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Criticality as a signature of healthy neural systems: multi-scale experimental and computational studies

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195039 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-503-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Since 2003, when spontaneous activity in cortical slices was first found to follow scale-free statistical distributions in size and duration, increasing experimental evidences and theoretical models have been reported in the literature supporting the emergence of evidence of scale invariance in the cortex. Although strongly debated, such results refer to many different in vitro and in vivo preparations (awake monkeys, anesthetized rats and cats, in vitro slices and dissociated cultures), suggesting that power law distributions and scale free correlations are a very general and robust feature of cortical activity that has been conserved across species as specific substrate for information storage, transmission and processing. Equally important is that the features reminiscent of scale invariance and criticality are observed at scale spanning from the level of interacting arrays of neurons all the way up to correlations across the entire brain. Thus, if we accept that the brain operates near a critical point, little is known about the causes and/or consequences of a loss of criticality and its relation with brain diseases (e.g. epilepsy). The study of how pathogenetical mechanisms are related to the critical/non-critical behavior of neuronal networks would likely provide new insights into the cellular and synaptic determinants of the emergence of critical-like dynamics and structures in neural systems. At the same time, the relation between the impaired behavior and the disruption of criticality would help clarify its role in normal brain function. The main objective of this Research Topic is to investigate the emergence/disruption of the emergent critical-like states in healthy/impaired neural systems.

Multiscale and Innovative Kinetic Approaches in Heterogeneous Catalysis

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211791 9783039211807 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-180-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Kinetics and reactor modeling for heterogeneous catalytic reactions are prominent tools for investigating and understanding catalyst functionalities at nanoscale and the related rates of complex reaction networks. This book illustrates some examples related to the transformation of simple to more complex feedstocks, including different types of reactor designs, i.e., steady-state, transient plug flow reactors, and TAP reactors for which there is sometimes a strong gap in the operating conditions from ultra-high-vacuum to high-pressure conditions. In conjunction, new methodologies have emerged, giving rise to more robust microkinetics models. As exemplified, they include the kinetics and the dynamics of the reactors and span a large range of length and time scales. The objective of this Special Issue is to provide contributions that can illustrate recent advances and novel methodologies for elucidating the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions and the necessary multiscale approach for optimizing the reactor design. This book is dedicated to postgraduate and scientific researchers, and experts in heterogeneous catalysis. It may also serve as a source of original information for the elaboration of lessons on catalysis for Master students.

Micro/Nano Devices for Blood Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039218240 9783039218257 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-825-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The development of micro- and nanodevices for blood analysis is an interdisciplinary subject that demands the integration of several research fields, such as biotechnology, medicine, chemistry, informatics, optics, electronics, mechanics, and micro/nanotechnologies. Over the last few decades, there has been a notably fast development in the miniaturization of mechanical microdevices, later known as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which combine electrical and mechanical components at a microscale level. The integration of microflow and optical components in MEMS microdevices, as well as the development of micropumps and microvalves, have promoted the interest of several research fields dealing with fluid flow and transport phenomena happening in microscale devices. Microfluidic systems have many advantages over their macroscale counterparts, offering the ability to work with small sample volumes, providing good manipulation and control of samples, decreasing reaction times, and allowing parallel operations in one single step. As a consequence, microdevices offer great potential for the development of portable and point-of-care diagnostic devices, particularly for blood analysis. Moreover, the recent progress in nanotechnology has contributed to its increasing popularity, and has expanded the areas of application of microfluidic devices, including in the manipulation and analysis of flows on the scale of DNA, proteins, and nanoparticles (nanoflows). In this Special Issue, we invited contributions (original research papers, review articles, and brief communications) that focus on the latest advances and challenges in micro- and nanodevices for diagnostics and blood analysis, micro- and nanofluidics, technologies for flow visualization, MEMS, biochips, and lab-on-a-chip devices and their application to research and industry. We hope to provide an opportunity to the engineering and biomedical community to exchange knowledge and information and to bring together researchers who are interested in the general field of MEMS and micro/nanofluidics and, especially, in its applications to biomedical areas.

Advanced Mathematical Methods: Theory and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039282463 9783039282470 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-247-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The many technical and computational problems that appear to be constantly emerging in various branches of physics and engineering beg for a more detailed understanding of the fundamental mathematics that serves as the cornerstone of our way of understanding natural phenomena. The purpose of this Special Issue was to establish a brief collection of carefully selected articles authored by promising young scientists and the world's leading experts in pure and applied mathematics, highlighting the state-of-the-art of the various research lines focusing on the study of analytical and numerical mathematical methods for pure and applied sciences.

Keywords

ultraparabolic equation --- ultradiffusion process --- probabilistic representation --- mathematical finance --- linear elastostatics --- layer potentials --- fredholmian operators --- fractional differential equations --- fractional derivative --- Abel-type integral --- time delay --- distributed lag --- gamma distribution --- macroeconomics --- Keynesian model --- integral transforms --- Laplace integral transform --- transmutation operator --- generating operator --- integral equations --- differential equations --- operational calculus of Mikusinski type --- Mellin integral transform --- fractional derivative --- fractional integral --- Mittag–Leffler function --- Riemann–Liouville derivative --- Caputo derivative --- Grünwald–Letnikov derivative --- space-time fractional diffusion equation --- fractional Laplacian --- subordination principle --- Mittag-Leffler function --- Bessel function --- exterior calculus --- exterior algebra --- electromagnetism --- Maxwell equations --- differential forms --- tensor calculus --- Fourier Theory --- DFT in polar coordinates --- polar coordinates --- multidimensional DFT --- discrete Hankel Transform --- discrete Fourier Transform --- Orthogonality --- multispecies biofilm --- biosorption --- free boundary value problem --- heavy metals toxicity --- method of characteristics --- relativistic diffusion equation --- Caputo fractional derivatives of a function with respect to another function --- Bessel-Riesz motion --- Mittag–Leffler function --- matrix function --- Schur decomposition --- Laplace transform --- fractional calculus --- central limit theorem --- anomalous diffusion --- stable distribution --- fractional calculus --- power law --- n/a

