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Mercury Pollution in Minamata

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Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science ISSN: 2191-5547 ISBN: 9789811073915 9789811073922 Year: Pages: 67 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7392-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-29 12:50:03
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It overviews the poisoning which occurred in the 1950s and 1960s among the residents in Minamata who ate seafood contaminated with methylmercury discharged from the chemical factory, Chisso Corporation. It describes the history, symptoms pathogenesis and research on the causal agent, and discusses the responses of Chisso and the national and local governments to the outbreak, the victims, the compensation and environmental restructuring as well as the court ruling on claims. Based on lecture notes from a university course, it includes students’ suggestions for avoiding a repeat of the tragedy. The issue has not been settled yet, and this analysis of the incident provides useful insights into solutions to the current global mercury pollution problem.

Advances in Catalyst Deactivation

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ISBN: 9783038421870 9783038421887 Year: Pages: X, 300 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-188-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-07 11:25:06
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Catalyst deactivation, the loss over time of catalytic activity and/or selectivity, is a problem of great and continuing concern in the practice of industrial catalytic processes. Costs to industry for catalyst replacement and process shutdown total tens of billions of dollars per year. While catalyst deactivation is inevitable for most processes, some of its immediate, drastic consequences may be avoided, postponed, or even reversed. Accordingly, there is considerable motivation to better understand catalyst decay and regeneration. Indeed, the science of catalyst deactivation and regeneration has been developing rapidly as evidenced by the considerable literature addressing this topic, including 21,000 journal articles, presentations, reports, reviews, and books; and more than 29,000 patents for the period of 1980 to 2012. This developing science provides the foundation for continuing, substantial improvements in the efficiency and economics of catalytic processes through development of catalyst deactivation models, more stable catalysts, and regeneration processes.This special issue focuses on recent advances in catalyst deactivation and regeneration, including advances in (1) scientific understanding of mechanisms; (2) development of improved methods and tools for investigation; and (3) more robust models of deactivation and regeneration.

Catalysts Deactivation, Poisoning and Regeneration

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ISBN: 9783039215461 / 9783039215478 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-547-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Catalyst lifetime represents one of the most crucial economic aspects in industrial catalytic processes, due to costly shutdowns, catalyst replacements, and proper disposal of spent materials. Not surprisingly, there is considerable motivation to understand and treat catalyst deactivation, poisoning, and regeneration, which causes this research topic to continue to grow. The complexity of catalyst poisoning obviously increases along with the increasing use of biomass/waste-derived/residual feedstocks and with requirements for cleaner and novel sustainable processes. This book collects 15 research papers providing insights into several scientific and technical aspects of catalyst poisoning and deactivation, proposing more tolerant catalyst formulations, and exploring possible regeneration strategies.

Keywords

hydrogenation --- copper --- catalyst --- water --- deactivation --- octanal --- octanol --- V2O5–WO3/TiO2 catalysts --- poisoning --- sulfur-containing sodium salts --- SO3 --- NO removal --- Cu/SSZ-13 --- NH3-SCR --- sodium ions --- deactivation mechanism --- sulfur poisoning --- coke deposition --- in situ regeneration --- Co-Zn/H-Beta --- NOx reduction by C3H8 --- catalyst deactivation --- diesel --- natural gas --- SEM --- TEM --- poisoning --- oxygen storage capacity --- thermal stability --- cyclic operation --- deactivation --- oxysulfate --- oxysulfide --- Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) --- SO2 poisoning --- Low-temperature catalyst --- nitrogen oxides --- nitrous oxide --- dry reforming of methane --- nickel catalysts --- barium carbonate --- deactivation by coking --- catalytic methane combustion --- exhaust gas --- catalyst durability --- Liquefied natural gas --- biogas --- vehicle emission control --- sulfur deactivation --- catalyst deactivation --- aluminum sulfate --- palladium sulfate --- regeneration --- phthalic anhydride --- vanadia-titania catalyst --- unusual deactivation --- physico-chemical characterization --- over-reduction --- vanadia species --- coke deposition --- DeNOx --- MW incinerator --- deactivation --- ammonium sulfates --- regeneration --- washing --- CO2 reforming --- Ni-catalyst --- syngas --- tetragonal zirconia --- phase stabilization --- CPO reactor --- effect of flow rate --- deactivation --- iso-octane --- Rh catalysts --- Rh --- homogeneous catalysis --- catalyst deactivation --- n/a

Emerging Marine Biotoxins

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ISBN: 9783039215133 / 9783039213498 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-349-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The emergence of marine and freshwater toxins in geographical areas where they have never been reported before is a concern due to the considerable impact on (sea)food contamination, and consequently, on public health. Several groups of marine biotoxins, in particular tetrodotoxins, ciguatoxins, and palytoxins, are included among the relevant marine biotoxins that have recently emerged in several coastal areas. A similar situation has been observed in freshwater, where cyanobacterial toxins, such as microcystins, could end up in unexpected areas such as the estuaries where shellfish are cultivated. Climate change and the increased availability of nutrients have been considered as the key factors in the expansion of all of these toxins into new areas; however, this could also be due to more intense biological invasions, more sensitive analytical methods, or perhaps even an increased scientific interest in these natural contaminations. The incidences of human intoxications due to the consumption of seafood contaminated with these toxins have made their study an important task to accomplish in order to protect human health. This Special Issue has a focus on a wide variety of emerging biotoxin classes and techniques to identify and quantify them.

