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Pastoralism and Socio-technological Transformations in Northern Benin - Fulani Innovations in Pastoral Migration, Livelihood Diversification and Professional Association

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ISBN: 9783863953461 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2017-1072 Language: English
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-05 11:02:24
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Pastoralists throughout Africa face increasing pressures. In Benin, governmental development policies and programmes in crop farming are changing power relations between herders and farmers to favour the latter. How are the Fulani pastoralists responding to these threats to their existence? Georges Djohy explores the dynamics in local use of natural resources and in inter-ethnic relations resulting from development interventions. He combines the approaches of science and technology studies – looking at the co-construction of society and technology – and political ecology – looking at the power relations shaping the dynamics of economic, environmental and social change – so as to throw light on the forces of marginalisation, adaptation and innovation at work in northern Benin. Having worked there for many years, Djohy has been able to uncover gradual processes of socio-technological change that are happening “behind the scenes” of agricultural development involving mechanisation, herbicide use, tree planting, land registration and natural resource conservation. He reveals how farmers are using these interventions as “weapons” in order to gain more rights over larger areas of land, in other words, to support indigenous land grabbing from herders who had been using the land since decades for grazing. He documents how the Fulani are innovating to ensure their survival, e.g. by using new technologies for transport and communication, developing new strategies of livestock feeding and herd movement, and developing complementary sources of household income. The Fulani are organising themselves from local to national level to provide technological and socio-cultural services, manage conflicts and gain a stronger political voice, e.g. to be able to achieve demarcation of corridors for moving livestock through cultivated areas. They even use non-functioning mini-dairies – another example of development intervention – to demonstrate their modernity and to open up other opportunities to transform their pastoral systems. This book provides insights into normally hidden technical and social dynamics that are unexpected outcomes of development interventions.

Évaluation des politiques publiques : trois illustrations dans le champ culturel

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ISBN: 9782111397996 Language: French
Publisher: Département des études, de la prospective et des statistiques
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-12 11:49:49
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L’évaluation des politiques publiques permet de mesurer l’effectivité de la mise en œuvre d’une mesure et son efficacité, évaluée selon les objectifs définis et justifiant l’intervention publique. Les méthodologies d’évaluation des politiques publiques peuvent être de différentes natures et les sciences économiques disposent d’outils permettant une évaluation d’ordre économétrique. Comparer directement les bénéficiaires et les non-bénéficiaires d’une mesure fournit une évaluation biaisée dans la mesure où ces deux groupes ont en général des caractéristiques différentes. Les méthodes économétriques ont en commun de résoudre ce problème en permettant de raisonner « toutes choses égales par ailleurs », c’est-à-dire d’isoler l’effet de la mesure afin d’en apprécier l’impact propre. Conformément au modèle causal de Rubin, l’évaluation consiste ainsi à comparer la situation que l’on peut observer avec celle que l’on observerait en l’absence d’intervention publique. Cette dernière, appelée situation contrefactuelle, est fondamentalement inobservable et tout l’enjeu des méthodes économétriques est d’en fournir une estimation la plus précise possible. Les trois outils les plus classiques sont présentés ici et illustrés par trois dispositifs d’intervention publique dans le champ de la culture : le label LIR, le dispositif École et cinéma et le crédit d’impôt audiovisuel. Dans le cas du label LIR, il est proposé d’évaluer si le label a permis à certaines librairies d’améliorer leur taux de rentabilité. Le label LIR permet d’exposer théoriquement la méthode des différences de différences ou estimateur en double différences, qui consiste à comparer avant et après la création du label les librairies labellisées et non labellisées pour évaluer son efficacité. Avec le dispositif École et cinéma, l’évaluateur se demande si le programme a permis de développer le goût des enfants pour le cinéma en analysant le taux de fréquentation annuelle des salles obscures des jeunes adultes. École et cinéma permet d’illustrer la méthode des variables instrumentales qui consiste à utiliser une source de variation exogène qui n’a pas d’effet direct sur le nombre d’entrées au cinéma des jeunes adultes mais qui explique la participation au programme de ces jeunes à l’école primaire. Enfin, la méthode de la régression avec discontinuité est proposée pour l’évaluation du crédit d’impôt audiovisuel afin d’analyser l’objectif de localisation française des dépenses de production en mesurant le nombre de jours de tournage sur le sol français des sociétés de production. Cette méthode consiste à profiter de l’existence d’un score de sélection des participants au programme, et de restreindre l’évaluation au voisinage du seuil donnant l’accès au crédit d’impôt afin de mimer une affectation aléatoire des individus dans le programme. Plutôt qu’une évaluation des dispositifs proposés ici à titre illustratif, cette publication vise à exposer des outils encore peu mobilisés pour l’évaluation de politiques culturelles.

L’invention de la prospective culturelle : Textes choisis d’Augustin Girard

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ISBN: 9782111398122 Language: French
Publisher: Département des études, de la prospective et des statistiques
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-12 11:49:49
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Ce numéro de « Culture Prospective » est une anthologie de plusieurs textes d’Augustin Girard, fondateur du DEPS et observateur avisé de l’économie et la sociologie de la culture en France. Ces onze textes, qui parcourent la seconde moitié du XXème siècle de 1965 à 1997, permettent de découvrir le parcours et les idées d’Augustin Girard mais également de suivre l’évolution de l’activité prospective dans le secteur culturel.

