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Personalized Medicine and Neurosurgery

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453368 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-336-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The Precision Medicine Initiative, which was instituted by President Barack Obama on January 20, 2015, highlighted the importance that advances in genomics and related “-omic” approaches have made to science and medicine, and it set the stage for their federally funded and mandated integration into the delivery of health care. Whether these advances comprise large-scale approaches, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas, which provides a modern classification of cancers based on molecular profiles, or genealogy initiatives, which seek to trace the movement of our early ancestors out of Africa, genomic technology has taken us closer to developing targeted therapies and a refined understanding of our evolutionary journey. It is against this backdrop that we summarized some of the recent advances in the field of precision medicine, or personalized medicine, as they pertain to neurosurgery. In this e-Book collection provided by Frontiers in Surgery: Neurosurgery, we present a collection of articles by leaders in the field of neurosurgery that highlight domains using a personalized approach for the treatment of patients or avenues when personalization is possible and when it will likely alter the care of patients with neurological diseases.

Drug-Diagnostics Co-Development in Oncology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193325 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-332-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The idea of combining drugs and diagnostics in oncology is not new. When the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen was developed in the 1970’s for the treatment of breast cancer a positive correlation between receptor status and treatment outcome was found. As a result of this research, it was suggested to use the estrogen-receptor assay as a diagnostic test for selection of patients for tamoxifen treatment. Despite this suggestion was put forward nearly 40 years ago the adaptation of the drug-diagnostic co-development model has been relatively slow and it is only within the last decade that it has gained more widespread acceptance. The parallel development of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin®, Roche/Genentech) and the immunohistochemistry assay for HER2 protein overexpression (HercepTest™, Dako) seems to have served as an inspiration to a number of stakeholders such as pharma and diagnostic companies, regulatory agencies, and academia. In recent years we have seen an increasing number of oncology drug development projects that have taken advantage of the drug-diagnostic co-development model, as outline below. Most of the new targeted anti-cancer drugs that have been introduced in recent years, such as BRAF-, ALK-, EGFR- and HER2-inhibitors, are more or less all a product of the drugdiagnostic co-development model. These drugs have shown remarkable high response rates in selected groups of patients within cancer diseases with great unmet medical needs. This Research Topic on Drug-Diagnostic Co-Development in Oncology aims to provide you with an insight into some of the diverse activities that constitute this new research area.

Innovative Radiopharmaceuticals in Oncology and Neurology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451746 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-174-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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The aim of this Research Topic was to assemble a series of articles describing basic, preclinical and clinical research studies on radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine. The articles were written by attendees of the third Nuclear Technologies for Health Symposium (NTHS, 10th-11th March 2015, Nantes, Frances) under the auspices of the IRON LabEx (Innovative Radiopharmaceuticals for Oncology and Neurology Laboratory of Excellence). This French network, gathering approximately 160 scientists from 12 academic research teams (Funded by “investissements d’Avenir”), fosters transdisciplinary projects between teams with expertise in chemistry, radiochemistry, radiopharmacy, formulation, biology, nuclear medicine and medical physics. The 12 articles within this resulting eBook present a series of comprehensive reviews and original research papers on multimodality imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy; illustrating the different facets of studies currently conducted in these domains.

Machine Learning With Radiation Oncology Big Data

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457304 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-730-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Radiation oncology is uniquely positioned to harness the power of big data as vast amounts of data are generated at an unprecedented pace for individual patients in imaging studies and radiation treatments worldwide. The big data encountered in the radiotherapy clinic may include patient demographics stored in the electronic medical record (EMR) systems, plan settings and dose volumetric information of the tumors and normal tissues generated by treatment planning systems (TPS), anatomical and functional information from diagnostic and therapeutic imaging modalities (e.g., CT, PET, MRI and kVCBCT) stored in picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), as well as the genomics, proteomics and metabolomics information derived from blood and tissue specimens. Yet, the great potential of big data in radiation oncology has not been fully exploited for the benefits of cancer patients due to a variety of technical hurdles and hardware limitations.With recent development in computer technology, there have been increasing and promising applications of machine learning algorithms involving the big data in radiation oncology. This research topic is intended to present novel technological breakthroughs and state-of-the-art developments in machine learning and data mining in radiation oncology in recent years.

