrefaceIntroductionVictor Oluwasina AyeniBurkina FasoKounkinè Augustin SoméCameroonPolycarp Ngufor ForkumCôte d’IvoireKounkinè Augustin SoméArmand TanohEthiopiaMeskerem Geset TechaneThe GambiaSatang NabanehGhanaMichael Gyan NyarkoKenyaSaoyo Tabitha GriffithPaul OgendiLesothoSizakele HlatshwayoMalawiSarai Chisala-TempelhoffSeun Solomon BakareMauritiusMeskerem Geset TechaneRoopanand MahadewNigeriaVictor Oluwasina AyeniSierra LeoneAugustine Sorie MarrahSouth AfricaOfentse MotlhasediLinette du ToitSwazilandDumsani DlaminiSizakele HlatshwayoTanzaniaGrace Kamugisha KazobaCharles MmbandoUgandaAgaba Daphine KabagambeZimbabweTarisai MutangiConclusionVictor Oluwasina AyeniBibliographyQuestionnaire used for the study

Introduction to Access and Benefit-Sharing and the Nagoya Protocol: What DNA Barcoding Researchers Need to Know

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ISBN: 9789546429056 Year: Pages: 40 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3897/ab.e22579 Language: English
Publisher: Pensoft Publishers
Subject: Ecology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-21 16:44:33
License: CC-BY-4.0

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The Global Taxonomy Initiative has provided training opportunities for Parties to apply DNA-sequence based species identification method as a tool for biodiversity management that requires rapid species identification. The method of DNA barcoding has invigorated taxonomic research and is now applied in a wide range of areas, including environmental assessment, food inspection, disease control and public education. DNA barcoding has proven to be a powerful tool for both taxonomists and all biodiversity stakeholders, including women and children, and indigenous peoples and local communities. On the other hand, DNA barcoding practices have raised concerns among the public. These concerns include expatriation of biological specimens, sharing of digital sequence information and associated data with potential value, risks of unapproved changes of research purpose or benefits to be shared. This e-book provides practical advice on international collaborations that comply with the Nagoya Protocol and relevant national laws and regulations.

Novel clinical applications of extracellular vesicles

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196456 Year: Pages: 66 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-645-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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During the last years, the research on extracellular vesicles (EVs) has raised giving new insights into pathophysiology of several diseases. EVs are membrane-bound particles secreted by almost all cell types. Depending on their biogenesis and size they include exosomes, microparticles / microvesicles and apoptotic bodies. Characteristically, EVs carry markers from the source cell membrane and contain genetic material, lipids and proteins inside. They are known to play a role in cell-to-cell communication and to produce genotypic and phenotypic modifications in the target cell including: antigen presentation, apoptosis induction, cellular activation, inhibition or differentiation. In particular, increasing concentrations of EVs have been found in many diseases such as cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases, among others. Most of the studies in EVs are focused on the characterization of EVs compounds, identifying mechanism of action, their potential use as biomarkers, and few of them investigate a therapeutic usage. However, there are some issues to be achieved on the path to their clinical application. This research topic offers a common place to discuss current and novel clinical applications of EVs pointing on future directions. We encouraged the submission of original articles, reviews, hypothesis, controversies, future perspectives and personal viewpoints on the following topics of interest, but not limited to: • Contribution of EVs to better understand the pathology of immunological diseases. • Standardization of isolation and quantification protocols in the daily clinical practice. • Possible applications of EVs as clinical biomarkers (diagnostic, prognostic and evolution marker). • Therapeutic role of EVs being vehicles of specific cargo: current clinical trials? • Novel immunological functions of EVs.

The Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Commentary

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781920538507 Year: Pages: 396 Language: English
Publisher: Pretoria University Law Press (PULP)
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-08 15:47:40
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On 10 December 2008, coinciding with the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (OP-ICESCR). The Optional Protocol permits individuals or groups of individuals to submit complaints to the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights if they have exhausted domestic remedies and believe a ratifying State has violated their rights under the Covenant. It therefore effected an historic change in the UN human rights system in that it recognizes the equal status of claimants of economic, social and cultural rights and their right to access justice. The Protocol came into force on 5 May 2013, and the number of ratifications is steadily growing.This Commentary, the first and most comprehensive of its kind, offers rigorous scholarly commentary on the provisions of the OP-ICESCR, aimed at informing and encouraging research, reasoned argument, consistent interpretation and effective advocacy, adjudication and remedies under the Protocol. It provides a critical resource for both users of the Optional Protocol (applicants, lawyers, governments, the Committee) and a broader audience of scholars, students, national judiciaries and policy makers.The book is divided into three main sections that respectively address procedural issues, substantive interpretation, and remedies and enforcement. Each of the chapters highlights and discusses what is most innovative about the OP-ICESCR, as well as potential ambiguities and controversies. The Commentary makes a unique and critical contribution to legal scholarship and practice by laying the foundations for cutting-edge, authoritative jurisprudence. The chapters have benefited from a peer-review process, and an exchange and discussion among the authors and other experts.

Mind over brain, brain over mind: cognitive causes and consequences of controlling brain activity

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194889 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-488-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This Research Topic combines articles aiming to gain a better understanding on different factors that determine whether people are successful or not in controlling computerized devices with brain signals. Since decades, technological advancements in neuroscience allow the interpretation of brain signals and their translation into control messages (Brain-computer interface (BCI)). Moreover, the control of brain signals can be used to induce changes in cognition and behavior (Neurofeedback (NF)). However, the break-through of this technology for the broad population in real-world applications has not yet arrived. Various factors have been related to the individual success in controlling computerized devices with brain signals, but to date, no general theoretical framework is available. In this Research Topic, aspects of the training protocol such as instructions, task and feedback as well as cognitive and psychological traits such as motivation, mood, locus of control and empathy are investigated as determinants of BCI or NF performance. Moreover, the mechanisms and networks involved in gaining and maintaining control over brain activity as well as its prediction are addressed. Finally, as the ultimate goal of this research is to use BCI and NF for communication or control and therapy, respectively, novel applications for individuals with disabilities or disorders are discussed.

Interactions between Group Theory, Symmetry and Cryptology

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ISBN: 9783039288021 / 9783039288038 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-803-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Cryptography lies at the heart of most technologies deployed today for secure communications. At the same time, mathematics lies at the heart of cryptography, as cryptographic constructions are based on algebraic scenarios ruled by group or number theoretical laws. Understanding the involved algebraic structures is, thus, essential to design robust cryptographic schemes. This Special Issue is concerned with the interplay between group theory, symmetry and cryptography. The book highlights four exciting areas of research in which these fields intertwine: post-quantum cryptography, coding theory, computational group theory and symmetric cryptography. The articles presented demonstrate the relevance of rigorously analyzing the computational hardness of the mathematical problems used as a base for cryptographic constructions. For instance, decoding problems related to algebraic codes and rewriting problems in non-abelian groups are explored with cryptographic applications in mind. New results on the algebraic properties or symmetric cryptographic tools are also presented, moving ahead in the understanding of their security properties. In addition, post-quantum constructions for digital signatures and key exchange are explored in this Special Issue, exemplifying how (and how not) group theory may be used for developing robust cryptographic tools to withstand quantum attacks.

One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare: Research, Deployment, Consequences

