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The Pangenome

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ISBN: 9783030382810 Year: Pages: 307 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-38281-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Biology --- Mathematics --- Ecology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-14 09:29:25
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Abstract

This open access book offers the first comprehensive account of the pan-genome concept and its manifold implications. The realization that the genetic repertoire of a biological species always encompasses more than the genome of each individual is one of the earliest examples of big data in biology that opened biology to the unbounded. The study of genetic variation observed within a species challenges existing views and has profound consequences for our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underpinning bacterial biology and evolution. The underlying rationale extends well beyond the initial prokaryotic focus to all kingdoms of life and evolves into similar concepts for metagenomes, phenomes and epigenomes. The book’s respective chapters address a range of topics, from the serendipitous emergence of the pan-genome concept and its impacts on the fields of microbiology, vaccinology and antimicrobial resistance, to the study of microbial communities, bioinformatic applications and mathematical models that tie in with complex systems and economic theory. Given its scope, the book will appeal to a broad readership interested in population dynamics, evolutionary biology and genomics.

Evolution, Composition and Regulation of Supernumerary B Chromosomes

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977865 9783038977872 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-787-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Abstract

Supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) are dispensable genetic elements found in thousands of species of plants and animals, and some fungi. Since their discovery more than a century ago, they have been a source of puzzlement, as they only occur in some members of a population and are absent from others. When they do occur, they are often harmful, and in the absence of “selfishness”, based on mechanisms of mitotic and meiotic drive, there appears to be no obvious reason for their existence. Cytogeneticists have long wrestled with questions about the biological existence of these enigmatic elements, including their lack of any adaptive properties, apparent absence of functional genes, their origin, sequence organization, and co-evolution as nuclear parasites. Emerging new technologies are now enabling researchers to step up a gear, to look enthusiastically beyond the previous limits of the horizon, and to uncover the secrets of these “silent” chromosomes. This book provides a comprehensive guide to theoretical advancements in the field of B chromosome research in both animal and plant systems.

Keywords

repetitive elements --- RNA-Seq --- genomics --- evolution --- cytogenetics --- supernumerary elements --- extra chromosomes --- B chromosomes --- transmission --- drive --- host/parasite interaction --- supernumerary chromosomes --- karyotype evolution --- genome instability --- supernumerary chromosomes --- heterochromatin --- parent-of-origin effects --- paternal X chromosome --- maternal X chromosome --- controlling element --- teleost --- population analysis --- whole genome resequencing --- DNA copy number variation --- ribosomal DNA --- B chromosomes --- FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridisation) --- GISH (genomic in situ hybridisation) --- Prospero autumnale complex --- supernumerary chromosomal segments (SCS) evolution --- tandem repeats --- Drosophila --- supernumerary --- satellite DNA --- sSMC --- B chromosomes --- dot-like (micro) Bs --- karyotypic characteristics --- ?s --- B morphotypes --- Apodemus peninsulae --- maize B chromosome --- centromere --- inactivation --- reactivation --- de novo centromere formation --- epigenetics --- supernumerary chromosomes --- additional chromosomes --- chromosome polymorphism --- evolution --- B chromosomes --- karyotypes --- genome evolution --- interphase nucleus --- mammals --- genes --- repetitive DNA --- transcription of heterochromatin --- B chromosomes --- grasshoppers --- DNA composition --- repeat clusters --- euchromatin degradation --- microdissected DNA probes --- B chromosome --- satellite DNA --- mobile element --- organelle DNA --- chromosome evolution --- fluorescent in situ hybridization --- Orthoptera --- satellite DNA --- supernumerary chromosome --- RepeatExplorer --- supernumerary chromosomes --- B chromosomes --- next-generation sequencing --- coverage ratio analysis --- n/a --- B chromosome --- transmission --- origin --- drive --- n/a

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