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Feedforward and Feedback Processes in Vision

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195947 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-594-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The visual system consists of hierarchically organized distinct anatomical areas functionally specialized for processing different aspects of a visual object (Felleman & Van Essen, 1991). These visual areas are interconnected through ascending feedforward projections, descending feedback projections, and projections from neural structures at the same hierarchical level (Lamme et al., 1998). Accumulating evidence from anatomical, functional and theoretical studies suggests that these three projections play fundamentally different roles in perception. However, their distinct functional roles in visual processing are still subject to debate (Lamme & Roelfsema, 2000). The focus of this Research Topic is the roles of feedforward and feedback projections in vision. Even though the notions of feedforward, feedback, and reentrant processing are widely accepted, it has been found difficult to distinguish their individual roles on the basis of a single criterion. We welcome empirical contributions, theoretical contributions and reviews that fit into any one (or a combination) of the following domains: 1) their functional roles for perception of specific features of a visual object 2) their contributions to the distinct modes of visual processing (e.g., pre-attentive vs. attentive, conscious vs. unconscious) 3) recent techniques/methodologies to identify distinct functional roles of feedforward and feedback projections and corresponding neural signatures. We believe that the current Research Topic will not only provide recent information about feedforward/feedback processes in vision but also contribute to the understanding fundamental principles of cortical processing in general.

Grammaticalization and Language Change in Chinese

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in Asian Linguistics ISBN: 9780203420645 9780415336031 9780415864558 9781134307272 9781134307265 9781134307227 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203420645 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Political Science --- Sociology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:23
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This innovative study on the phenomenon of 'grammaticalization' and its manifestation in Chinese provides new insights into language change in Chinese and a large number of grammatical topics. Grammaticalization occurs in all of the world's languages. Xiu-Zhi Zoe Wu demonstrates general linguistic principles present and active in the phenomenon of grammaticalization whilst also describing the modelling of language in formal theoretical approaches to syntax; so this book fills two major gaps in the current study of linguistics. Grammaticalization and Language Change in Chinese illuminates how studies of language development and change provide special insights into the understanding of current, synchronic systems of language. Using patters from Chinese, the author establishes cross-linguistic generalizations about language change and grammaticalization. This book should be of great interest to Chinese linguists and readers interested in language change in different languages.

Keywords

functional --- head --- completive --- aspect --- projections --- tone --- sandhi --- small --- clause --- initial

Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin

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Book Series: Regional Climate Studies ISSN: 18620248 ISBN: 9783319160054 9783319160061 Year: Pages: 501 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-16006-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Meteorology and Climatology --- Environmental Engineering --- Business and Management --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-08 13:05:58
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​This book is an update of the first BACC assessment, published in 2008. It offers new and updated scientific findings in regional climate research for the Baltic Sea basin. These include climate changes since the last glaciation (approx. 12,000 years ago), changes in the recent past (the last 200 years), climate projections up until 2100 using state-of-the-art regional climate models and an assessment of climate-change impacts on terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. There are dedicated new chapters on sea-level rise, coastal erosion and impacts on urban areas. A new set of chapters deals with possible causes of regional climate change along with the global effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations, namely atmospheric aerosols and land-cover change.The evidence collected and presented in this book shows that the regional climate has already started to change and this is expected to continue. Projections of potential future climates show that the region will probably become considerably warmer and wetter in some parts, but dryer in others. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have already shown adjustments to increased temperatures and are expected to undergo further changes in the near future.The BACC II Author Team consists of 141 scientists from 12 countries, covering various disciplines related to climate research and related impacts. BACC II is a project of the Baltic Earth research network and contributes to the World Climate Research Programme.

