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Novel Photoactive Materials

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ISBN: 9783038976509 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-651-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 14:29:32
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Photoactivity represents the ability of a material, generally speaking a semiconductor, to become active when interacting with light. It can be declined in many ways, and several functionalities arising from this behavior of materials can be exploited, all leading to positive repercussions on our environment. There are several classes of effects of photoactivity, all of which have been deeply investigated in the last few decades, allowing to develop more and more efficient materials and devices. All of them share a common point, that is, the interaction of a material with light, although many different materials are taken into account depending on the effect desired—from elemental semiconductors like silicon, to more complex compounds like CdTe or GaAs, to metal oxides like TiO2 and ZnO. Given the broadness of the field, a huge number of works fall within this topic, and new areas of discovery are constantly explored. The special issue “Novel Photoactive Materials” has been proposed as a means to present recent developments in the field, and for this reason the articles included touch different aspects of photoactivity, from photocatalysis to photovoltaics to light emitting materials.

Graphene and Other 2D Layered Nanomaterial-Based Films: Synthesis, Properties and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039219025 9783039219032 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-903-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Organic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This book is dedicated to highlighting some relevant advances in the field of thin films and coatings based on two-dimensional crystals and layered nanomaterials. Due to their layered structure, graphene and a variety of new 2D inorganic nanosystems, called “graphene analogues”, have all attracted tremendous interest due to their unprecedented properties/superior performance, and may find applications in many fields from electronics to biotechnology. These two-dimensional systems are ultrathin and, hence, tend to be flexible, also presenting distinctive and nearly intrinsic characteristics, including electronic, magnetic, optical, thermal conductivity, and superconducting properties. Furthermore, the combination of different structures and synergetic effects may open new and unprecedented perspectives, making these ideal advanced materials for multifunctional assembled systems. As far as the field of coatings is concerned, new layered nanostructures may offer unique and multifunctional properties, including gas barrier, lubricant, conductive, magnetic, photoactive, self-cleaning, and/or antimicrobial surfaces. This book contains new findings on the synthesis and perspectives of multifunctional films that are at the forefront of the science and coating technologies.

Sol-Gel Chemistry Applied to Materials Science

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ISBN: 9783039213535 9783039213542 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-354-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Sol–gel technology is a contemporary advancement in science that requires taking a multidisciplinary approach with regard to its various applications. This book highlights some applications of the sol–gel technology, including protective coatings, catalysts, piezoelectric devices, wave guides, lenses, high-strength ceramics, superconductors, synthesis of nanoparticles, and insulating materials. In particular, for biotechnological applications, biomolecules or the incorporation of bioactive substances into the sol–gel matrix has been extensively studied and has been a challenge for many researchers. Some sol–gel materials are widely applied in light-emitting diodes, solar cells, sensing, catalysis, integration in photovoltaic devices, and more recently in biosensing, bioimaging, or medical diagnosis; others can be considered excellent drug delivery systems. The goal of an ideal drug delivery system is the prompt delivery of a therapeutic amount of the drug to the proper site in the body, where the desired drug concentration can be maintained. The interactions between drugs and the sol–gel system can affect the release rate. In conclusion, the sol–gel synthesis method offers mixing at the molecular level and is able to improve the chemical homogeneity of the resulting composite. This opens new doors not only regarding

Keywords

sol-gel method --- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis --- bioactivity --- biocompatibility --- sol–gel method --- organic-inorganic hybrids --- chlorogenic acid --- cytotoxicity --- biocompatibility --- silsesquioxanes --- thiol-ene click reaction --- in situ water production --- hydrophobic coatings --- cotton fabric --- paper --- NMR --- wettability --- sol-gel --- hollow sphere --- 1D structure --- sol-gel --- thin-disk laser --- Yb-doped glasses --- aluminosilicate glasses --- photoluminescence --- ultrasonic spray deposition --- tungsten oxide --- lithium lanthanum titanium oxide --- conformal coating --- Li-ion batteries --- sol-gel technique --- biomaterials --- cell proliferation --- cell cycle --- one transistor and one resistor (1T1R) --- organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) --- resistive random access memory (RRAM) --- sol-gel --- lithium-ion battery --- LiMnxFe(1?x)PO4 --- carbon coating --- pseudo-diffusion coefficient --- potential step voltammetry --- electrochemical impedance spectroscopy --- sol-gel --- oxyfluoride glass-ceramics --- nanocrystal --- optical properties --- sol-gel method --- SiO2–based hybrids --- poly(?-caprolactone) --- TG-DSC --- TG-FTIR --- X-ray diffraction analysis --- computer-aided design (CAD) --- mechanical analysis --- finite element analysis (FEA) --- composites --- organic–inorganic hybrid materials --- biomedical applications --- metal oxides --- multi-layer --- surface plasmon resonance --- optical sensors --- computer-aided design (CAD) --- mechanical analysis --- finite element analysis (FEA) --- composites --- hybrid materials --- biomedical applications

