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Charakterisierung und Modellierung der Steifigkeit von langfaserverstärktem Polypropylen

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Kontinuumsmechanik im Maschinenbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technische Mechanik - Bereich Kontinuumsmechanik ISSN: 2192693X ISBN: 9783731506805 Year: Volume: 10 Pages: VIII, 186 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000070061 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Dynamical mechanical analysis is used to investigate the temperature dependent, anisotropic visco-elastic stiffness, damage induced stiffness degradation as well as physical aging of polypropylene and the anisotropic compression molded long fiber reinforced polypropylene. Based on micro-computer tomography data, the approximations of the linear elastic properties using the Mori-Tanaka method are presented.

Natural Fiber-Reinforced Hybrid Composites

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ISBN: 9783039281541 9783039281558 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-155-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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In the last few decades, natural fibers have received growing attention as an alternative to the synthetic fibers used in the reinforcement of polymeric composites, thanks to their specific properties, low price, health advantages, renewability, and recyclability. Furthermore, natural fibers have a CO2-neutral life cycle, in contrast to their synthetic counterparts. As is widely known, natural fibers also possess some drawbacks, e.g., a hydrophilic nature, low and variable mechanical properties, poor adhesion to polymeric matrices, high susceptibility to moisture absorption, low aging resistance, etc. This implies that their applications are limited to non-structural interior products. To overcome this problem, the hybridization of natural fibers with synthetic ones (i.e., glass, carbon, and basalt) or different natural fibers can be a solution. For this reason, extensive research concerning natural–synthetic and natural–natural hybrid composites has been done in the last years. In this context, this book aims to collect some interesting papers concerning the use of natural fibers together with synthetic ones with the aim of obtaining hybrid structures with good compromise between high properties (e.g., mechanical performances, thermal behavior, aging tolerance in humid or aggressive environments, and so on) and environment care.

Polymeric Foams

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216321 9783039216338 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-633-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Advances in nanotechnology have boosted the development of more efficient materials, with emerging sectors (electronics, energy, aerospace, etc.) demanding novel materials to fulfill the complex technical requirements of their products. This is the case of polymeric foams, which may display good structural properties alongside functional characteristics through a complex composition and (micro)structure in which a gas phase is combined with rigid ones, mainly based on nanoparticles, dispersed throughout the polymer matrix. In recent years, there has been an important impulse in the development of nanocomposite foams, extending the concept of nanocomposites to the field of cellular materials. This, alongside developments in new advanced foaming technologies which have allowed the generation of foams with micro, sub-micro, and even nanocellular structures, has extended the applications of more traditional foams in terms of weight reduction, damping, and thermal and/or acoustic insulation to novel possibilities, such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. This Special Issue, which consists of a total of 22 articles, including one review article written by research groups of experts in the field, considers recent research on novel polymer-based foams in all their aspects: design, composition, processing and fabrication, microstructure, characterization and analysis, applications and service behavior, recycling and reuse, etc.

Keywords

grey relational analysis --- multi-objective particle swarm optimization --- acoustic performances --- Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer --- polyurethane foam composites --- DOPO --- itaconic acid --- ethyl cellulose --- phenolic foams --- composites --- adjacent façade --- PUR --- energy conservation --- heat transfer --- burning characteristic --- semi-rigid polyurethane foams --- aluminum microfibers --- quasi-static compression tests --- mechanical properties --- energy absorption capability --- foams --- polyamide --- crystalline --- thermal conductivity --- mechanical property --- functional --- biomaterials --- composites --- EMI --- cellulose foam --- polypropylene --- foaming quality --- impact property --- intrinsic toughness --- flame-retardant ABS microcellular foams --- phosphorus flame retardants --- MuCell® injection-molding foaming --- graphene oxide --- rigid polyurethane foam --- thermogravimetric analysis --- activation energies --- extrusion foaming --- super critical CO2 --- lignin --- sound absorption coefficient --- mechanical property --- Pluronic --- surfactants --- foams --- SANS --- multilayers --- epoxy composite foam adhesive --- core–shell rubber --- impact wedge–peel test --- automobile structural adhesives --- flame retardancy --- foams --- phosphorus --- ternary synergistic effect --- polypropylene --- fluoelastomer --- scCO2 foaming --- heterogeneous nucleation --- polypropylene --- cellulose nanofiber --- foam injection molding --- mechanical properties --- polystyrene foams --- 1,3,5-benzene-trisamides --- cell nucleation --- foam extrusion --- foam morphology --- supramolecular additives --- thermal insulation --- compression properties --- piezoelectric --- functional foam --- piezocomposite --- PZT --- expandable microspheres --- permittivity --- polyetherimide foams --- graphene --- multifunctional foams --- ultrasonication --- scCO2 --- electrical conductivity --- polymer waste --- polyurethane foam --- leaching test --- microstructure --- absorbent PMI foam --- metallic tube --- electromagnetic wave absorption --- mechanical properties --- failure mechanism --- polymers --- foams --- shock compression --- equation of state --- epoxy --- foams --- expandable microspheres --- graphene --- nanotubes --- conductivity --- syntactic foams --- n/a

