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Never-resting microglia: physiological roles in the healthy brain and pathological implications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193691 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-369-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Microglia are largely known as the major orchestrators of the brain inflammatory response. As such, they have been traditionally studied in various contexts of disease, where their activation has been assumed to induce a wide range of detrimental effects. In the last few years, a series of discoveries have challenged the current view of microglia, showing their active and positive contribution to normal brain function. This Research Topic reviewed the novel physiological roles of microglia in the developing, mature and aging brain, under non-pathological conditions. In particular, this Research Topic discussed the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which microglia contribute to the formation, pruning and plasticity of synapses; the regulation of adult neurogenesis as well as hippocampal learning and memory; among other important roles. Because these novel findings defy our understanding of microglial function in health as much as in disease, this Research Topic also summarized the current view of microglial nomenclature, phenotypes, origin and differentiation, and contribution to various brain pathologies. Additionally, novel imaging approaches and molecular tools to study microglia in their non-activated state have been discussed. In conclusion, this Research Topic sought to emphasize how the current research in neuroscience is challenged by never-resting microglia.

Plant Single Cell Type Systems Biology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199488 Year: Pages: 149 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-948-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The phenotype of a plant in response to a stress condition is the reflection of the molecular responses in different cell-types composing the plant. The multicellular complexity represents a challenge when accessing specific responses of each cell or cell type composing the plant. To overcome this difficulty and allow the clear characterization of the plant cell molecular mechanisms, the research community is now focusing on studying a single cell and single cell-types. The isolation of plant single cells is limited by the cell wall that confers the rigidity of the plant and its overall structure. Various methods have been developed for isolating plant cells (e.g. laser capture microdissection; cell sorting of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-tagged protoplasts, differential protoplastization of cells such as guard cells, isolation of easily accessible cell types such as cotton fiber, pollen cells, trichomes and root hair cells). The development of these innovative approaches to isolate single plant cells or cell-types combined with the application of sensitive and high-throughput technologies allows a better analysis of the developmental processes and response to environmental stresses. Ultimately, single plant cell and cell-type biology will lead to establishment of more reliable and accurate -molecular regulatory networks at the resolution of basic life unit. The goal of this Research Topic is to cover new technological and biological advances in the study of plant single cell, cell-type and systems biology.

Current Challenges in Modeling Cellular Metabolism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197545 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-754-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Mathematical and computational models play an essential role in understanding the cellular metabolism. They are used as platforms to integrate current knowledge on a biological system and to systematically test and predict the effect of manipulations to such systems. The recent advances in genome sequencing techniques have facilitated the reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks for a wide variety of organisms from microbes to human cells. These models have been successfully used in multiple biotechnological applications. Despite these advancements, modeling cellular metabolism still presents many challenges. The aim of this Research Topic is not only to expose and consolidate the state-of-the-art in metabolic modeling approaches, but also to push this frontier beyond the current edge through the introduction of innovative solutions. The articles presented in this e-book address some of the main challenges in the field, including the integration of different modeling formalisms, the integration of heterogeneous data sources into metabolic models, explicit representation of other biological processes during phenotype simulation, and standardization efforts in the representation of metabolic models and simulation results.

Cellular and Phenotypic Plasticity in Cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196623 Year: Pages: 77 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-662-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The process of Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT) is known to result in a phenotype change in cells from a proliferative state to a more invasive state. EMT has been reported to drive the metastatic spread of various cancers and has also been associated with drug resistance to cytotoxics and targeted therapeutics. Recently phenotype switching akin to EMT has been reported in non-epithelial cancers such as metastatic melanoma. This process involves changes in EMT-Transcription Factors (EMT-TFs), suggesting that phenotype-switching may be common to several tumour types. It remains unclear as to whether the presence of both Epilthelial-like and Mesenchymal-like cells are a pre-requisite for phenotype switching within a tumour, how this heterogeneity is regulated, and if alteration of cell phenotype is sufficient to mediate migratory changes, or whether drivers of cell migration result in an associated phenotype switch in cancer cells. Similarly it has yet to be clarified if cells in an altered phenotype can be refractory to drug therapy or whether mediators of drug resistance induce a concurrent phenotypic change. Little is known today about the underlying genetic, epigenetic and transient changes that accompany this phenotypic switch and about the role for the tumor micro-environment in influencing it. Hence this is currently an area of speculation and keen interest in the Oncology field with wide-ranging translational implications. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we discuss our current understanding of these concepts in various cancer types including breast cancer, colorectal cancer and metastatic melanoma. This topic covers how these processes of cellular and phenotypic plasticity are regulated and how they relate to cancer initiation, progression, dormancy, metastases and response to cytotoxics or targeted therapies.

Personalized Nutrition

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ISBN: 9783039214457 / 9783039214464 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-446-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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“Personalised Nutrition” represents any initiative that attempts to provide tailor-made healthy eating advice based on the nutritional needs of each individual, as these are dictated by the individual’s behaviour, phenotype and/or genotype, and their interactions. This Special Issue of Nutrients is dedicated to the development, implementation and assessment of the effectiveness of evidence-based “Personalised Nutrition” strategies. In this regard, a selection of reviews and original research manuscripts will bring together the latest evidence on how lifestyle habits, physiology, nutraceuticals, gut microbiome and genetics can be integrated into nutritional solutions, specific to the needs of each individual, for maintaining health and preventing diseases.

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