Search results: Found 4

Listing 1 - 4 of 4
Sort by
Protein Solubility and Aggregation in Bacteria

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199761 Year: Pages: 127 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-976-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Proteins suffer many conformational changes and interactions through their life, from their synthesis at ribosomes to their controlled degradation. Only folded and soluble proteins are functional. Thus, protein folding and solubility are controlled genetically, transcriptionally, and at the protein sequence level. In addition, a well-conserved cellular machinery assists the folding of polypeptides to avoid misfolding and ensure the attainment of soluble and functional structures. When these redundant protective strategies are overcome, misfolded proteins are recruited into aggregates. Recombinant protein production is an essential tool for the biotechnology industry and also supports expanding areas of basic and biomedical research, including structural genomics and proteomics. Although bacteria still represent a convenient production system, many recombinant polypeptides produced in prokaryotic hosts undergo irregular or incomplete folding processes that usually result in their accumulation as insoluble aggregates, narrowing thus the spectrum of protein-based drugs that are available in the biotechnology market. In fact, the solubility of bacterially produced proteins is of major concern in production processes, and many orthogonal strategies have been exploited to try to increase soluble protein yields. Importantly, contrary to the usual assumption that the bacterial aggregates formed during protein production are totally inactive, the presence of a fraction of molecules in a native-like structure in these assemblies endorse them with a certain degree of biological activity, a property that is allowing the use of bacteria as factories to produce new functional materials and catalysts. The protein embedded in intracellular bacterial deposits might display different conformations, but they are usually enriched in beta-sheet-rich assemblies resembling the amyloid fibrils characteristic of several human neurodegenerative diseases. This makes bacterial cells simple, but biologically relevant model systems to address the mechanisms behind amyloid formation and the cellular impact of protein aggregates. Interestingly, bacteria also exploit the structural principles behind amyloid formation for functional purposes such as adhesion or cytotoxicity. In the present research topic we collect papers addressing all the issues mentioned above from both the experimental and computational point of view.

Tea in Health and Disease

Author:
ISBN: 9783038979869 / 9783038979876 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-987-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Tea, made from the leaves of the Camellia senenisis plant, is the second most consumed beverage worldwide after water. Accumulating evidence from cellular, animal, epidemiological and clinical studies have linked tea consumption to various health benefits, such as chemoprevention of cancers, chronic inflammation, heart and liver diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. Although such health benefits have not been consistently observed in some intervention trials, positive results from clinical trials have provided direct evidence supporting the cancer-protective effect of green tea. In addition, numerous mechanisms of action have been suggested to contribute to tea’s disease-preventive effects. Furthermore, effects of the processing and storage of tea, as well as additives on tea’s properties have been investigated.

Cell-Free Synthetic Biology

Author:
ISBN: 9783039280223 / 9783039280230 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-023-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Cell-free synthetic biology is in the spotlight as a powerful and rapid approach to characterize and engineer natural biological systems. The open nature of cell-free platforms brings an unprecedented level of control and freedom for design compared to in vivo systems. This versatile engineering toolkit is used for debugging biological networks, constructing artificial cells, screening protein library, prototyping genetic circuits, developing new drugs, producing metabolites, and synthesizing complex proteins including therapeutic proteins, toxic proteins, and novel proteins containing non-standard (unnatural) amino acids. The book consists of a series of reviews, protocols, benchmarks, and research articles describing the current development and applications of cell-free synthetic biology in diverse areas.

Polyamine Metabolism in Disease and Polyamine-Targeted Therapies

Author:
ISBN: 9783039211524 / 9783039211531 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-153-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Polyamines are ubiquitous polycations essential for all cellular life. The most common polyamines in eukaryotes, spermine, spermidine, and putrescine, exist in millimolar intracellular concentrations that are tightly regulated through biosynthesis, catabolism, and transport. Polyamines interact with, and regulate, negatively charged macromolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins, and ion channels. Accordingly, alterations in polyamine metabolism affect cellular proliferation and survival through changes in gene expression and transcription, translation, autophagy, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of these multifaceted polyamine functions contribute to multiple disease processes, thus their metabolism and function have been targeted for preventive or therapeutic intervention. The correlation between elevated polyamine levels and cancer is well established, and ornithine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme in the production of putrescine, is a bona fide transcriptional target of the Myc oncogene. Furthermore, induced polyamine catabolism contributes to carcinogenesis that is associated with certain forms of chronic infection and/or inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species. These and other characteristics specific to cancer cells have led to the development of polyamine-based agents and inhibitors aimed at exploiting the polyamine metabolic pathway for chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive benefit. In addition to cancer, polyamines are involved in the pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, parasitic and infectious diseases, wound healing, ischemia/reperfusion injuries, and certain age-related conditions, as polyamines are known to decrease with age. As in cancer, polyamine-based therapies for these conditions are an area of active investigation. With recent advances in immunotherapy, interest has increased regarding polyamine-associated modulation of immune responses, as well as potential immunoregulation of polyamine metabolism, the results of which could have relevance to multiple disease processes. The goal of this Special Issue of Medical Sciences is to present the most recent advances in polyamine research as it relates to health, disease, and/or therapy.

Keywords

polyamine transport inhibitor --- Drosophila imaginal discs --- difluoromethylorthinine --- DFMO --- polyamine --- cancer --- metabolism --- difluoromethylornithine --- polyamine transport inhibitor --- pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma --- curcumin --- diferuloylmethane --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamine --- NF-?B --- chemoprevention --- carcinogenesis --- polyphenol --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamines --- untranslated region --- polyamines --- ?-difluoromethylornithine --- polyamine transport system --- melanoma --- mutant BRAF --- spermine --- spermidine --- putrescine --- polyamine metabolism --- mast cells --- eosinophils --- neutrophils --- M2 macrophages --- airway smooth muscle cells --- Streptococcus pneumoniae --- polyamines --- pneumococcal pneumonia --- proteomics --- capsule --- complementation --- metabolism --- cadaverine --- polyamines --- ornithine decarboxylase --- difluoromethylornithine --- eflornithine --- DFMO --- African sleeping sickness --- hirsutism --- colorectal cancer --- neuroblastoma --- aging --- atrophy --- autophagy --- oxidative stress --- polyamines --- skeletal muscle --- spermidine --- spermine oxidase --- transgenic mouse --- immunity --- T-lymphocytes --- B-lymphocytes --- tumor immunity --- metabolism --- epigenetics --- autoimmunity --- polyamines --- ornithine decarboxylase --- polyamine analogs --- spermidine/spermine N1-acetyl transferase --- spermine oxidase --- bis(ethyl)polyamine analogs --- breast cancer --- MCF-7 cells --- transgenic mice --- polyamines --- MYC --- protein synthesis in cancer --- neuroblastoma --- protein expression --- antizyme 1 --- ornithine decarboxylase --- CRISPR --- human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) --- cell differentiation --- DFMO --- ornithine decarboxylase --- osteosarcoma --- polyamines --- polyamines --- polyamine metabolism --- antizyme --- antizyme inhibitors --- ornithine decarboxylase --- Snyder-Robinson Syndrome --- spermine synthase --- X-linked intellectual disability --- polyamine transport --- spermidine --- spermine --- transglutaminase

Listing 1 - 4 of 4
Sort by
Narrow your search
-->