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Pathways of change : Socio-cultural change among the highlanders of western New Guinea

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ISBN: 9782491338022 DOI: 10.4000/books.pacific.938 Language: English
Publisher: pacific-credo Publications
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-09 12:19:31
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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This monograph is a comparative study of eight ways of life of highlanders in West Papua. It consists of ten sections: an introduction, a conclusion and eight ethnographic chapters, each dealing with a separate way of life. I chose this presentation since I wanted to make clear the individuality of each of them. In the book I attempt to trace the changes in these ways of life as they were occurring just previous to the settlement of colonial outsiders. This attempt proved feasible since for seven of them first contact accounts are available.

Carbohydrate Intake in Non-communicable Disease Prevention and Treatment

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ISBN: 9783038978183 9783038978190 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-819-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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In 2011, carbohydrates provided 63% of the dietary energy intake to the world&rsquo;s population. Historically, carbohydrate-rich diets have been associated with good health and longevity but there has been a move away from traditional carbohydrate-rich diets, with refined carbohydrate taking much criticism for contributing to non-communicable disease. The aim of this Special Issue is to discuss the appropriate use of environmentally sustainable carbohydrate-rich foods in the modern diet in developing and developed countries in the context of prevention and treatment of non-communicable disease.

Safety, Quality and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039288298 / 9783039288304 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-830-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Nowadays, one of the main objectives of the fruit and vegetable industry is to develop innovative novel products with high quality, safety, and optimal nutritional characteristics in order to respond, with efficiency, to increasing consumer expectations. Various unconventional technologies (e.g., pulsed electric field, pulsed light, ultrasound, high pressure, and microwave drying) have emerged and enable the processing of fruits and vegetables in a way that increases their stability while preserving their thermolabile nutrients, flavour, texture, and overall quality. Some of these technologies can also be used for waste and byproduct valorisation. The application of fast noninvasive methods for process control is of great importance for the fruit and vegetable industry. The following Special Issue “Safety, Quality, and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables” consists of 11 papers which represent a high-value contribution to the existing knowledge on safety aspects, quality evaluation, and emerging processing technologies for fruits and vegetables.

Plant Proteomic Research 2.0

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ISBN: 9783039210626 9783039210633 Year: Pages: 594 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-063-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Advancements in high-throughput “Omics” techniques have revolutionized plant molecular biology research. Proteomics offers one of the best options for the functional analysis of translated regions of the genome, generating a wealth of detailed information regarding the intrinsic mechanisms of plant stress responses. Various proteomic approaches are being exploited extensively for elucidating master regulator proteins which play key roles in stress perception and signaling, and these approaches largely involve gel-based and gel-free techniques, including both label-based and label-free protein quantification. Furthermore, post-translational modifications, subcellular localization, and protein–protein interactions provide deeper insight into protein molecular function. Their diverse applications contribute to the revelation of new insights into plant molecular responses to various biotic and abiotic stressors.