Processing-Structure-Properties Relationships in Polymers

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ISBN: 9783039218806 9783039218813 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-881-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This collection of research and review papers is aimed at depicting the state of the art on the possible correlations between processing variables, obtained structure and special properties which this structure induces on the plastic part. The extraordinary capacity of plastics to modify their properties according to a particular structure is evidenced for several transformation processes and for many applications. The final common goal is to take profit of this peculiar capacity of plastics by inducing, through a suitable processing, a specific spatial organization.

Keywords

carbon nanotube --- homogeneous dispersion --- ethylene vinyl acetate --- mechanical performance --- electrical conductivity --- microencapsulation --- melamine polyphosphate --- polyurethane --- composite --- flame retardant --- biodegradable nanofibers --- PLGA --- collagen --- epinephrine --- lidocaine --- polyimide film --- linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) --- copper clad laminate --- structure and properties --- polymorphism --- isotactic polypropylene --- deformation --- phase transitions --- uniaxial compression --- uniaxial tensile deformation --- temperature --- in situ X-ray --- cavitation --- indentation --- Harmonix AFM --- polymer morphology --- mechanical properties --- ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) --- microcellular injection molding --- supercritical fluid --- supercritical N2 --- supercritical CO2 --- tissue engineering and regenerative medicine --- bioresorbable polymers --- 3D printing/additive manufacturing --- fused filament fabrication/fused deposition modelling --- degradation --- physicochemical characterization --- polycaprolactone --- layered double hydroxides --- ionic liquids --- PLA --- reactive blending --- biobased films --- graphene --- nanoreinforcement --- curing rate --- epoxy microstructure --- fatigue --- composites --- critical gel --- poly(lactic acid) --- carbon black --- graphite --- polymer blend --- poly(ethylene terephthalate) --- intrinsic viscosity --- polyolefin --- compatibilizer --- isotactic polypropylene --- stress-induced phase transitions --- structural analysis --- X-ray diffraction --- polyoxymethylene (POM) --- octakis[(3-glycidoxypropyl)dimethylsiloxy]octasilsesquioxane (GPOSS) --- composites --- morphology --- mechanical properties --- conductive filler --- orientation --- conductive polymer composites --- foam --- model --- PLLA --- bioresorbable vascular scaffolds --- stretch blow molding --- biaxial elongation --- SAXS --- WAXS --- microfibrillar composites --- crystalline morphology --- crystallinity --- mechanical properties --- crystallisation --- morphology --- nanoparticles --- shear --- flow --- orientation --- poly(?-caprolactone) --- polyvinyl butyral --- hydrophobicity --- contact angle --- polypropylene --- atomic force microscopy --- injection molding --- mold temperature evolution --- polycaprolactone --- ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene --- incremental forming --- SPIF --- XRD --- chain orientation --- temperature sensitive --- gel --- controllable gas permeability --- breathable film --- polymer composite --- processing --- polyamide 6 --- compression molding --- polymorphism --- polyamide 6 --- injection molding --- polymorphism --- humidity --- mechanical properties

Multifunctional Oxide-Based Materials: From Synthesis to Application

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213979 9783039213986 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-398-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Smart Coatings on Fibers and Textiles

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ISBN: 9783039284627 9783039284634 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-463-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Smart textiles are the textiles that are sensitive to any environmental conditions and can respond accordingly. Using passive and active coatings to generate high sensitivity to textiles is among the most recent research trends by engineers around the World. This has resulted in expansion in the application of smart textiles in various industrial fields including medicals, electronics and protective clothing. The aim of this special issue is to introduce the most state-of-the-art research and review articles by distinguished researchers in the field of smart coatings on textiles. The guest editor hopes that content will be useful for researchers, students and companies for continuation of research and development with the concept of smart textiles.