The Treatment of Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) in New Era of Personalised Medicine

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195435 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-543-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in Canada and USA. Majority of the patients present in advanced stage of the disease and of these only about 2% will be alive at 5 years. NSCLC is the most common form of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 87% of cases. Systemic chemotherapies have been used to treat metastatic NSCLC for decades, but the improvements of outcomes have reached a plateau. Recent advances in understanding signalling pathways for malignant cells, their interconections,the importance of various receptors and biomarkers and the interplay between various oncogenes have led to the development of targeted treatments that are improving both efficacy and safety of the treatments. Knowledge about the advantages of treatments with the targeted agents in metastatic NSCLC is growing rapidly. Combining various targeted agents or sequencing them properly will be important in the era of personalised medicine and overcoming development of the resistence to various targeted agents will be challenging. The importance of a team work,from the diagnosis through various treatments, to supportive care, from the interventional radiologists, pneumologists or surgeons, who have to obtain a satisfactory tumor tissue specimen, to pathologists, radiation and medical oncologists, to supportive care specialists, will be described in our publications. We will cover completely present and future approaches to personalised medicine in this rapidly evolving field of metastatic NSCLC.

Bioengineering Liver Transplantation

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ISBN: 9783039217441 9783039217458 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-745-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The aim of this Special Issue is to review, understand, and evaluate new and exciting opportunities from the field on regenerative medicine, biomaterials, and stem cell research for the bioengineering of human liver grafts that can be applied for transplantation and personalized treatment of end-stage liver disease.The development of culture conditions for long-term expansion of LGR5+ intestinal stem cells as crypt-villus structures demonstrated the feasibility of deriving complex, organ-like structures in vitro from primary adult tissues, including the liver. Moreover, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can be applied to generate functionally maturated liver and bile duct epithelial cells.In this Special Issue, we welcome reviews and original papers focussing on hepatic cell sources, including adult hepatic stem cells, organoids, fetal and induced pluripotent stem cells, and primary cells (i.e., hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and endothelial cells) and how these cells can be applied in tissue engineering strategies to generate implantable and personalized liver grafts. Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following: liver tissue engineering, liver regeneration, graft repair, liver stem cells and organoids, bio-scaffolds, and 3D printing.We invite you to contribute original research papers, as well as comprehensive reviews, aligned with these themes, to advance and improve the actual state-of-the-art in liver bioengineering and providing new opportunities for the imminent medical problem of organ and tissue shortage for transplantation.

Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality

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ISBN: 9783039213917 9783039213924 Year: Pages: 484 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-392-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Alternative treatment modes for antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens have become a public health priority. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that infect and lyse bacterial cells. Since bacteriophages are frequently bacterial host species-specific and can often also infect antibiotic-resistant bacterial cells, they could represent ideal antimicrobials for fighting the antibiotic resistance crisis. The medical use of bacteriophages has become known as phage therapy. It is widely used in Russia, where phage cocktails are sold in pharmacies as an over-the-counter drug. However, no phage product has been registered for medical purposes outside of the former Soviet Union. The current Special Issue of Viruses contains a collection of papers from opinion leaders in the field who explore hurdles to the introduction of phage therapy in western countries. The articles cover diverse topics ranging from patent to regulatory issues, the targeting of suitable bacterial infections, and the selection and characterization of safe and efficient phage cocktails. Phage resistance is discussed, and gaps in our knowledge of phage–bacterium interactions in the mammalian body are revealed, while other articles explore the use of phages in food production and processing.