Keywords

Phalaenopsis --- petal --- pollination --- senescence --- 2-DE --- ROS --- Medicago sativa --- leaf cell wall proteome --- cadmium --- quantitative proteomics --- 2D DIGE --- chloroplast --- elevated CO2 --- heat stress --- nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase --- (phospho)-proteomics --- photosynthesis --- protein phosphorylation --- 14-3-3 proteins --- Oryza sativa L. --- starch --- sucrose --- N utilization efficiency --- proteomics --- 2D --- protein phosphatase --- rice isogenic line --- SnRK1 --- 14-3-3 --- lettuce --- bolting --- proteome --- high temperature --- iTRAQ --- proteome profiling --- iTRAQ --- differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) --- drought stress --- physiological responses --- Zea mays L. --- GS3 --- ? subunit --- heterotrimeric G protein --- mass spectrometric analysis --- RGG3 --- rice --- western blotting --- Dn1-1 --- ?-subunit --- heterotrimeric G protein --- mass spectrometry analysis --- RGG4 --- rice --- western blotting --- Clematis terniflora DC. --- polyphenol oxidase --- virus induced gene silencing --- photosynthesis --- glycolysis --- Camellia sinensis --- chlorotic mutation --- chlorophyll deficiency --- weakening of carbon metabolism --- iTRAQ --- proteomics --- degradome --- wheat --- cultivar --- protease --- papain-like cysteine protease (PLCP) --- subtilase --- metacaspase --- caspase-like --- wheat leaf rust --- Puccinia recondita --- Stagonospora nodorum --- iTRAQ --- proteomics --- somatic embryogenesis --- pyruvate biosynthesis --- Zea mays --- chlorophylls --- LC-MS-based proteomics --- pea (Pisum sativum L.) --- proteome functional annotation --- proteome map --- seeds --- seed proteomics --- late blight disease --- potato proteomics --- Phytophthora infestans --- Sarpo Mira --- early and late disease stages --- Simmondsia chinensis --- cold stress --- proteomics --- leaf --- iTRAQ --- Ricinus communis L. --- cold stress --- seed imbibition --- iTRAQ --- proteomics --- Morus --- organ --- gel-free/label-free proteomics --- flavonoid --- antioxidant activity --- phosphoproteome --- barley --- seed dormancy --- germination --- imbibition --- after-ripening --- sugarcane --- Sporisorium scitamineum --- smut --- proteomics --- RT-qPCR --- ISR --- holm oak --- Quercus ilex --- 2-DE proteomics --- shotgun proteomics --- non-orthodox seed --- population variability --- stresses responses --- ammonium --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- carbon metabolism --- nitrogen metabolism --- nitrate --- proteomics --- root --- secondary metabolism --- proteomics --- wheat --- silver nanoparticles --- plant pathogenesis responses --- data-independent acquisition --- quantitative proteomics --- Pseudomonas syringae --- sweet potato plants infected by SPFMV --- SPV2 and SPVG --- sweet potato plants non-infected by SPFMV --- SPV2 and SPVG --- co-infection --- transcriptome profiling --- gene ontology --- pathway analysis --- lesion mimic mutant --- leaf spot --- phenylpropanoid biosynthesis --- proteomics --- isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) --- rice --- affinity chromatography --- ergosterol --- fungal perception --- innate immunity --- pattern recognition receptors --- plasma membrane --- proteomics --- proteomics --- maize --- plant-derived smoke --- shoot --- Solanum tuberosum --- patatin --- seed storage proteins --- vegetative storage proteins --- tuber phosphoproteome --- targeted two-dimensional electrophoresis --- B. acuminata petals --- MALDI-TOF/TOF --- GC-TOF-MS --- qRT-PCR --- differential proteins --- n/a

Synthesis and Applications of Biopolymer Composites

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211326 9783039211333 Year: Pages: 312 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-133-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book, as a collection of 17 research articles, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of environmentally friendly and biodegradable biopolymer composites and nanocomposites. Recently, the demand has been growing for a clean and pollution-free environment and an evident target regarding the minimization of fossil fuel usage. Therefore, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based commodity plastics by biodegradable materials arising from biological and renewable resources. Biopolymers—polymers produced from natural sources either chemically from a biological material or biosynthesized by living organisms—are suitable alternatives for addressing these issues due to their outstanding properties, including good barrier performance, biodegradation ability, and low weight. However, they generally possess poor mechanical properties, a short fatigue life, low chemical resistance, poor long-term durability, and limited processing capability. In order to overcome these deficiencies, biopolymers can be reinforced with fillers or nanofillers (with at least one of their dimensions in the nanometer range). Bionanocomposites are advantageous for a wide range of applications, such as in medicine, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food packaging, agriculture, forestry, electronics, transport, construction, and many more.