Auditory Efferent System: New Insights from Cortex to Cochlea

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199358 Year: Pages: 119 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-935-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The main function of the sensory systems is the transducing of external stimuli into bioelectrical signals, which are conducted through afferent pathways from sensory epithelia to the brain. However, it is known that descending projections are ubiquitous in the different sensory modalities, and in the case of auditory efferents connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Several functions have been attributed to the efferent system, including protection to acoustic trauma, unmasking of auditory stimuli in background noise, balance of interaural sensitivity and some cognitive functions like modulation of cochlear sensitivity during selective attention to auditory or visual stimuli. In addition there is evidence of a possible involvement of the efferent system in the etiology or treatment of some clinical pathologies like tinnitus. In this e-book, entitled “Auditory Efferent System: New Insights from Cortex to Cochlea”, we aimed to give an overview of the advances concerning the descending projections from the auditory cortex to subcortical nuclei and the olivocochlear system. In addition, different theoretical proposals of efferent functions are presented. We think that this e-book is an important contribution to the understanding of the efferent system in mammals, merging auditory-cortex literature with studies performed in the olivocochlear system.

Extreme Floods and Droughts under Future Climate Scenarios

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218981 9783039218998 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-899-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Meteorology and Climatology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Hydroclimatic extremes, such as floods and droughts, affect aspects of our lives and the environment including energy, hydropower, agriculture, transportation, urban life, and human health and safety. Climate studies indicate that the risk of increased flooding and/or more severe droughts will be higher in the future than today, causing increased fatalities, environmental degradation, and economic losses. Using a suite of innovative approaches this book quantifies the changes in projected hydroclimatic extremes and illustrates their impacts in several locations in North America, Asia, and Europe.

Towards Sustainable Global Food Systems. Conceptual and Policy Analysis of Agriculture, Food and Environment Linkages

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038978145 9783038978152 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-815-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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One of the major knowledge challenges in the domain of Resilient and Sustainable Food Systems refers to the integration of perspectives on consumption, patterns that support public health, inclusive value chains, and environmentally sustainable food production. While there is a long record of the analysis of separate interventions, this special issue generates integrated insights, provides cross-cutting perspectives, and outlines practical and policy solutions that address these global challenges.The collection of papers promotes the view that sustainable food systems require thorough insights into the structure and dynamics of agri-food production systems, the drivers for integrating food value chains and markets, and key incentives for supporting healthier consumer choices. On the production side, potential linkages between agricultural commercialization and intensification and their effects for food security and nutritional outcomes are analyzed. Value Chains are assessed for their contribution to improving exchange networks and markets for food products that simultaneously support efficiency, circularity, and responsiveness. Individual motives and market structures for food consumption need to be understood in order to be able to outline suitable incentives to enhance healthy dietary choice.The contributed papers focus on interfaces between food system activities and processes of adaptive change that are critical for overcoming key constraints and trade-offs between sustainable food and healthy diets.

Keywords

agricultural impacts --- climate change impacts --- integrated assessment model --- CGE model --- Ostrea edulis --- native oyster restoration --- North Sea --- site selection --- pilot study --- offshore wind farms --- sustainability --- food systems --- nutrition --- public-private cooperation --- corporate values --- sanitary control --- food safety --- prosperity --- sustainable development --- alternative agri-food networks --- transition theories --- grassroots innovations --- socio-technical systems --- agroecology --- ecovillages --- social movements --- certification --- organic agriculture --- Participatory Guarantee Systems --- Spain --- alternative certification systems --- food systems --- metrics --- interdisciplinarity --- sustainable food and nutrition security --- food system assessment --- participatory approach --- SUSFANS --- agribusiness cluster --- commercialization --- sustainable intensification --- dairy value chain --- farming system --- service arrangements --- Ethiopia --- Kenya --- sustainable diets --- diet adoption --- sustainable food system --- intention-behavior gap --- citizen participation --- innovation workshop --- Agricultural commercialization --- food and nutrition security --- salutogenesis --- life course perspective --- food systems --- multi-level --- positive deviance --- Myanmar --- social innovation --- agricultural commercialization --- nutrition sensitive transformation --- Myanmar --- vegetable consumption --- food choice motives --- knowledge --- self-efficacy --- socio-economic classes --- food environment --- Nigeria --- sustainable development goals --- sustainability assessment --- agricultural sustainability --- food security --- LCA broadening --- LCA deepening --- food systems --- interdisciplinary research --- feedbacks &amp --- interlinkages --- food policy --- 3I Approach --- value chain development --- participatory approach --- context-specific interventions --- behavioural change --- postharvest losses --- tomato --- Nigeria --- supply chain --- raffia basket --- plastic crate --- systems approach --- conceptual framework --- food loss practices --- food loss causes --- food loss solutions --- supply-chain stages --- literature --- socio-economic indicators --- tomato --- Nigeria --- adoption --- conservation agriculture --- social capital --- count outcome models --- pca --- marginal treatment effects --- Nigeria --- food security --- CGE model --- nutrition --- diet diversity --- land substitution --- agricultural intensification --- baseline projections --- commercialization --- Vietnam --- food system --- fertilizer use --- caloric intake --- dietary diversity Vietnam Living Standards Survey (VLSS)

