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HLA-G-mediated Immune Tolerance: Past and New Outlooks

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451197 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-119-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The non-classical HLA class I molecule HLA-G is different from classical HLA class I molecules because of the low polymorphism in the coding region, the fact that HLA-G primary transcript is alternatively spliced in seven isoforms, and the inhibitory action on immune cells. Although HLA-G is low polymorphic, variants in both promoter and 3’ un-translated region (UTR) of HLA-G locus regulate its expression. In healthy conditions, a basal level of HLA-G gene transcription is observed in most cells and tissues; however, translation into HLA-G protein is restricted to trophoblasts in the placenta, where it participates in promoting tolerance at the fetal-maternal interface. HLA-G is also expressed by thymic epitelial, cornea, mesenchymal stem cells, nail matrix, pancreatic beta cells, erythroid, and endothelial precursors. HLA-G can be neo-expressed in adult tissues in pathological conditions, and its expression has been documented autoimmune disorders, viral infections, and cancer. In the latter setting de novo HLA-G expression is associated with the capability of tumor cells to evade the immune control. In the last decade it has become evident that HLA-G expression on T cells and antigenpresenting cells confers to these cells tolerogenic properties. This Research Topic focused on i) summarizing updated clinical and immunological evidences that HLA-G expression is associate with beneficial or detrimental tolerance, ii) gathering new insights into the mechanisms governing the expression of HLA-G in healthy and pathological conditions, such as pre-eclampsia, and iii) examining the mechanisms underlying HLA-G mediated tolerance.

Understanding Crohn's Disease: Immunity, Genes and Microbes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452149 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-214-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory bowel disease resulting in considerable morbidity and reduced quality of life. Although still under intense debate, CD seems to result from an enhanced and uncontrolled immune response to the gut microbiota. CD is thought to be multifactorial depending on genetic and environmental determinants. In recent years, nearly 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with increased risk of developing CD (some of the SNPs also associated with susceptibility to ulcerative colitis, another type of IBD). These SNPs are mostly located in genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity mechanisms, such as autophagy, expression of pattern-recognition receptors and citokine signaling. Epigenetics is also probably playing a role in CD susceptibility, as it is sensitive to environmental conditions and may mediate gene-environment interactions. Environmental factors possibly involved in CD development include diet, gut microbiota composition and infection with specific pathogens, of which the most consistently associated to CD are Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and adherent-invasive Escherichia coli. This Topic aimed at bringing together contributions covering different genetic, epigenetic, immunological and microbial processes involved in the development of CD, helping to drive forward the understanding of CD immunopahtology.

Oxytocin's routes in social behavior: Into the 21st century

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196968 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-696-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Our brain is endowed with an incredible capacity to be social, to trust, to cooperate, to be altruistic, to feel empathy and love. Nevertheless, the biological underpinnings of such behaviors remain partially hardwired. Seminal research in rodents has provided important insights on the identification of specific genes in modulating social behaviors, in particular, the arginine vasopressin receptor and the oxytocin receptor genes. These genes are involved in regulating a wide range of social behaviors, mother-infant interactions, social recognition, aggression and socio-sexual behavior. Remarkably, we now know that these genes contribute to social behavior in a broad range of species from voles to humans. Indeed, advances in human non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and genetics have enabled scientists to begin to elucidate the neurobiological basis of the complexity of human social behaviors using "pharmacological fMRI" and "imaging genetics". Over the past few years, there has been a strong interest focused on the role of oxytocin in modulating human social behaviors with translational relevance for understanding neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia and depression, in which deficits in social perception and social recognition are key phenotypes. The convergence of this interdisciplinary research is beginning to reveal the complex nature of oxytocin’s actions. For instance, the way that oxytocin does influence social functioning is highly related to individual differences in social experiences, but also to the inter-individual variability in the receptor distribution of this molecule in the brain. Remarkably, despite the increasing evidence that oxytocin has a key role in regulating human social behavior, we still lack of knowledge on the core mechanisms of action of this molecule. Understanding its fundamental actions is a crucial need in order to target optimal therapeutic strategies for human social disorders. The originality of this Research Topic stands on its translational focus on bridging the gap between fundamental knowledge acquired from oxytocin research in voles and monkeys and recent clinical investigations in humans. For instance, what are the key animal findings that can import further knowledge on the mechanisms of actions of this molecule in humans? What are the key experiences that can be performed in the animal model in order to answer significant science gaps in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders? Hence, within this Research Topic, we will review the current state of the field, identify where the gaps in knowledge are, and propose directions for future research. This issue will begin with a comparative review that examines the role of this peptide in diverse animal models, which highlights the adaptive value of oxytocin’s function across multiple species. Then, a series of reviews will examine the role of oxytocin in voles, primates, and humans with an eye toward revealing commonalities in the underlying brain circuits mediating oxytocin’s effects on social behavior. Next, there will be a translational review highlighting the evidence for oxytocin’s role in clinical applications in psychopathology. Hence, via the continuum of basic to translational research areas, we will try to address the important gaps in our understanding of the neurobiological routes of social cognition and the mechanisms of action of the neuropeptides that guide our behaviors and decisions.