Keywords

Staphylococcus aureus --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- vB_SauM-fRuSau02 --- Twortlikevirus --- antibiotic --- antimicrobial resistance --- magistral preparation --- compounding pharmacy --- phage therapy --- regulatory framework --- personalized medicine --- bacteriophage --- phage --- horizontal gene transfer --- co-evolution --- phage therapy --- industrial phage application --- antimicrobial resistance (AMR) --- Germany --- pH stability --- phage-host interactions --- genomics --- antibiotic-resistance --- phage preparation --- lysins --- biofilms --- typhoid fever --- Salmonella Typhi --- extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) --- Democratic Republic of the Congo --- bacteriophages --- MALDI-MS --- Staphylococcus --- bacteriophages --- phage therapy --- Kayvirus --- Viral proteins --- bacteriophage --- therapy --- phage therapy --- bacterial disease --- infection --- target selection --- Bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- resistance --- adaptation --- prophage --- production --- regulation --- phage therapy --- viral genomes --- best practices --- IND --- high-throughput sequencing --- bacteriophages --- phages --- food safety --- foodborne illness --- phage therapy --- history of science --- science communication --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- sustainable agriculture --- zoonosis --- antibiotic resistance --- phage therapy --- experimental therapy --- phage cocktails --- anti-phage antibodies --- prophage --- immunomodulation --- phage therapy --- evolution --- bacterial resistance --- virulence --- Listeria ivanovii --- bacteriophages --- alginate --- production --- disinfection --- phagodisinfection --- virus–host interactions --- bacteriophage efficacy --- gastrointestinal tract --- phage therapy --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- antimicrobial resistance --- antibiotic --- global health --- developing countries --- infectious disease --- bacteriophage --- phage --- phage therapy --- phage-resistance --- phage therapy --- bacterial infection --- capsule depolymerase --- antibiotic --- animal model --- bacterial resistance --- bacteriophage --- immunology --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- human host --- phage-human host interaction --- bacterial infection --- antibiotic resistance --- bacteriophage --- antibiotic therapy --- phage therapy --- cases report --- abortive infection --- prophage --- adsorption --- Enterococcus --- rhamnopolysaccharide --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- Staphylococcus aureus --- biofilm --- antimicrobial --- frequency of resistance --- phage sensitivity --- resistance management --- nontraditional antibacterial --- bacteriophages --- phage therapy --- antibiotic resistance --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- Escherichia coli --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Brussels --- Belgium --- phage biocontrol --- patent landscape --- crop production --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- multidrug-resistant bacteria --- antimicrobial resistance --- bacteriophage therapy --- compassionate use --- antibiotic resistance --- phage therapy --- PTMP --- ATMP --- regulatory framework --- pharmaceutical paradigm shift --- clinical trial --- magistral formula --- personalized medicine --- phage therapy --- E. faecalis --- OrthoMCL --- antimicrobial resistance --- capsule --- Galleria mellonella --- Klebsiella pneumoniae --- phage therapy --- n/a --- antimicrobial resistance --- bacteriophage --- personalised medicines --- phage therapy --- pharmaceutical legislation --- regulatory framework

Molecular Research of Endometrial Pathophysiology

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ISBN: 9783039214952 9783039214969 Year: Pages: 378 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-496-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The endometrium has been the subject of intense research in a variety of clinical settings, because of its importance in the reproductive process and its role in women’s health. In the past 15 years, significant efforts have been invested in defining the molecular phenotype of the receptive phase endometrium as well as of various endometrial pathologies. Although this has generated a wealth of information on the molecular landscape of human endometrium, there is a need to complement this information in light of the novel methodologies and innovative technical approaches. The focus of this International Journal of Molecular Sciences Special Issue is on molecular and cellular mechanisms of endometrium and endometrium-related disorders. The progress made in the molecular actions of steroids, in the metabolism of steroids and intracrinology, in endometrial intracellular pathways, in stem cells biology, as well as in the molecular alterations underlying endometrium-related pathologies has been the focus of the reviews and papers included.

Keywords

RANK --- endometrium --- endometrial cancer --- prognosis --- immunohistochemistry --- gene expression --- endometriosis --- developmental pathway --- pathogenomics --- mesenchymal stem cells --- endometrial cancer --- mtDNA mutations --- deficit of complex I --- antioxidant response --- mitochondrial biogenesis --- mitochondrial dynamics --- mitophagy --- miRNA --- lncRNAs --- endometrial cancer --- endometriosis --- chronic endometritis --- cell contacts --- tight junction --- adherens junction --- gap junction --- endometrium --- implantation --- decidualization --- endometriosis --- endometrial cancer --- liquid biopsy --- uterine aspirate --- circulating tumour cells (CTCs) --- circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) --- exosomes --- Vitamin D --- endometrium --- endometrial cancer --- endometrial cancer --- preclinical models --- translational research --- endometrial cancer --- type II endometrial carcinoma --- targeted therapy --- kinase inhibitor --- molecular marker --- protein kinase --- protein phosphatase --- PP2A --- PPP2R1A --- SMAP --- endometriosis --- infertility --- niche --- inflammation --- immunomodulation --- mesenchymal stem cell --- orthoxenograft --- uterine cancer --- avatar --- murine models --- personalized medicine --- targeted therapy --- preclinical studies --- translational research --- endometriosis --- TRP channels --- endometrial stromal cells --- eutopic and ectopic endometrium --- endometrial cell --- pathway --- proliferation --- decidualization --- migration --- angiogenesis --- regeneration --- breakdown --- implantation --- endometrial cancer --- orthotopic xenograft model --- estrogen dependent --- bioluminescence imaging --- contrast-enhanced CT scan --- endometrium --- adult stem cells --- endometrial regeneration --- stem cell markers --- endometriosis --- endometrial cancer --- decidualisation --- oestradiol --- aromatase --- testosterone --- dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) --- endometriosis --- endometrial cancer --- sulfatase --- endometriosis --- ectopic stroma --- microRNA --- small RNA sequencing --- EDN1 --- HOXA10 --- miR-139-5p --- miR-375 --- CTCF --- tumour suppressor gene --- haploinsufficiency --- zinc finger --- CRISPR/Cas9 --- cancer --- endometrial cancer --- gene editing --- phosphoinositide 3-kinase --- PIK3CA --- PIK3CB --- p110? --- p110? --- endometrial cancer --- LGR5 --- endometrium --- endometriosis --- menstrual cycle --- macrophages

