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The Physiological Functions of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene Family

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453559 Year: Pages: 275 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-355-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Abstract

The amyloid precursor protein APP plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as proteolytical cleavage of APP gives rise to the Aß peptide which is deposited in the brains of Alzheimer patients. Despite this, our knowledge of the normal cell biological and physiological functions of APP and the closely related APLPs is limited. This may have hampered our understanding of AD, since evidence has accumulated that not only the production of the Aß peptide but also the loss of APP-mediated functions may contribute to AD pathogenesis. Thus, it appears timely and highly relevant to elucidate the functions of the APP gene family from the molecular level to their role in the intact organism, i.e. in the context of nervous system development, synapse formation and adult synapse function, as well as neural homeostasis and aging. Why is our understanding of the APP functions so limited? APP and the APLPs are multifunctional proteins that undergo complex proteolytical processing. They give rise to an almost bewildering array of different fragments that may each subserve specific functions. While Aß is aggregation prone and neurotoxic, the large secreted ectodomain APPsa - produced in the non-amyloidogenic a-secretase pathway - has been shown to be neurotrophic, neuroprotective and relevant for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Recently, novel APP cleavage pathways and enzymes have been discovered that have gained much attention not only with respect to AD but also regarding their role in normal brain physiology. In addition to the various cleavage products, there is also solid evidence that APP family proteins mediate important functions as transmembrane cell surface molecules, most notably in synaptic adhesion and cell surface signaling. Elucidating in more detail the molecular mechanisms underlying these divers functions thus calls for an interdisciplinary approach ranging from the structural level to the analysis in model organisms. Thus, in this research topic of Frontiers we compile reviews and original studies, covering our current knowledge of the physiological functions of this intriguing and medically important protein family.

The ventricular-subventricular zone: a source of oligodendrocytes in the adult brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192687 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-268-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Demyelinating diseases are characterized by an extensive loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths from axolemma, which commonly result in disability in young adults. To date, there is no effective treatment against these neurological disorders. In the adult brain, there are neural stem cells (NSCs) that reside within a niche denominated ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) in the lateral wall of the cerebral ventricles. NSCs give rise to neurons and oligodendrocytes that help preserve cellular homeostasis. Growing evidence indicates that V-SVZ progenitor cells may represent an endogenous source of oligodendrocytes that can be useful to treat demyelinating diseases. This e-Book collected the most recent evidence regarding the mechanisms that modulate the proliferation, migration, quiescence, cell-fate choices and survival of oligodendrocyte precursors generated in the V-SVZ. Herein, we compiled information about the role of Sonic hedgehog, NMDA receptors, ErbB proteins, hemopressin, erythropoietin, osmolarity and microglia in the oligodendrocyte production. Some chapters also describe the role of oligodendrocyte precursors in the preservation of cellular homeostasis, aging and white matter repair. All these information is presented as novel research findings, short communications, and review articles, which were written by experts in the field of oligodendrocyte generation, myelin production and white matter re-myelination.

Crystal Chemistry of Zinc, Cadmium and Mercury

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ISBN: 9783038976523 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-653-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Organic Chemistry --- Chemistry (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Crystal Chemistry of Zinc, Cadmium and Mercury that was published in Crystals

The Origin and Early Evolution of Life: Prebiotic Chemistry of Biomolecules

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ISBN: 9783039216062 9783039216079 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-607-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Abstract

Studying the origin of life is one of man’s greatest achievements over the last sixty years. The fields of interest encompassed by this quest are multiple and interdisciplinary: chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry, mathematics, geology but also statistics, atmospheric science, meteorology, oceanography, and astrophysics. Recent scientific discoveries, such as water on Mars and the existence of super-Earths with atmospheres similar to primordial Earth, have pushed researchers to simulate prebiotic conditions in explaining the abiotic formation of molecules essential to life. This collection of articles offers an overview of recent discoveries in the field of prebiotic chemistry of biomolecules, their formation and selection, and the evolution of complex chemical systems.

Keywords

origin of life --- systems chemistry --- Chemomimesis --- Molecular Darwinism --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- thiol-rich peptides --- cysteine --- aminonitriles --- imidazoles --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- nucleotide and nucleoside synthesis --- protein design --- novel metalloproteins --- binary patterned amino acid sequences --- prebiotic chemistry --- population growth --- replication --- growth order --- Darwinian evolution --- selection --- origin of life --- abiogenesis --- carbon fixation --- hydrothermal vents --- electrochemistry --- reduction --- digit multiplicity --- information --- transmission --- encoding --- translation --- diversity --- function --- origin of life --- layered double hydroxide (LDH) clay --- pentose diphosphate --- pentopyranose nucleic acid --- arabinopyranose nucleic acid --- RNA --- base pairing --- purine precursor --- inosine --- AICAR --- peptide/RNA world --- prebiotic information system --- translation and the genetic code --- bridge peptide and aaRS --- ribozyme and tRNA --- tRNA and mRNA --- coevolution of translation machine and the genetic code --- MVC architecture pattern and biological information --- numerical codons --- AnyLogic software for computer simulation of translation machine --- phosphoryl transfer --- metabolism --- energy currency --- mixed anhydride --- origin of life --- hypercycle --- Monte Carlo --- prebiotic chemistry --- carbamic acid --- carbon dioxide-ammonia ices --- infrared spectra --- anharmonicity --- origin of life --- metabolism --- phosphates --- network expansion simulation --- thermodynamic bottleneck --- molecular clocks --- ab initio molecular dynamics --- catalysis --- prebiotic soup --- origins of life --- aldol reaction --- mechanochemistry --- minerals --- monosaccharides --- prebiotic chemistry --- prebiotic polymerization --- nucleotide oligomerization --- abasic oligomers --- nucleotide stability --- stability as a selection pressure --- dry-wet cycles --- genetic code origin --- tRNA accretion model --- tRNA-synthetase --- metabolism --- thioester --- nucleotidyltransferases --- early peptides --- ribosome --- n/a

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