Keywords

nanocellulose --- protease sensor --- human neutrophil elastase --- peptide-cellulose conformation --- aerogel --- glycol chitosan --- ?-tocopherol succinate --- amphiphilic polymer --- micelles --- paclitaxel --- chitosan --- PVA --- nanofibers --- electrospinning --- nanocellulose --- carbon nanotubes --- nanocomposite --- conductivity --- surfactant --- Poly(propylene carbonate) --- thermoplastic polyurethane --- compatibility --- toughness --- biopolyester --- compatibilizer --- cellulose --- elastomer --- toughening --- biodisintegration --- heat deflection temperature --- biopolymers composites --- MgO whiskers --- PLLA --- in vitro degradation --- natural rubber --- plasticized starch --- polyfunctional monomers --- physical and mechanical properties --- cross-link density --- water uptake --- chitosan --- deoxycholic acid --- folic acid --- amphiphilic polymer --- micelles --- paclitaxel --- silk fibroin --- glass transition --- DMA --- FTIR --- stress-strain --- active packaging materials --- alginate films --- antimicrobial agents --- antioxidant activity --- biodegradable films --- essential oils --- polycarbonate --- thermal decomposition kinetics --- TG/FTIR --- Py-GC/MS --- wheat gluten --- potato protein --- chemical pre-treatment --- structural profile --- tensile properties --- biocomposites --- natural fibers --- poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate) --- biodegradation --- impact properties --- chitin nanofibrils --- poly(lactic acid) --- nanocomposites --- bio-based polymers --- natural fibers --- biomass --- biocomposites --- fiber/matrix adhesion --- bio-composites --- mechanical properties --- poly(lactic acid) --- cellulose fibers --- n/a

Pesticidal Plants: From Smallholder Use to Commercialisation

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039287888 / 9783039287895 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-789-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The global biodiversity and climate emergencies demand transformative changes to human activities. For example, food production relies on synthetic, industrial and non-sustainable products for managing pests, weeds and diseases of crops. Sustainable farming requires approaches to managing these agricultural constraints that are more environmentally benign and work with rather than against nature. Increasing pressure on synthetic products has reinvigorated efforts to identify alternative pest management options, including plant-based solutions that are environmentally benign and can be tailored to different farmers’ needs, from commercial to small holder and subsistence farming. Botanical insecticides and pesticidal plants can offer a novel, effective and more sustainable alternative to synthetic products for controlling pests, diseases and weeds. This Special Issue reviews and reports the latest developments in plant-based pesticides from identification of bioactive plant chemicals, mechanisms of activity and validation of their use in horticulture and disease vector control. Other work reports applications in rice weeds, combination biopesticides and how chemistry varies spatially and influences the effectiveness of botanicals in different locations. Three reviews assess wider questions around the potential of plant-based pest management to address the global challenges of new, invasive and established crop pests and as-yet underexploited pesticidal plants.

The Role of MicroRNAs in Plants

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ISBN: 9783039287307 / 9783039287314 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-731-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Discovered in plants at the turn of the century, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to be fundamental to many aspects of plant biology. These small (20–24 nt) regulatory RNAs are derived via processing from longer imperfect double-stranded RNAs. They are then incorporated into silencing complexes, which they guide to (m)RNAs of high sequence complementarity, resulting in gene silencing outcomes, either via RNA degradation and/or translational inhibition. Some miRNAs are ancient, being present in all species of land plants and controlling fundamental processes such as phase change, organ polarity, flowering, and leaf and root development. However, there are many more miRNAs that are much less conserved and with less understood functions. This Special Issue contains seven research papers that span from understanding the function of a single miRNA family to examining how the miRNA profiles alter during abiotic stress or nutrient deficiency. The possibility of circular RNAs in plants acting as miRNA decoys to inhibit miRNA function is investigated, as was the hierarchical roles of miRNA biogenesis factors in the maintenance of phosphate homeostasis. Three reviews cover the potential of miRNAs for agronomic improvement of maize, the role of miRNA-triggered secondary small RNAs in plants, and the potential function of an ancient plant miRNA.

Plant Innate Immunity 2.0

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ISBN: 9783038975809 Year: Pages: 386 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-581-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Plants possess a rather complex and efficient immune system. During their evolutionary history, plants have developed various defense strategies in order to recognize and distinguishing between self and non-self, and face pathogens and animal pests. Accordingly, to study the plant innate immunity represents a new frontier in the plant pathology and crop protection fields. This book is structured in 6 sections. The first part introduces some basic and general aspects of the plant innate immunity and crop protection. Sections 2–5 focus on fungal and oomycete diseases (section 2), bacterial and phytoplasma diseases (section 3), virus diseases (section 4), and insect pests (section 5), with a number of case studies and plant–pathogen/pest interactions. The last section deals with plant disease detection and control. The book aims to highlight new trends in these relevant areas of plant sciences, providing a global perspective that is useful for future and innovative ideas.