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783319516639 9783319516646 Year: Pages: 408 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51664-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 14:31:06
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On April 22, 1915, the German military released 150 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium. Carried by a long-awaited wind, the chlorine cloud passed within a few minutes through the British and French trenches, leaving behind at least 1,000 dead and 4,000 injured. This chemical attack, which amounted to the first use of a weapon of mass destruction, marks a turning point in world history. The preparation as well as the execution of the gas attack was orchestrated by Fritz Haber, the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin-Dahlem. During World War I, Haber transformed his research institute into a center for the development of chemical weapons (and of the means of protection against them).Bretislav Friedrich and Martin Wolf (Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, the successor institution of Haber’s institute) together with Dieter Hoffmann, Jürgen Renn, and Florian Schmaltz (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science) organized an international symposium to commemorate the centenary of the infamous chemical attack. The symposium examined crucial facets of chemical warfare from the first research on and deployment of chemical weapons in WWI to the development and use of chemical warfare during the century hence. The focus was on scientific, ethical, legal, and political issues of chemical weapons research and deployment — including the issue of dual use — as well as the ongoing effort to control the possession of chemical weapons and to ultimately achieve their elimination.The volume consists of papers presented at the symposium and supplemented by additional articles that together cover key aspects of chemical warfare from 22 April 1915 until the summer of 2015.

Positive Aspects of Animal Welfare

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ISBN: 9783039285327 / 9783039285334 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-533-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Comfort during resting, half-closed eyes when feeding on highly palatable feed, or vigorous tail wagging when being brushed are some of the positive indicators that can be used to evaluate the quality of the environment in which domestic animals live. This has been a radical shift from the past as, until now, the welfare assessment on farms has meant assessing negative indicators, namely the number of lame animals, presence of lesions, or frequency of agonistic behaviours. However, the latest research confirms that the absence of a problem or of suffering does not necessarily imply that the animals are experiencing a good life and that their level of welfare is high. To guarantee high welfare standards, animals should experience positive conditions that allow them to live a “life worth living”, and positive indicators are needed to identify these conditions. This Special Issue focuses on the development and validation of indicators of positive welfare or on the refinement of the existing ones, as well as on the identification of suitable living conditions for providing positive welfare to farmed and companion animals.

Quantum Probability and Randomness

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ISBN: 9783038977148 9783038977155 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-715-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The last few years have been characterized by a tremendous development of quantum information and probability and their applications, including quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and quantum random generators. In spite of the successful development of quantum technology, its foundational basis is still not concrete and contains a few sandy and shaky slices. Quantum random generators are one of the most promising outputs of the recent quantum information revolution. Therefore, it is very important to reconsider the foundational basis of this project, starting with the notion of irreducible quantum randomness. Quantum probabilities present a powerful tool to model uncertainty. Interpretations of quantum probability and foundational meaning of its basic tools, starting with the Born rule, are among the topics which will be covered by this issue. Recently, quantum probability has started to play an important role in a few areas of research outside quantum physics&mdash;in particular, quantum probabilistic treatment of problems of theory of decision making under uncertainty. Such studies are also among the topics of this issue.

Keywords

quantum logic --- groups --- partially defined algebras --- quasigroups --- viable cultures --- quantum information theory --- bit commitment --- protocol --- entropy --- entanglement --- orthogonality --- quantum computation --- Gram–Schmidt process --- quantum probability --- potentiality --- complementarity --- uncertainty relations --- Copenhagen interpretation --- indefiniteness --- indeterminism --- causation --- randomness --- quantum information --- quantum dynamics --- entanglement --- algebra --- causality --- geometry --- probability --- quantum information theory --- realism --- reality --- entropy --- correlations --- qubits --- probability representation --- Bayes’ formula --- quantum entanglement --- three-qubit random states --- entanglement classes --- entanglement polytope --- anisotropic invariants --- quantum random number --- vacuum state --- maximization of quantum conditional min-entropy --- quantum logics --- quantum probability --- holistic semantics --- epistemic operations --- Bell inequalities --- algorithmic complexity --- Borel normality --- Bayesian inference --- model selection --- random numbers --- quantum-like models --- operational approach --- information interpretation of quantum theory --- social laser --- social energy --- quantum information field --- social atom --- Bose–Einstein statistics --- bandwagon effect --- social thermodynamics --- resonator of social laser --- master equation for socio-information excitations --- quantum contextuality --- Kochen–Specker sets --- MMP hypergraphs --- Greechie diagrams --- quantum foundations --- probability --- irreducible randomness --- random number generators --- quantum technology --- entanglement --- quantum-like models for social stochasticity --- contextuality

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