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Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes

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ISBN: 9783038420385 9783038420392 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-039-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 07:00:06
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Microreactors are small devices with sub-millimeter internals which have superb mass and heat transfer. Initially, they were used for reactions with very high demands on the latter, e.g. very exothermic reactions, gas-liquid reactions with interfacial transport issues, reactions with very fast kinetics which demands even faster mixing, and more. In this way, the processing window was opened widely and, also due to the minute volumes only present in the reaction zone, safe processing under otherwise hazardous conditions was enabled. This includes processing of reactions which are prone to thermal runaway and in the explosive regime. Scale-up of promising reactions and products which was hindered with conventional technology is now possible using the new equipment. This has widened the process development possibilities in chemical industry.In the last years, micro process technology was not only used for the very problematic synthetic issues which formerly had a dead-end position in industry’s process development. Rather, the scope of chemical reactions to be processed in microreactors was considerably widened by exploring new process conditions with regard to temperature, pressure, concentration, solvents, and more. This is commonly referred to as flow chemistry. This allowed to reduce the processing time-scale for many reactions to the minute range or even below which fits well to the residence times of microreactors. In addition, the process integration of several reactions in one flow to a multi-step synthesis has opened a new door in molecular diversity as well as system and process complexity. The same holds for the combination of reactions and separations in micro-flow. To achieve throughputs relevant for industrial production, smart scale-out to milli-flow units has established and supplemented the num­bering-up concept (parallelization of microchannels/-reactors operated under equal conditions).New innovations and enabling technologies need anyhow evaluation and benchmarking with conventional technology on the full-system level. Yet, microreactor technology has in the last years deepened so much into process intensification on a holistic scale that the focus increasingly is given towards the process dimension—to process design and automation, real-case applications, cost analysis, life-cycle assessment, and more. The impact on cost competitiveness and sustainability becomes well assessed.Facing this very recent scientific achievement, the special issue “Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes” of the journal Processes aims to cover recent advances in the development of microreactor and smart-scaled flow processes towards the process level — in the sense as given above.

Recent Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment with Emphasis in Membrane Treatment Operations

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ISBN: 9783038976240 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-625-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The present Special Issue brings together recent research findings from renowned scientists in the field of water treatment and assembled contributions on advanced technologies applied to the treatment of wastewater and drinking water, with emphasis on novel membrane treatment technologies. 12 research contributions have highlighted various processes and technologies, which can achieve effective treatment and purification of wastewater and of drinking water, aiming (occasionally) for water reuse. The main topics which are analyzed are the use of novel type membranes in bioreactors, the use of modified membranes, for example using vacuum membrane distillation, the fouling of membranes, the problem of arsenic, antimony and chromium contamination in groundwaters and its removal and the use of novel technologies for more efficient ozonation.

Wine Fermentation

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ISBN: 9783038976745 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-675-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:07:22
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Wine Fermentation that was published in Fermentation

Modeling and Simulation of Energy Systems

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ISBN: 9783039215188 9783039215195 Year: Pages: 496 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-519-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Energy Systems Engineering is one of the most exciting and fastest growing fields in engineering. Modeling and simulation plays a key role in Energy Systems Engineering because it is the primary basis on which energy system design, control, optimization, and analysis are based. This book contains a specially curated collection of recent research articles on the modeling and simulation of energy systems written by top experts around the world from universities and research labs, such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Yale University, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US Department of Energy, University of Technology Sydney, McMaster University, Queens University, Purdue University, the University of Connecticut, Technical University of Denmark, the University of Toronto, Technische Universität Berlin, Texas A&M, the University of Pennsylvania, and many more. The key research themes covered include energy systems design, control systems, flexible operations, operational strategies, and systems analysis. The addressed areas of application include electric power generation, refrigeration cycles, natural gas liquefaction, shale gas treatment, concentrated solar power, waste-to-energy systems, micro-gas turbines, carbon dioxide capture systems, energy storage, petroleum refinery unit operations, Brayton cycles, to name but a few.

