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Frontiers in the Acquisition of Literacy

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196562 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-656-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Learning to read, and to spell are two of the most important cultural skills that must be acquired by children, and for that matter, anyone learning a second language. We are not born with an innate ability to read. A reading system of mental representations that enables us to read must be formed in the brain. Learning to read in alphabetic orthographies is the acquisition of such a system, which links mental representations of visual symbols (letters) in print words, with pre-existing phonological (sound) and semantic (comprehension) cognitive systems for language. Although spelling draws on the same representational knowledge base and is usually correlated with reading, the acquisition processes involved are not quite the same. Spelling requires the sequential production of letters in words, and at beginning levels there may not be a full degree of integration of phonology with its representation by the orthography. Reading, on the other hand, requires only the recognition of a word for pronunciation. Hence, spelling is more difficult than reading, and learning to spell may necessitate more complete representations, or more conscious access to them. The learning processes that children use to acquire such cognitive systems in the brain, and whether these same processes are universal across different languages and orthographies are central theoretical questions. Most children learn to read and spell their language at the same time, thus the co-ordination of these two facets of literacy acquisition needs explication, as well as the effect of different teaching approaches on acquisition. Lack of progress in either reading and/or spelling is also a major issue of concern for parents and teachers necessitating a cross-disciplinary approach to the problem, encompassing major efforts from researchers in neuroscience, cognitive science, experimental psychology, and education. The purpose of this Research Topic is to summarize and review what has been accomplished so far, and to further explore these general issues. Contributions from different perspectives are welcomed and could include theoretical, computational, and empirical works that focus on the acquisition of literacy, including cross-orthographic research.

Sustainable Work Ability and Aging

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ISBN: 9783039280643 9783039280650 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-065-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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In many industrialized countries, there is a sharp increase of the aging population due to a decrease in fertility rate and an increase in life expectancy. Due to which, the age dependency ratio rises and may cause increased economic burden among working age population. One strategy to combat this problem is to prolong peoples working career. A sufficient work ability is a requirement for a sustainable and prolonged employment. Work ability is primarily a question of balance between work and personal resources. Personal resources change with age, whereas work demands may not change parallel to that, or only change due to globalization or new technology. Work ability, on average, decreases with age, although several different work ability pathways exist during the life course. Work-related factors, as well as general lifestyle, may explain the declines and improvements in work ability during aging. A sustainable work ability throughout the life course is a main incentive for a prolonged working career and a healthy aging. Work ability and work-related factors, are therefore important occupational and public health issues when the age of the population increases. This Special Issue, “Sustainable Work Ability and Aging”, includes in all 16 original articles and one opinion paper, organized in three sections. The research topics cover

Keywords

group identification --- older workers --- job performance --- psychological capital --- self-efficacy --- age difference --- exhaustion --- well-being --- work stress --- work environment --- stress --- occupational health --- intervention --- burnout --- well-being --- job resources --- job demands --- burnout --- occupational turnover intention --- JD-R model --- longitudinal approach --- Dutch nurses --- age --- occupational cohort --- register-based --- work disability --- sedentary --- physical heaviness --- prospective --- e-health --- health promotion --- prevention --- sustainable employment --- work ability --- stress --- social status --- aging workforces --- health --- intermediate outcomes --- sustainable employment --- occupational health --- work ability --- aging --- short-form validation --- need for recovery --- criterion validity --- construct validity --- content validity --- responsiveness --- work ability --- work environment --- physical hazards --- psychosocial hazards --- multisite pain --- musculoskeletal pain --- trajectories --- intention to retire --- work ability --- ageing workers --- work wellbeing --- psychosocial work exposures --- perceived work ability --- meaningfulness of work --- perceived fit with current job --- future-orientedness of the job --- sustainable careers --- age --- work ability index (WAI) --- work ability concept --- intervention research --- knowing–doing gap --- implementation --- healthy aging --- work --- occupational stress --- occupational health --- socioeconomic factors --- data accuracy --- demography --- work ability --- life course --- aging --- longitudinal studies --- prolonged work career --- healthcare worker --- work ability --- work ability index --- WAI --- measurement --- occupational health --- occupational epidemiology --- WAI --- municipal workers --- prospective study --- COPSOQ II --- predictive factors --- predictors --- voluntary --- involuntary --- workforce transitions --- mature ages --- Australia

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