Nanoparticle-Reinforced Polymers

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ISBN: 9783039212835 9783039212842 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-284-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book, a collection of 12 original contributions and 4 reviews, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the preparation, characterization, and applications of polymeric nanocomposites comprising nanoparticles. The concept of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers came about three decades ago, following the outstanding discovery of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. One of the main ideas behind this approach is to improve the matrix mechanical performance. The nanoparticles exhibit higher specific surface area, surface energy, and density compared to microparticles and, hence, lower nanofiller concentrations are needed to attain properties comparable to, or even better than, those obtained by conventional microfiller loadings, which facilitates processing and minimizes the increase in composite weight. The addition of nanoparticles into different polymer matrices opens up an important research area in the field of composite materials. Moreover, many different types of inorganic nanoparticles, such as quantum dots, metal oxides, and ceramic and metallic nanoparticles, have been incorporated into polymers for their application in a wide range of fields, ranging from medicine to photovoltaics, packaging, and structural applications.

Keywords

chemical and physical interface --- surface modification of silica --- latex compounding method --- silica/NR composite --- thermoresponsive hyperbranched polymer --- gold nanoparticles --- in-situ synthesis --- colorimetric sensor --- silver ions --- Ag nanoparticles --- catalysis --- composite membrane --- separation --- SiO2 microspheres --- inorganic nanotubes --- PHBV --- nanomaterials --- morphology --- crystallization kinetics --- nanocomposite --- conductive polymer --- solar cell --- graphene --- graphene oxide --- power-conversion efficiency --- electrode --- active layer --- interfacial layer --- layered structures --- polymer-matrix composites --- mechanical properties --- gas barrier properties --- N-isopropylacrylamide --- N-isopropylmethacrylamide --- ratiometric temperature sensing --- FRET --- chain topology --- selective adsorption --- polymer-NP interface --- organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) --- PFO/MEH-PPV hybrids --- SiO2/TiO2 nanocomposite --- optoelectronic properties --- fluorescent assay --- fluorescence resonance energy transfer --- conjugated polymer nanoparticles --- gold nanoparticles --- melamine --- polymers --- composites --- carbon nanoparticles --- nano-hybrids --- nanocomposites --- sol–gel --- in situ synthesis --- metal oxides --- reduced graphene oxide --- graphene-like WS2 --- bismaleimide --- mechanical properties --- carrier transport --- polypropylene nanocomposite --- molecular chain motion --- electrical breakdown --- electric energy storage --- thermoplastic nanocomposite --- polyethylene --- power cable insulation --- electrical property --- structure-property relationship --- hybrid hydrogels --- nanoparticles --- nanosheets --- clays --- polymers --- adhesion --- n/a

Advances in Experimental and Computational Rheology

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213337 9783039213344 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-334-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Rheology, defined as the science of deformation and flow of matter, is a multidisciplinary scientific field, covering both fundamental and applied approaches. The study of rheology includes both experimental and computational methods, which are not mutually exclusive. Its practical importance embraces many processes, from daily life, like preparing mayonnaise or spread an ointment or shampooing, to industrial processes like polymer processing and oil extraction, among several others. Practical applications include also formulations and product development. This Special Issue aims to present the latest advances in the fields of experimental and computational rheology applied to the most diverse classes of materials (foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, polymers and biopolymers, multiphasic systems and composites) and processes. This Special Issue will comprise, not only original research papers, but also review articles.

Polymeric Materials: Surfaces, Interfaces and Bioapplications

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783038979623 9783038979630 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-963-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This book collects the articles published in the Special Issue “Polymeric Materials: Surfaces, Interfaces and Bioapplications”. It shows the advances in polymeric materials, which have tremendous applications in agricultural films, food packaging, dental restoration, antimicrobial systems, and tissue engineering. These polymeric materials are presented as films, coatings, particles, fibers, hydrogels, or networks. The potential to modify and modulate their surfaces or their content by different techniques, such as click chemistry, ozonation, breath figures, wrinkle formation, or electrospray, are also explained, taking into account the relationship between the structure and properties in the final application. Moreover, new trends in the development of such materials are presented, using more environmental friendly and safe methods, which, at the same time, have a high impact on our society.