Keywords

cogeneration --- process integration --- solar energy --- thermal storage --- desalination --- optimization --- naphtha recovery unit --- statistical model --- simulation --- optimization --- concentrating solar thermal --- CST --- concentrating solar power --- CSP --- parabolic trough --- PTC --- thermal storage --- industrial process heat --- hybrid solar --- power plants --- supervisory control --- dynamic simulation --- dynamic optimization --- optimal control --- post-combustion CO2 capture --- energy efficiency --- time-varying operation --- shale gas condensate --- process synthesis and design --- shale gas condensate-to-heavier liquids --- technoeconomic analysis --- supercritical carbon dioxide --- recompression cycle --- combined cycle --- efficiency --- organic Rankine cycle --- exergy loss --- second law efficiency --- auto thermal reformer --- palladium membrane hydrogen separation --- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) --- multi-loop control --- nonsmooth modeling --- process simulation --- DMR liquefaction processes --- fuel cost minimization problem --- FCMP --- piecewise-linear function generation --- linearization --- natural gas transportation --- compressor modeling --- compressibility factor --- isentropic exponent --- friction factor --- demand response --- energy management --- energy storage --- optimal battery operation --- battery degradation --- micro gas turbine --- modelling --- diagnostics, gas path analysis, analysis by synthesis --- circulating fluidized bed boiler --- refuse derived fuel --- waste to energy --- dynamic modeling --- process control --- dynamic modeling --- process control --- load-following --- supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC) --- cycling --- time-delay --- smith predictor --- energy systems --- modeling and simulation --- multi-scale systems engineering --- sustainable process design --- energy economics --- top-down models --- hybrid Life Cycle Assessment --- oil and gas --- offshore wind --- combined cycle --- hybrid system --- kriging --- multi-objective optimisation --- solar PV --- wind power --- life cycle analysis --- energy storage --- multiphase equilibrium --- RK-ASPEN --- methyl-oleate --- biodiesel --- supercritical CO2 --- WHENS --- work and heat integration --- building blocks --- superstructure --- MINLP --- absorption refrigeration --- H2O-LiBr working pair --- double-effect system --- cost optimization --- nonlinear mathematical programming --- Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) --- geothermal energy --- binary cycle --- R245fa --- R123 --- mixture ratio --- Dieng --- Indonesia --- modeling --- simulation --- energy --- energy systems --- process systems engineering --- optimization --- process design --- operations

Product/Process Fingerprint in Micro Manufacturing

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ISBN: 9783039210343 9783039210350 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-035-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The continuous miniaturization of products and the growing complexity of their embedded multifunctionalities necessitates continuous research and development efforts regarding micro components and related micro manufacturing technologies. Highly miniaturized systems, manufactured using a wide variety of materials, have found application in key technological fields, such as healthcare devices, micro implants, mobility, communications, optics, and micro electromechanical systems. Innovations required for the high-precision manufacturing of micro components can specifically be achieved through optimizations using post-process (i.e., offline) and in-process (i.e., online) metrology of both process input and output parameters, as well as geometrical features of the produced micro parts. However, it is of critical importance to reduce the metrology and optimization efforts, since process and product quality control can represent a significant portion of the total production time in micro manufacturing. To solve this fundamental challenge, research efforts have been undertaken in order to define, investigate, implement, and validate the so-called “product/process manufacturing fingerprint” concept. The “product manufacturing fingerprint” concept refers to those unique dimensional outcomes (e.g., surface topography, form error, critical dimensions, etc.) on the produced component that, if kept under control and within specifications, ensure that the entire micro component complies to its specifications. The “process manufacturing fingerprint” is a specific process parameter or feature to be monitored and controlled, in order to maintain the manufacture of products within the specified tolerances. By integrating both product and process manufacturing fingerprint concepts, the metrology and optimization efforts are highly reduced. Therefore, the quality of the micro products increases, with an obvious improvement in production yield. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel methodological developments and applications in micro- and sub-micro-scale manufacturing, process monitoring and control, as well as micro and sub-micro product quality assurance. Focus will be on micro manufacturing process chains and their micro product/process fingerprint, towards full process optimization and zero-defect micro manufacturing.

Keywords

micro-injection moulding --- quality assurance --- process monitoring --- micro metrology --- positioning platform --- Halbach linear motor --- commercial control hardware --- diffractive optics --- gratings --- microfabrication --- computer holography --- manufacturing signature --- process fingerprint --- Fresnel lenses --- injection compression molding --- injection molding --- micro structures replication --- confocal microscopy --- optical quality control --- uncertainty budget --- optimization --- precision injection molding --- quality control --- process monitoring --- product fingerprint --- process fingerprint --- electrical discharge machining --- electrical discharge machining (EDM) --- surface roughness --- surface integrity --- optimization --- desirability function --- satellite drop --- electrohydrodynamic jet printing --- charge relaxation time --- laser ablation --- superhydrophobic surface --- process fingerprint --- product fingerprint --- surface morphology --- artificial compound eye --- multi-spectral imaging --- lithography --- spectral splitting --- plasma-electrolytic polishing --- PeP --- surface modification --- finishing --- electro chemical machining --- ECM --- Electro sinter forging --- resistance sintering --- electrical current --- fingerprints --- electrical discharge machining --- micro drilling --- process monitoring --- quality control --- electrochemical machining (ECM) --- process control --- current monitoring --- current density --- surface roughness --- inline metrology --- haptic actuator --- impact analysis --- high strain rate effect --- damping --- 2-step analysis --- micro-grinding --- bioceramics --- materials characterisation --- dental implant --- microinjection moulding --- process fingerprints --- flow length --- quality assurance --- n/a