Optoelectronic Nanodevices

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ISBN: 9783039286966 / 9783039286973 Year: Pages: 338 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-697-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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During the last decade, novel graphene related materials (GRMs), perovskites, as well as metal oxides and other metal nanostructures have received the interest of the scientific community. Due to their extraordinary physical, optical, thermal, and electrical properties, which are correlated with their 2D ultrathin atomic layer structure, large interlayer distance, ease of functionalization, and bandgap tunability, these nanomaterials have been applied in the development or the improvement of innovative optoelectronic applications, as well as the expansion of theoretical studies and simulations in the fast-growing fields of energy (photovoltaics, energy storage, fuel cells, hydrogen storage, catalysis, etc.), electronics, photonics, spintronics, and sensing devices. The continuous nanostructure-based applications development has provided the ability to significantly improve existing products and to explore the design of materials and devices with novel functionalities. This book demonstrates some of the most recent trends and advances in the interdisciplinary field of optoelectronics. Most articles focus on light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells (SCs), including organic, inorganic, and hybrid configurations, whereas the rest address photodetectors, transistors, and other well-known dynamic optoelectronic devices. In this context, this exceptional collection of articles is directed at a broad scientific audience of chemists, materials scientists, physicists, and engineers, with the goals of highlighting the potential of innovative optoelectronic applications incorporating nanostructures and inspiring their realization.

Keywords

localized surface plasmon --- green LED --- cathodoluminescence --- FDTD --- NiCo2S4 nanotubes --- Ti porous film --- quantum dot --- solar cells --- counter electrode --- metasurfaces --- orthogonal polarization --- high-efficiency --- polarization analyzer --- green LEDs --- InGaN/GaN superlattice --- V-pits --- external quantum efficiency --- PeLEDs --- OAB --- perovskite --- quantum confinement effect --- transparent electrode --- Ag film --- nucleation layer --- organic solar cell --- graphene oxide --- oxidation --- photodetector --- light-emitting diodes --- quantum dots --- stability --- color-conversion efficiency --- photoluminescence --- p-type InGaN --- graded indium composition --- hole injection --- quantum efficiency --- green LED --- 2D perovskite --- controllable synthesis --- flexible substrate --- photodetector --- photoelectric performance --- photodetector --- organic --- photomultiplication --- tunneling --- external quantum efficiency --- liquid crystals --- metasurfaces --- plasmonics --- actively tunable nanodevices --- solvent --- compact --- smooth --- perovskite solar cells --- indium nanoparticles (In NPs) --- textured silicon solar cells --- antireflective coating (ARC) --- plasmonic forward scattering --- InN/p-GaN heterojunction --- interface --- photovoltaics --- GaN --- LED --- nano-grating --- metamaterials --- mid infrared --- graphene split-ring --- gold split-ring --- electromagnetically induced transparency effect --- transparent conductive electrode --- Ga2O3 --- AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode --- transmittance --- sheet resistance --- electrowetting --- tunable absorbers --- subwavelength metal grating --- plasmon resonance --- field emission --- graphene --- reduced graphene oxide --- polymer composites --- graphene ink --- cold cathode --- Fowler–Nordheim --- CdTe microdots --- Schottky barrier --- photodetector --- piezo-phototronic effect --- UV LEDs --- double-layer ITO --- pinhole pattern --- current spreading --- light output power --- flip-chip mini-LED --- prism-structured sidewall --- waveguide photons --- light extraction --- erbium --- silicon transistor --- photocurrent --- colorimetry --- excitation wavelength --- light-emitting diode --- quantum dots --- ternary organic solar cells --- graphene ink --- functionalization --- air-processed --- cascade effect --- charge transfer --- n/a

Intelligent Electronic Devices

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039289738 / 9783039289745 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-974-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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In a modern technological society, electronic engineering and design innovations are both academic and practical engineering fields that involve systematic technological materialization through scientific principles and engineering designs. Engineers and designers must work together with a variety of other professionals in their quest to find systems solutions to complex problems. Rapid advances in science and technology have broadened the horizons of engineering while simultaneously creating a multitude of challenging problems in every aspect of modern life. Current research is interdisciplinary in nature, reflecting a combination of concepts and methods that often span several areas of mechanics, mathematics, electrical engineering, control engineering, and other scientific disciplines. In addition, the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Knowledge Innovation and Invention 2019 (IEEE ICKII 2019) was held in Seoul, South Korea, on 12–15 July, 2019. This book, “Intelligent Electronic Devices”, includes 13 excellent papers form 260 papers presented in this conference about intelligent electronic devices. The main goals of this book were to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible and to provide new scientific knowledge relevant to the topics of electronics.