Keywords

corn stalk fiber --- friction composite --- friction and wear --- worn surface morphology --- antifouling coatings --- biofouling --- natural biofilms --- single-stranded conformation polymorphism --- polydimethylsiloxane --- multidimensional scale analysis --- antimicrobial coatings --- porous surfaces --- breath figures --- antimicrobial polymer --- coatings --- hydrogel --- protein-repellent polymer --- surface-attached polymer network --- polymer cross-linking --- alginate modification --- calcium chloride --- microparticles --- spray drying --- prolonged drug release --- gradient wrinkles --- UV/ozone --- irradiance --- polymeric composites --- bonding agents --- antibacterial --- oral biofilms --- periodontal pathogens --- caries inhibition --- recycling --- polypropylene --- biodegradable polymers --- degradation --- inmiscibility --- hemicelluloses --- chitosan --- composite films --- oxygen barrier property --- food packaging --- nanosecond laser surface modification --- ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) --- surface wettability --- superhydrophobic --- superhydrophilic --- poly(x-chlorostyrene) --- honeycomb --- breath figures --- conformational entropy --- spinal anatomy --- intervertebral disc --- degenerative disc disease --- herniated disc --- spinal fusion --- total disc replacement --- tissue engineering --- Electrically conductive polymers --- Electroactive biomaterials --- Electrical stimulation --- Smart composites --- Bioelectric effect --- Drug delivery --- Artificial muscle --- bio-based --- fossil --- hybrids --- blends --- packaging --- bio-based polymers --- antimicrobial --- biodegradable --- sustainable --- eco-friendly --- graphene oxide --- chitosan --- composites --- scaffolds --- tissue engineering --- surface modification/functionalization --- surface segregation --- micro- and nanopatterned films --- blends and (nano)composites --- coatings --- surface wettability --- stimuli-responsive materials/smart surfaces --- bioapplications

POSS-Based Polymers

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ISBN: 9783039219940 9783039219957 Year: Pages: 310 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-995-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The combination of functional polymers with inorganic nanostructured compounds has become a major area of research and technological development owing to the remarkable properties and multifunctionalities deriving from their nano and hybrid structures. In this context, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSSs) have increasing importance and a dominant position with respect to the reinforcement of polymeric materials. Although POSSs were first described in 1946 by Scott, these materials, however, have not immediately been successful if we consider that, starting from 1946 and up to 1995, we find in the literature 85 manuscripts regarding POSSs; which means that less than two papers per year were published over 50 years. Since 1995, we observe an exponential growth of scientific manuscripts concerning POSSs. It is changing from an annual average of 20 manuscripts for the period 1995–2000 to an annual average of about 400 manuscripts, with an increase of 2800%. The introduction of POSSs inorganic nanostructures into polymers gives rise to polymer nanostructured materials (PNMs) with interesting mechanical and physical properties, thus representing a radical alternative to the traditional filled polymers or polymer compositions.

Keywords

direct synthesis --- grafting synthesis --- mercapto-modified --- bridged silsesquioxane --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes --- POSS --- composites --- thermal stability --- fluorescent sensors --- nitroaromatic explosives --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-based ionic liquids --- self-assembly behaviors --- thiol-ene ‘click’ reaction --- siloxane-silsesquioxane resins --- polypropylene --- thermogravimetry --- cone calorimeter tests --- flame-retardant mechanism --- POSS --- filler --- low refractive material --- thermal stability --- fluoropolymer --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) --- double-decker-shaped silsesquioxane (DDSQ) --- polyimide --- thermal stability --- dielectric constant --- poly(?-caprolactone) nanocomposite --- POSS nanoparticles --- dispersion --- morphology --- thermal properties --- mechanical properties --- surface properties --- phthalonitrile polymers --- phthalonitrile-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane copolymers --- cyanate ester --- blends --- thermal properties --- POSS-based copolymer --- graphene oxide --- flame retardant --- epoxy resin --- giant surfactant --- thiol–ene “click” reaction --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) --- poly(?-caprolactone) --- aqueous self-assembly --- POSS --- ridgid polyurethane foams --- mechanical properties --- cellular structure --- bi-functional POSS --- hydrophobic modification --- thermoplastic polyurethane --- mechanical performance --- silsesquioxanes --- optoelectronics --- OLEDs --- Monomethacryloxy POSS --- lauryl methacrylate --- polymerization kinetics --- anchor effect --- octa-ammonium POSS --- sodium alginate --- hydrogels --- temperature responsiveness --- Octavinyl-POSS --- organic-inorganic crosslinking --- Si@C anode --- lithium ion battery --- mechanism analysis --- monodisperse --- nanocomposites --- damping --- POSS --- liquefied --- benzoxazine --- POSS --- organic-inorganic hybrids --- epoxy resin --- thermal properties --- flame retardancy --- n/a

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