Intelligent Electronic Devices

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039289738 / 9783039289745 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-974-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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In a modern technological society, electronic engineering and design innovations are both academic and practical engineering fields that involve systematic technological materialization through scientific principles and engineering designs. Engineers and designers must work together with a variety of other professionals in their quest to find systems solutions to complex problems. Rapid advances in science and technology have broadened the horizons of engineering while simultaneously creating a multitude of challenging problems in every aspect of modern life. Current research is interdisciplinary in nature, reflecting a combination of concepts and methods that often span several areas of mechanics, mathematics, electrical engineering, control engineering, and other scientific disciplines. In addition, the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Knowledge Innovation and Invention 2019 (IEEE ICKII 2019) was held in Seoul, South Korea, on 12–15 July, 2019. This book, “Intelligent Electronic Devices”, includes 13 excellent papers form 260 papers presented in this conference about intelligent electronic devices. The main goals of this book were to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible and to provide new scientific knowledge relevant to the topics of electronics.

Keywords

test pattern generation --- built-in self-test --- broadcast circuit --- low cost --- negative differential resistance --- current-voltage characteristics --- multiple simple current mirror --- threshold voltage --- oscillator --- voltage-controlled oscillator --- ZnO-based nanowires --- hydrothermal method --- Eu3+ and In3+ ions --- photoluminescence properties --- mosquitoes --- Aedes aegypti --- Aedes albopictus --- secondary freeform lens device (SFLD) --- stearic --- dual-input converter --- high voltage gain --- leakage energy recycling --- galvanic isolation --- voltage clamping --- actuator --- lower limb exoskeleton --- wearable robot --- cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) --- as low as diagnostically acceptable (ALADA) --- selective anatomy analytic iteration reconstruction (SA2IR) --- low-dosed --- sparse projections --- diagnostic ability --- drift region --- electrostatic discharge (ESD) --- holding voltage (Vh) --- lateral diffusion MOS (LDMOS) --- transmission-line pulse system (TLP system) --- laser pointer --- electromagnetic lock --- sound recognition module --- regions with convolutional neural network (R-CNN) --- adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) --- 6-DOF robot arm --- high-definition multimedia interface --- PCB layout --- electromagnetic interference --- radiation resistance --- multi-robots --- path programming --- tabu search --- action quality assessment --- human activity analysis --- skeletal feature representation --- electrical circuits and devices --- computer science and engineering --- communications and information processing --- electrostatic discharge (ESD) --- latchup (LU) --- n-channel lateral diffused MOSFET (nLDMOS) --- non-uniform conduction --- secondary breakdown current (It2) --- transmission-line pulse system (TLP system) --- brushless DC motor --- sensorless motor drive --- speed control --- 180-degree conduction

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