Novel Pharmacological Inhibitors for Bacterial Protein Toxins

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ISBN: 9783038424314 9783038424307 Year: Pages: VI, 118 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-13 09:39:34
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Many medically relevant bacteria cause severe human and animal diseases because they produce and release protein toxins that target mammalian cells. Because the toxin-induced cell damage is the reason for the clinical symptoms, the targeted pharmacological inhibition of the cytotoxic mode of action of bacterial toxins should prevent or cure the respective toxin-associated disease. Toxin inhibitors might be beneficial when the toxin acts in the absence of the producing bacteria (e.g., food poisoning), but also in combination with antibiotics in infectious diseases when the toxin-producing bacteria are present. The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins is on the development and characterization of novel inhibitors against bacterial toxins, e.g., toxin neutralizing antibodies, peptides or small compounds, as well as toxin pore blockers, which interfere with bacterial toxins and thereby protect cells from intoxication.

Dinophysis Toxins: Distribution, Fate in Shellfish and Impacts

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ISBN: 9783039213634 / 9783039213641 Year: Pages: 376 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-364-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Several species of Dinophysis produce one or two groups of lipophilic toxins: okadaic acid (OA) and its derivatives; or the dinophysistoxins (DTXs) (also known as diarrhetic shellfish poisons or DSP toxins) and pectenotoxins (PTXs). DSP toxins are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases, causing gastrointestinal intoxication in consumers of contaminated seafood. Forty years after the identification of Dinophysis as the causative agent of DSP in Japan, contamination of filter feeding shellfish exposed to Dinophysis blooms is recognized as a problem worldwide. DSP events affect public health and cause considerable losses to the shellfish industry. Costly monitoring programs are implemented in regions with relevant shellfish production to prevent these socioeconomic impacts. Harvest closures are enforced whenever toxin levels exceed regulatory limits (RLs). Dinophysis species are kleptoplastidic dinoflagellates; they feed on ciliates (Mesodinium genus) that have previously acquired plastids from cryptophycean (genera Teleaulax, Plagioselmis, and Geminigera) nanoflagellates. The interactions of Dinophysis with different prey regulate their growth and toxin production. When Dinophysis cells are ingested by shellfish, their toxins are partially biotransformed and bioaccumulated, rendering the shellfish unsuitable for human consumption. DSP toxins may also affect shellfish metabolism. This book covers diverse aspects of the abovementioned topics—from the laboratory culture of Dinophysis and the kinetics of uptake, transformation, and depuration of DSP toxins in shellfish to Dinophysis population dynamics, the monitoring and regulation of DSP toxins, and their impact on the shellfish industry in some of the aquaculture regions that are traditionally most affected, namely, northeastern Japan, western Europe, southern Chile, and New Zealand.

Keywords

harmful algal bloom --- Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning --- okadaic acid --- toxin accumulation --- toxin vectors --- trophic transfer --- Brazil --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) --- Mytilus galloprovincialis --- DST accumulation --- DST esterification --- suspended particulate matter (SPM) --- harmful algal blooms --- okadaic acid --- Argopecten irradians --- transcriptomic response --- deep sequencing --- pectenotoxins --- surf clam --- accumulation --- biotransformation --- depuration --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- accumulation --- dinophysistoxin --- Japanese scallop --- dinophysis --- LC/MS/MS --- statistical analysis --- Dinophysis --- HAB monitoring --- DSP toxins --- aquaculture --- shellfish toxicity --- human health --- time-series --- seasonality --- Scotland --- DSP toxins --- bivalves --- mussel --- resistance --- RNA-Seq --- qPCR --- metabolism --- defense --- immunity --- DSP toxins --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Mesodinium rubrum --- bacterial community --- high throughput sequencing --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- Dinophysis --- wild harvest --- bivalve shellfish --- pipis (Plebidonax deltoides) --- Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) --- okadaic acid --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis toxins --- accumulation --- digestion --- biotransformation --- compartmentalization --- depuration --- kinetics --- Dinophysis --- diarrhetic shellfish poisoning --- marine toxins --- pectenotoxin --- okadaic acid --- dinophysistoxin --- okadaic acid --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis --- D. acuminata-complex --- D. caudata --- Argopecten purpuratus --- Dinophysis --- Mesodinium --- cryptophytes --- predator-prey preferences --- Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins (DST) --- pectenotoxins (PTXs) --- mixotrophic cultures --- mass culture conditions --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Protoceratium reticulatum --- Reloncaví Fjord --- OMI analysis --- WitOMI analysis --- Mesodinium cf. rubrum --- El Niño Southern Oscillation --- Southern Annual Mode --- Dinophysis acuta --- Dinophysis acuminata --- DSP --- physical–biological interactions --- niche partitioning --- climatic anomaly --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Mesodinium rubrum --- lysate --- organic matter --- diarrhetic shellfish poisoning --- okadaic acid --- dinophysistoxin --- pectenotoxins --- dinophysis --- DSP --- toxins --- OA --- DTX-2 --- PTXs --- Dinophysis acuminata --- dinophysistoxins --- pectenotoxins --- Port Underwood --- New Zealand --- Dinophysis --- Diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- marine biotoxins --- blooms --- n/a

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