Keywords

dieback --- disease management --- Lasiodiplodia theobromae --- mango --- pathogenicity --- Bromoviridae --- plant–virus interactions --- plant defense response --- Prune dwarf virus --- replication process --- systemic and local movement --- plant proteases --- plant immunity --- MTI --- ETI --- SAR --- ISR --- RNA silencing --- RTNLB --- Agrobacterium --- biotic stress responses --- calcium --- calcium signature --- calmodulin --- CMLs --- CDPKs --- plant immunity --- symbiosis --- cell wall --- cellulose synthase --- hypersensitive response --- pathogenesis related-protein 2 --- plant-virus interaction --- Potato virus Y --- ultrastructure --- aphid resistance --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- hydroperoxide lyase --- Macrosiphum euphorbiae --- Myzus persicae --- Solanum lycopersicum --- ?-3 fatty acid desaturase --- Arabidopsis --- azelaic acid --- glycerol-3-phosphate --- light dependent signalling --- methyl salicylate --- N-hydroxypipecolic acid --- pipecolic acid --- salicylic acid --- SAR signalling --- spectral distribution of light --- tobacco --- rice --- Chilo suppressalis --- mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 --- jasmonic acid --- salicylic acid --- ethylene --- herbivore-induced defense response --- downy mildew --- grapevine --- PRRs --- PTI --- VaHAESA --- bismerthiazol --- rice --- induced defense responses --- chemical elicitors --- Sogatella furcifera --- defense-related signaling pathways --- tomato gray mold --- tomato leaf mold --- Bacillus subtilis --- biological control --- Capsicum annuum --- Ralstonia solanacearum --- CaWRKY40b --- immunity --- negative regulator --- transcriptional modulation --- Capsicum annuum --- CaWRKY22 --- immunity --- Ralstonia Solanacearum --- WRKY networks --- metabolomics --- plant defence --- plant–microbe interactions --- priming --- pre-conditioning --- citrus decline disease --- Citrus sinensis --- Bakraee --- “Candidatus Liberibacter” --- “Candidatus Phytoplasma” --- microbiota --- innate immunity --- basal defense --- rice blast --- Magnaporthe oryzae --- proteomics --- iTRAQ --- candidate disease resistance gene --- disease resistance --- downy mildew --- garden impatiens --- leaf transcriptome --- New Guinea impatiens --- RNA-Seq --- polyphenol oxidase --- Camellia sinensis --- Ectropis obliqua --- wounding --- regurgitant --- rice --- OsGID1 --- gibberellin --- herbivore-induced plant defenses --- Nilaparvata lugens --- plant protection products --- agrochemicals --- sustainable crop protection --- food security

Foods of Plant Origin

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039285662 / 9783039285679 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-567-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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It is now well accepted that the consumption of plant-based foods is beneficial to human health. Fruits, vegetables, grains, and derived products can be excellent sources of minerals, vitamins, and fiber and usually have a favorable nutrient-to-energy ratio. Furthermore, plant foods are also a rich source of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, carotenoids, and betalains, with potential health benefits for humans. Many epidemiological studies have made a direct link between the consumption of plant foods and health. Human intervention studies have also shown that higher intake/consumption of plant foods can reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases, especially in at-risk populations such as obese people. In addition to its health benefits, plant foods are also used as functional ingredients in food applications such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, and natural colorants. The Special Issue “Foods of Plant Origin” covers biodiscovery, functionality, the effect of different cooking/preparation methods on bioactive (plant food) ingredients, and strategies to improve the nutritional quality of plant foods by adding other food components using novel/alternative food sources or applying non-conventional preparation techniques.