Advances in Mechanical Problems of Functionally Graded Materials and Structures

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039216581 9783039216598 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-659-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The book deals with novel aspects and perspectives in functionally graded materials (FGMs), which are advanced engineering materials designed for a specific performance or function with spatial gradation in structure and/or composition. The contributions mainly focus on numerical simulations of mechanical properties and the behavior of FGMs and FGM structures. Several advancements in numerical simulations that are particularly useful for investigations on FGMs have been proposed and demonstrated in this Special Issue. Such proposed approaches provide incisive methods to explore and predict the mechanical and structural characteristics of FGMs subjected to thermoelectromechanical loadings under various boundary and environmental conditions. The contributions have resulted in enhanced activity regarding the prediction of FGM properties and global structural responses, which are of great importance when considering the potential applications of FGM structures. Furthermore, the presented scientific scope is, in some way, an answer to the continuous demand for FGM structures, and opens new perspectives for their practical use.

Keywords

functionally graded beams --- different moduli in tension and compression --- bimodulus --- analytical solution --- neutral layer --- quadratic solid–shell elements --- finite elements --- functionally graded materials --- thin structures --- geometrically nonlinear analysis --- functionally graded piezoelectric materials --- circular plate --- combined mechanical loads --- electroelastic solution --- ANFIS --- fuzzy logic --- clustering --- neural networks --- robotics and contact wear --- evanescent wave --- polynomial approach --- functionally graded piezoelectric-piezomagnetic material --- dispersion --- attenuation --- functional graded saturated material --- inhomogeneity --- Love wave --- dispersion --- attenuation --- porous materials --- truncated conical sandwich shell --- metal foam core layer --- non-linear buckling analysis --- orthogonal stiffener --- elastic foundation --- functionally graded plate --- power-law distribution --- high order shear deformation theory --- elastic foundation --- stepped FG paraboloidal shell --- general edge conditions --- spring stiffness technique --- free vibration characteristics --- Lamb wave --- functionally graded viscoelastic material --- minimum module approximation method --- damping coefficient --- functionally graded materials --- finite element analysis --- graded finite elements --- functionally graded materials --- inhomogeneous composite materials --- material design --- stress concentration factor --- failure and damage --- elliptical hole --- finite element method --- hollow disc --- external pressure --- residual stress --- residual strain --- flow theory of plasticity --- functionally graded materials --- elastoplastic analysis --- pure bending --- residual stress --- large strain

Recent Advances in Mechanics of Non-Newtonian Fluids

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039283088 9783039283095 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-309-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Non-Newtonian (non-linear) fluids are common in nature, for example, in mud and honey, but also in many chemical, biological, food, pharmaceutical, and personal care processing industries. This Special Issue of Fluids is dedicated to the recent advances in the mathematical and physical modeling of non-linear fluids with industrial applications, especially those concerned with CFD studies. These fluids include traditional non-Newtonian fluid models, electro- or magneto-rheological fluids, granular materials, slurries, drilling fluids, polymers, blood and other biofluids, mixtures of fluids and particles, etc.

Keywords

inhomogeneous fluids --- non-newtonian fluids --- lubrication approximation (76A05, 76D08, 76A20) --- particle interaction --- viscoplastic fluid --- Bingham fluid --- computational fluid dynamics --- porous media --- convection --- Bingham fluid --- yield stress --- channel flow --- power-law fluid --- shear-dependent viscosity --- Reynolds equation --- lubrication approximation --- lid-driven cavity --- projection method --- shear-thinning --- aspect ratio --- Re numbers --- Brinkman equation --- viscosity ratio --- first- and second-order slip --- similarity transformation --- porous medium --- generalised simplified PTT --- Phan-Thien–Tanner (PTT) model --- Mittag–Leffler --- Couette flow --- Poiseuille–Couette flow --- non-isothermal flows --- creeping flows --- viscous fluid --- optimal control --- boundary control --- pressure boundary conditions --- weak solution --- existence theorem --- marginal function --- hemoglobin --- biological capacitor --- non-equilibrium thermodynamics --- hemoglobe capacitor --- thermodynamic capacitor --- smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) --- meshless --- fluid-solid interaction (FSI) --- membrane --- rupture --- SPH-FEM --- stokesian dynamics --- dense suspension --- rheology --- bubble suspension --- suspension viscosity --- Gamma densitometer --- high viscosity oil --- slug translational velocity --- closure relationship --- wormlike micellar solutions (WMS) --- enhanced oil recovery (EOR) --- chemical EOR (cEOR) --- viscoelastic surfactants (VES) --- non-linear fluids --- variable viscosity --- natural convection --- convection-diffusion --- buoyancy force --- lubrication --- suspensions --- viscoplastic fluids --- cement --- biofluids --- oil recovery --- porous media

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