Genetic and Epigenetic Modulation of Cell Functions by Physical Exercise

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ISBN: 9783039284801 / 9783039284818 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-481-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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From an evolutionary perspective, our species has relied upon physical activity for most of its history to survive and has had to escape from predators, to scavenge for food, and to use physique to work or build necessary means for everyday life. Physical activity has been part of our evolution and progress since the very beginning and, consequently, our entire body has been programmed to be active physically. In the last 20 years, scientific research has increasingly shown that our ancient survival principle has beneficial effects not only on the cells and organs involved in physical activities but on the metabolism of the entire organism, influencing the homeostasis and integration of all bodily functions, likely stimulating the production of hormones and other regulatory molecules, with each affecting vital signalling pathways. Most of the web of factors involved in molecular signalling upon exercise are suspected to be centrally controlled by the brain, which has been reported to be deeply modified by physical activity. Such complexity requires a multifaceted approach to shed light on the molecular interactions that occur between physical activity and its outcome at a cellular level.

Influenza Virus and Vaccination

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ISBN: 9783039288175 / 9783039288182 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-818-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The influenza virus poses a threat to human health and is responsible for global epidemics every year. In addition to seasonal infections, influenza can cause occasional pandemics of great consequence when novel viruses are introduced into humans. Despite the implementation of comprehensive vaccination programs, influenza viruses continue to pose an important and unpredictable global public health threat. They are one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality each year and have a significant economic impact. In recent years, research has been conducted to find alternative approaches to influenza vaccine development, including the generation of universal vaccines. Notably, significant progress in the field of influenza infection, transmission, and immunity have contributed to our understanding of influenza biology, and to expanding the technological approaches for the generation of more efficient strategies against influenza infections. Moreover, highly remarkable developments have been made in the implementation of new methodologies to evaluate the efficiency of vaccines and improve them for use on domestic animals such as poultry, horses, dogs or pigs. This enables us to decrease the exposure of humans to potentially pandemic viruses. The articles in this Special Issue will address the importance of influenza to human health and the advances in influenza research that have led to the development of better therapeutics and vaccination strategies.

Salinity Tolerance in Plants

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ISBN: 9783039210268 9783039210275 Year: Pages: 422 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-027-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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Salt stress is one of the most damaging abiotic stresses because most crop plants are susceptible to salinity to different degrees. According to the FAO, about 800 million Has of land are affected by salinity worldwide. Unfortunately, this situation will worsen in the context of climate change, where there will be an overall increase in temperature and a decrease in average annual rainfall worldwide. This Special Issue presents different research works and reviews on the response of plants to salinity, focused from different points of view: physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. Although an important part of the studies on the response to salinity have been carried out with Arabidopsis plants, the use of other species with agronomic interest is also notable, including woody plants. Most of the conducted studies in this Special Issue were focused on the identification and characterization of candidate genes for salt tolerance in higher plants. This identification would provide valuable information about the molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in the salt tolerance response, and it also supplies important resources to breeding programs for salt tolerance in plants.

Keywords

Arabidopsis --- Brassica napus --- ion homeostasis --- melatonin --- NaCl stress --- nitric oxide --- redox homeostasis --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- bZIP transcription factors --- salt stress --- transcriptional regulation --- photosynthesis --- lipid accumulation --- Apocyni Veneti Folium --- salt stress --- multiple bioactive constituents --- physiological changes --- multivariate statistical analysis --- banana (Musa acuminata L.) --- ROP --- genome-wide identification --- abiotic stress --- salt stress --- MaROP5g --- rice --- genome-wide association study --- salt stress --- germination --- natural variation --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- salt stress --- transcriptome analysis --- impairment of photosynthesis --- underpinnings of salt stress responses --- chlorophyll fluorescence --- J8-1 plum line --- mandelonitrile --- Prunus domestica --- redox signalling --- salicylic acid --- salt-stress --- soluble nutrients --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- VOZ --- transcription factor --- salt stress --- transcriptional activator --- chlorophyll fluorescence --- lipid peroxidation --- Na+ --- photosynthesis --- photosystem --- RNA binding protein --- nucleolin --- salt stress --- photosynthesis --- light saturation point --- booting stage --- transcriptome --- grapevine --- salt stress --- ROS detoxification --- phytohormone --- transcription factors --- Arabidopsis --- CDPK --- ion homeostasis --- NMT --- ROS --- salt stress --- antioxidant enzymes --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- ascorbate cycle --- hydrogen peroxide --- reactive oxygen species --- salinity --- SnRK2 --- RNA-seq --- DEUs --- flax --- NaCl stress --- EST-SSR --- Salt stress --- Oryza sativa --- proteomics --- iTRAQ quantification --- cell membrane injury --- root activity --- antioxidant systems --- ion homeostasis --- melatonin --- salt stress --- signal pathway --- SsMAX2 --- Sapium sebiferum --- drought, osmotic stress --- salt stress --- redox homeostasis --- strigolactones --- ABA --- TGase --- photosynthesis --- salt stress --- polyamines --- cucumber --- abiotic stresses --- high salinity --- HKT1 --- halophytes --- glycophytes --- poplars (Populus) --- salt tolerance --- molecular mechanisms --- SOS --- ROS --- Capsicum annuum L. --- CaDHN5 --- salt stress --- osmotic stress --- dehydrin --- Gossypium arboretum --- salt tolerance --- single nucleotide polymorphisms --- association mapping. --- n/a

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