Advances in Food Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039217427 9783039217434 Year: Pages: 488 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-743-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Topical Collection of Molecules provides the most recent advancements and trends within the framework of food analysis, confirming the growing public, academic, and industrial interest in this field. The articles broach topics related to sample preparation, separation science, spectroscopic techniques, sensors and biosensors, as well as investigations dealing with the characterization of macronutrients, micronutrients, and other biomolecules. It offers the latest updates regarding alternative food sources (e.g., algae), functional foods, effects of processing, chiral or achiral bioactive compounds, contaminants, and every topic related to food science that is appealing to readers. Nowadays, the increasing awareness of the close relation among diet, health, and social development is stimulating demands for high levels of quality and safety in agro-food production, as well as new studies to fill gaps in the actual body of knowledge about food composition. For these reasons, modern research in food science and human nutrition is moving from classical methodologies to advanced instrumental platforms for comprehensive characterization. Nondestructive spectroscopic and imaging technologies are also proposed for food process monitoring and quality control in real time.

Keywords

cuprous oxide nanoparticles --- reduced graphene oxide --- modified electrode --- sunset yellow --- second-derivative linear sweep voltammetry --- clenbuterol --- systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment --- real-time quantitative PCR --- high-throughput sequencing technology --- aptamers --- gold nanoparticles biosensor --- carbamates --- multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) --- enhanced product ion (EPI) --- mass fragmentation --- confirmatory method --- pesticide residues --- Croatian wines --- biogenic amines --- HPLC --- geographical origin --- polyelectrolyte composite film --- nitrite detection --- differential pulse voltammetry --- cyclic voltammetry --- mycotoxin --- dimerization --- HRMS --- NMR --- fruit jams --- food security --- phenolic acids --- quercetin --- agro-biodiversity --- HPLC fingerprint --- Polygonatum cyrtonema --- saccharides --- oligosaccharides --- fructose --- HPLC–QTOF–MS/MS --- steaming --- essential oil --- extraction techniques --- hops extracts --- hydrodistillation --- Marynka strain --- microwave-assisted hydrodistillation --- anthocyanins --- bioactive compounds --- Box–Behnken design --- microwave-assisted extraction --- myrtle --- Myrtus communis --- phenolic compounds --- Chia seed oil --- polyunsaturated fatty acid --- antioxidant --- lipid-lowering effect --- collagen peptide --- HPLC fingerprint --- antioxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- spectrum-effect relationship --- amino acids --- carbohydrates --- acidity --- polarity --- molecular weight --- Tricholoma matsutake --- Pol gene --- qualitative and quantitative PCR --- DNA extraction --- ?-blockers --- metabolites --- milk powder --- Q-Orbitrap --- rosé wines --- white wines --- bottle aging --- flavor profile --- closures --- anthocyanins --- bioactive compounds --- Box–Behnken design --- ultrasound-assisted extraction --- myrtle --- Myrtus communis L. --- phenolic compounds --- food safety --- kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) --- molecular identification --- phylogeny --- DNA barcode --- hard clams --- Meretrix lyrata --- lipid classes --- fatty acids --- phospholipids --- molecular species of phospholipid --- high resolution mass spectrometry --- impedimetric aptasensor --- screen-printed interface --- bifunctional polymer arms --- PAT detection --- apple juice --- chiral --- chiral stationary phases --- enantiomers --- food --- review --- Piper methysticum (kava) --- kavalactones --- flavokavains --- UHPLC-UV --- mass spectra --- isomerization --- single-laboratory validation --- quality control --- Lactarius deliciosus --- chemical composition --- antioxidant --- antihyperglycemic --- ?13C-IRMS --- fatty acids composition --- 1H-NMR --- walnut varieties --- poultry eggs --- thiamphenicol --- florfenicol --- florfenicol amine --- ASE --- UPLC-FLD --- Sojae semen praeparatum (SSP) --- fermentation --- conversion --- ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC)–TripleTOF MS --- principal component analysis (PCA) --- microalgae --- Scenedesmus --- supercritical fluid extraction --- carotenoids --- fat-soluble vitamins --- antioxidants --- fruit juice --- blends --- adulteration --- 1H NMR --- PLS --- chemometrics --- natural mature honey --- immature honey --- chemometric analysis --- multi-physicochemical parameters --- food quality --- IMS --- food composition --- food process control --- food authentication --- food adulteration --- food safety --- antibiotics --- liquid chromatography mass spectrometry --- milk --- muscle --- validation

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