Prosperity

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781760462024 Year: Pages: 388 DOI: 10.22459/CSY.04.2018 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Economics --- Political Science --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-16 11:02:14
License: ANU Press

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A ‘moderately prosperous society’ with no Chinese individual left behind—that’s the vision for China set out by Chinese President Xi Jinping in a number of important speeches in 2017. ‘Moderate’ prosperity may seem like a modest goal for a country with more billionaires (609 at last count) than the US. But the ‘China Story’ is a complex one. The China Story Yearbook 2017: Prosperity surveys the important events, pronouncements, and personalitites that defined 2017. It also presents a range of perspectives, from the global to the individual, the official to the unofficial, from mainland China to Hong Kong and Taiwan. Together, the stories present a richly textured portrait of a nation that in just forty years has lifted itself from universal poverty to (unequally distributed) wealth, changing itself and the world in the process.

Border Deaths

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ISBN: 9789048550203 9789463722322 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.5117/9789463722322 Language: English
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 11:21:03
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Border deaths are a result of dynamics involving diverse actors, and can be interpreted and represented in various ways. Critical voices from civil society (including academia) hold states responsible for making safe journeys impossible for large parts of the world population. Meanwhile, policy-makers argue that border deaths demonstrate the need for restrictive border policies. Statistics are widely (mis)used to support different readings of border deaths. However, the way data is collected, analysed, and disseminated remains largely unquestioned. Similarly, little is known about how bodies are treated, and about the different ways in which the dead - also including the missing and the unidentified - are mourned by familiars and strangers. New concepts and perspectives contribute to highlighting the political nature of border deaths and finding ways to move forward. The chapters of this collection, co-authored by researchers and practitioners, provide the first interdisciplinary overview of this contested field.&#xD;

Keywords

Border --- deaths --- migration --- border policies

De la literatura latinoamericana a la literatura (latinoamericana) mundial. Condiciones materiales, procesos y actores

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Book Series: Latin American Literatures in the World / Literaturas Latinoamericanas en el Mundo ISSN: 2513-0757 ISBN: 9783110622096 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: 253 DOI: 10.1515/9783110622096 Language: Spanish
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-11 15:10:51
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What is World Literature? To answer this question, this book asks another one: How is it produced, that is, what are the material conditions, processes, and actors, which enable Latin-American Literature to circulate internationally and become (Latin-American) World Literature? Exploring the tension between literature for and of the world, the volume also intend to give visibility—and value as World Literature— to local forms of expression.

Usage Policies for Decentralised Information Processing

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ISBN: 9783866449879 Year: Pages: XIII, 174 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000032891 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Owners impose usage restrictions on their information, which can be based e.g. on privacy laws, copyright law or social conventions. Often, information is processed in complex constellations without central control. In this work, we introduce technologies to formally express usage restrictions in a machine-interpretable way as so-called policies that enable the creation of decentralised systems that provide, consume and process distributed information in compliance with their usage restrictions.

Sciences with the Science

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ISBN: 9791093170046 DOI: 10.4000/books.allianceathena.225 Language: English
Publisher: Alliance Athéna
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-10 12:25:04
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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In the current European environment where the main orientations of research are being redefined, it is fit to reconsider the general principles underlying the Social Sciences & Humanities and their place in Science and Society. The need for a fruitful dialogue between sciences in order to cope with the major challenges of today’s world invites us to bring again to the fore the figure of ‘the engineer’ as largely open to humanities. Beyond any specifically scientific consideration, the SSH are addressing anew the question of the purpose of our societies and of the way they will evolve. This study is the result of an exceptional gathering of searchers and scholars. It aims at restoring the SSH back into their deserved position and at promoting male and female scientists dedicated to avoiding the frauds of technicism, dogmatism and scienticism.

Keys for architectural history research in the digital era : Handbook

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ISBN: 9782917902592 DOI: 10.4000/books.inha.4924 Language: English
Publisher: Publications de l’Institut national d’histoire de l’art
Subject: Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-10 12:25:10
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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This handbook gathers a selection of texts by the speakers at the Training School “Architectural Research in the Digital Era” (Ghent, 2-6 April 2013) and the workshop “GIS, data visualization an open community” (Paris, 27-28 January 2014). The aims of these two events organised in the framework of the COST ISO904 Action European architecture beyond Europe: Sharing Research and Knowledge on Dissemination Processes, Historical Data and Material Legacy (19th-20th centuries), was to familiarize the participants, architectural historians with a variety of aspects related to conducting research in a digital era: Architectural history research in the digital era Copyrights; Standards, metadata, interoperability and sustainability; Data visualisation; Creating a digital research environment, GIS and Open communities.

Organisation, processus et structures de la création

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ISBN: 9782111398078 Language: French
Publisher: Département des études, de la prospective et des statistiques
Subject: Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-12 11:49:50
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Les activités de création mettent en avant le talent individuel mais reposent aussi sur des dispositifs et des organisations. L’investigation soutenue par les ministères de la Culture et de l’Industrie a pris la forme d’un séminaire Création à l’École de Paris du management. Les résultats portent d’abord sur les processus de création et la manière dont les activités de création peuvent s’inscrire dans des projets et des entreprises dans un double mouvement de divergence et de convergence. On examine ensuite les liens entre création et structures en examinant comment est géré cet équilibre divergence-convergence et sont assumées des tâches spécifiques comme la gestion de la nécessaire abondance créative et, partant, l’échec de nombre de projets, la détection et la sélection des talents. La création s’en trouve à la fois encadrée en même temps qu’elle peut trouver de nouveaux espaces de développement.

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