Keywords

functional properties --- orange fleshed sweet potato --- vitamin A --- porridge --- skimmed milk --- durian --- esters --- thioacetals --- thioesters --- volatile compounds --- polyphenols --- propionate --- ‘Ma’afala’ --- Artocarpus altilis --- gluten-free pasta --- underutilized crop --- value-added product --- indigenous crop cultivar --- Cassava --- gari --- retention --- beta-carotene --- vitamin A intake --- Brassica --- stir-frying --- steaming --- boiling --- HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS --- UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS --- sulforaphane --- iberin --- Kakadu plum --- Terminalia ferdinandiana --- antioxidants --- antimicrobial activity --- food preservation --- phytochemicals --- polyphenols --- Australian grown garlic --- Allium sativum L. --- polyphenols --- organosulfur compounds --- antioxidant capacity --- antimicrobial activity --- photo technology --- shelf life --- Capsicum annuum L. --- postharvest quality --- bioactive compounds --- antioxidant activity --- folate --- tropical fruits --- subtropical fruits --- vegetables --- indigenous food --- stable isotope dilution assay --- LC-MS/MS --- Acca sellowiana --- feijoa fruit --- proximate composition --- polyphenols --- vitamins --- minerals --- antimicrobial activity --- Chenopodium quinoa --- bakery products --- DRIs/DRVs (Dietary Reference Intakes/Dietary Reference Values) and AI (Adequate Intake) --- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) --- EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) --- protein quality --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- dietary fibre --- mineral availability --- glycaemic index estimation --- Solanum tuberosum L. --- starch --- digestibility --- freeze-drying --- microwave vacuum drying --- conductive hydro-drying --- instant controlled pressure drop --- processing --- Brassica vegetables --- bioactive compounds --- postharvest processing --- kaempferol --- sinigrin --- plant food --- composition --- nutrients --- vitamins --- phytochemicals --- fibre --- processing --- preservation --- functional properties --- health

Sustainable Cropping Systems

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ISBN: 9783039289073 / 9783039289080 Year: Pages: 326 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-908-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Global crop production must substantially increase to meet the needs of a rapidly growing population. This is constrained by the availability of nutrients, water, and land. There is also an urgent need to reduce the negative environmental impacts of crop production. Collectively, these issues represent one of the greatest challenges of the twenty-first century. Sustainable cropping systems based on ecological principles are the core of integrated approaches to solve this critical challenge. This special issue provides an international basis for revealing the underlying mechanisms of sustainable cropping systems to drive agronomic innovations. It includes review and original research articles that report novel scientific findings on improvement in cropping systems related to crop yields and their resistance to biotic and abiotic stressors, resource use efficiency, environmental impact, sustainability, and ecosystem services.

Keywords

organic cropping system --- maize --- soybean --- wheat --- partial returns --- Zea mais L. --- Triticum aestivum L. --- Helianthus annuus L. --- organic fertilization --- mineral N fertilization --- protein crops --- systematic review --- Europe --- multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) --- potato (Solanum tuberosum) --- shade --- light --- yield --- growth --- quality --- cover crops --- agrobiodiversity --- conventionalization --- system approach --- harvesting strategies --- forage yield and quality --- forage sorghum --- pearl millet --- Texas High Plains --- kura clover --- living mulch --- cover crop --- perennial --- conservation --- nitrogen --- forage --- economics --- farmer’s perception --- maize --- push-pull technology --- stemborer --- no-tillage --- conservation agriculture --- durum wheat --- gluten fractions --- SDS-PAGE analysis --- leguminous cover crop --- vetch --- double cropping --- grain yield --- N uptake --- N use efficiency --- rice --- hierarchical patch dynamics --- cropping system design --- up-scaling --- vineyard system --- complexity --- organization --- cropping systems --- water --- nitrogen --- WHCNS --- scenario analyses --- maize production --- nitrogen use efficiency --- nitrogen nutrition --- Acidic soil --- crop rotation --- enzyme activities --- green manure --- sustainable yield index --- nutrient balance --- crop residue incorporation --- straw decomposition --- residue C and N release --- SOC and STN stocks --- cover crop --- manure --- nitrate --- nitrogen --- cereal rye --- maize --- no-tillage --- cover crop --- irrigation --- weed suppression --- gross margin --- faba bean --- forage pea --- fall grazing --- cover crop --- catch crop --- nutrient cycling --- cropping systems --- sustainable crop production --- agroecology --- nutrient use efficiency --- water use efficiency --- environmental quality

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