Keywords

test pattern generation --- built-in self-test --- broadcast circuit --- low cost --- negative differential resistance --- current-voltage characteristics --- multiple simple current mirror --- threshold voltage --- oscillator --- voltage-controlled oscillator --- ZnO-based nanowires --- hydrothermal method --- Eu3+ and In3+ ions --- photoluminescence properties --- mosquitoes --- Aedes aegypti --- Aedes albopictus --- secondary freeform lens device (SFLD) --- stearic --- dual-input converter --- high voltage gain --- leakage energy recycling --- galvanic isolation --- voltage clamping --- actuator --- lower limb exoskeleton --- wearable robot --- cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) --- as low as diagnostically acceptable (ALADA) --- selective anatomy analytic iteration reconstruction (SA2IR) --- low-dosed --- sparse projections --- diagnostic ability --- drift region --- electrostatic discharge (ESD) --- holding voltage (Vh) --- lateral diffusion MOS (LDMOS) --- transmission-line pulse system (TLP system) --- laser pointer --- electromagnetic lock --- sound recognition module --- regions with convolutional neural network (R-CNN) --- adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) --- 6-DOF robot arm --- high-definition multimedia interface --- PCB layout --- electromagnetic interference --- radiation resistance --- multi-robots --- path programming --- tabu search --- action quality assessment --- human activity analysis --- skeletal feature representation --- electrical circuits and devices --- computer science and engineering --- communications and information processing --- electrostatic discharge (ESD) --- latchup (LU) --- n-channel lateral diffused MOSFET (nLDMOS) --- non-uniform conduction --- secondary breakdown current (It2) --- transmission-line pulse system (TLP system) --- brushless DC motor --- sensorless motor drive --- speed control --- 180-degree conduction

Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Gems

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280766 9783039280773 Year: Pages: 528 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-077-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Gems have been used in the manufacture of jewellery and as ornaments since antiquity. Considering gems, recent statistics have shown that about 15 billion Euros are annually at stake. Nowadays, gemmology, i.e., the study of gem materials, is one of the most expanding fields in the earth sciences, positioned between academia and industry. As an applied science, in gemmology, the instruments used should be non- or microdestructive, and their cost should be reasonable both in terms of equipment and time consumption. Gemmology can also be used contribute to the development of pure science and in some cases, destructive techniques may have to be used. Taking into account the fact that gems are albeit rarely available for scientific research, this compilation of 20 articles by around 100 researchers from over 30 different institutions situated in 20 countries from around the globe, presented in the Special Issue entitled “Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Gems”, offers very good examples on the application of various methods for their study which will hopefully contribute to our better understanding of gem formation in general and will enhance scientific debates attracting more scientists from various disciplines to get involved in this field.

Keywords

danburite --- trace elements --- REE --- femtosecond LA-ICP-MS --- CHNS elemental analyzer --- pegmatites --- skarn --- gemstones --- placer --- heavy and light minerals --- landforms --- climate --- geodynamic setting --- green quartz --- prase --- amethyst --- color --- amphibole --- actinolite --- skarn --- Serifos --- Greece --- zircon --- xenocryst --- alkali basalt --- Ratanakiri Volcanic Province --- trace elements --- O-isotopes and Hf-isotopes --- U-Pb --- (U-Th)/He --- granitic pegmatite --- gem-quality tourmaline --- Adamello Massif --- Central Alps --- Italy --- ruby --- Mogok --- Mong Hsu --- New South Wales --- trace elements --- LA-ICP-MS analysis --- inclusions --- U–Pb age-dating --- genetic diversity --- geographic typing --- corundum --- blue sapphire --- meta-ultramafic rocks --- LA-ICP-MS --- Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopy --- Ilmenogorsky complex --- Ural Mountains --- metasomatism --- corundum megacrysts --- ruby --- sapphire --- plumasite --- metamorphic-metasomatic origin --- Greece --- zircon megacrysts --- placer deposits --- rare earth elements (REE) --- carbonatite-dominant melts --- Central Highlands --- Vietnam --- hyperspectral photoluminescence imaging --- LA-ICP-MS --- rubies --- corundum --- in-situ oxygen isotopes --- Paranesti Greece --- Nestos Shear Zone --- Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) --- emerald deposits --- classification --- typology --- metamorphism --- magmatism --- sedimentary --- alkaline metasomatism --- fluids --- stable and radiogenic isotopes --- genetic models --- exploration --- andradite --- demantoid --- gemstone --- Raman spectroscopy --- UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy --- X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy --- gem-quality --- garnet --- gem-bearing pegmatite --- fluid inclusions --- P-T-X equilibria --- spodumene --- Ar/Ar dating --- blue sapphire --- anorthosites --- kyshtymites --- sapphire geochemistry --- Ilmenogorsky-Vishnevogorsky complex --- in situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating --- kyanite --- Mn-rich silicates --- Rhodope --- Thassos --- amphibolite facies --- metasomatism --- opal --- hyalite --- silica --- X-ray diffraction --- Raman --- Infrared --- 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance --- SEM --- provenance --- pearls --- freshwater --- saltwater --- LA-ICP-MS --- X-ray luminescence --- sapphires --- corundum --- in situ oxygen isotopes --- Orosmayo Argentina --- lamprophyre --- secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) --- carbonatite --- gemstones --- corundum --- beryl --- jadeitite --- garnet --- quartz varieties --- Greece --- emeralds --- LA-ICP-MS --- UV-Vis-NIR --- FTIR --- Raman --- PL --- n/a

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