Cell-Free Nucleic Acids

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ISBN: 9783039280742 9783039280759 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-075-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The deficits of mammography and the potential of noninvasive diagnostic testing using circulating miRNA profiles are presented in our first review article. Exosomes are important in the transfer of genetic information. The current knowledge on exosome-associated DNAs and on vesicle-associated DNAs and their role in pregnancy-related complications is presented in the next article. The major obstacle is the lack of a standardized technique for the isolation and measurement of exosomes. One review has summarized the latest results on cell-free nucleic acids in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite the extensive research, the etiology and exact pathogenesis are still unclear, although similarity to the cell-free ribonucleic acids (cfRNAs) observed in other autoimmune diseases seems to be relevant in IBD. Liquid biopsy is a useful tool for the differentiation of leiomyomas and sarcomas in the corpus uteri. One manuscript has collected the most important knowledge of mesenchymal uterine tumors and shows the benefits of noninvasive sampling. Microchimerism has also recently become a hot topic. It is discussed in the context of various forms of transplantation and transplantation-related advanced therapies, the available cell-free nucleic acid (cfNA) markers, and the detection platforms that have been introduced. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading serious malignancies among women, with a high incidence of mortality; the introduction of new noninvasive diagnostic markers could help in its early detection and treatment monitoring. Epigenetic regulation is very important during the development of diseases and drug resistance. Methylation changes are important signs during ovarian cancer development, and it seems that the CDH1 gene is a potential candidate for being a noninvasive biomarker in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Preeclampsia is a mysterious disease—despite intensive research, the exact details of its development are unknown. It seems that cell-free nucleic acids could serve as biomarkers for the early detection of this disease. Three research papers deal with the prenatal application of cfDNA. Copy number variants (CNVs) are important subjects for the study of human genome variations, as CNVs can contribute to population diversity and human genetic diseases. These are useful in NIPT as a source of population specific data. The reliability of NIPT depends on the accurate estimation of fetal fraction. Improvement in the success rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) is an important goal. The measurement of embryo-specific small noncoding RNAs in culture media could improve the efficiency of ET.

Keywords

breast cancer --- screening --- liquid biopsy --- omics --- multi-level diagnostics --- individualized patient profile --- miRNA --- mammography --- predictive and preventive approach --- personalized medicine --- cell-free DNA --- exosomes --- extracellular vesicles --- fetal DNA --- preeclampsia --- growth retardation --- gestational diabetes mellitus --- miRNA --- piRNA --- NGS --- RT-PCR --- embryo culture medium --- C19MC microRNA --- expression --- exosomes --- fetal growth restriction --- gestational hypertension --- plasma --- prediction --- preeclampsia --- pregnancy-related complications --- screening --- non-invasive prenatal testing --- statistical models --- z-score --- cell-free nucleic acids --- circulating nucleic acids --- cell-free DNAs --- cell-free RNAs --- exosomes --- inflammatory bowel disease --- neutrophil extracellular traps --- NETosis --- liquid biopsy --- cell-free nucleic acids --- circulating tumor cells --- leiomyomas --- sarcomas --- leiomyosarcomas --- exosomes --- NIPT --- fetal fraction --- statistical methods --- DNA --- maternal serum screening --- fetal cells --- liquid biopsy --- pyrosequencing --- ovarian cancer --- CDH1 --- PTEN --- PAX1 --- RASSF1 --- cfDNA --- cell-free DNA --- nuclease activity --- aging --- obesity --- gender differences --- copy number variants --- next generation sequencing --- non-invasive prenatal testing --- population study --- microchimerism --- solid organ transplantation --- hematopoietic stem cell transplantation --- genetic marker --- single nucleotide polymorphism --- deletion/insertion polymorphism --- ovarian cancer --- circulating miRNA --- blood plasma --- NanoString --- network analysis --- biomarker --- n/a

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