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Selected Problems in Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer

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ISBN: 9783039214273 9783039214280 Year: Pages: 460 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-428-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Fluid flow and heat transfer processes play an important role in many areas of science and engineering, from the planetary scale (e.g., influencing weather and climate) to the microscopic scales of enhancing heat transfer by the use of nanofluids; understood in the broadest possible sense, they also underpin the performance of many energy systems. This topical Special Issue of Energies is dedicated to the recent advances in this very broad field. This book will be of interest to readers not only in the fields of mechanical, aerospace, chemical, process and petroleum, energy, earth, civil ,and flow instrumentation engineering but, equally, biological and medical sciences, as well as physics and mathematics; that is, anywhere that “fluid flow and heat transfer” phenomena may play an important role or be a subject of worthy research pursuits.

Keywords

performance characteristics --- Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) elements --- heat transfer --- thermal performance --- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation --- air heater --- impingement heat transfer enhancement --- orthogonal jet --- turbulence --- flat plate --- Colebrook equation --- Colebrook-White --- flow friction --- iterative procedure --- logarithms --- Padé polynomials --- hydraulic resistances --- turbulent flow --- pipes --- computational burden --- thermodynamic --- numerical simulation --- thermal effect --- axial piston pumps --- microbubble pump --- bubble generation --- pump efficiency --- bubble size --- concentration --- particle counter --- flow-induced motion --- sharp sections --- T-section prism --- load resistances --- section aspect ratios --- energy conversion --- thermosyphon --- phase change --- two-phase flow --- visualization --- superheated steam --- triaxial stress --- thermogravimetry --- X-ray microtomography --- thermal cracking --- microbubbles --- fluidics --- flow oscillation --- oscillators --- energetics --- pressure loss --- pressure drop --- friction factor --- multiphase flow --- flow rate --- flow regime --- POD --- entropy generation --- boundary layer --- laminar separation bubble --- two-phase flow --- pump performance --- computational fluid dynamics --- centrifugal pump --- flow behavior --- magnetic field --- ferrofluid --- porous cavity --- heat transfer --- mass transfer --- numerical modeling --- numerical modeling --- surrogate model --- correlation --- fin-tube --- spiral fin-tube --- CFD --- ( A g ? F e 3 O 4 / H 2 O ) hybrid nanofluid --- nonlinear thermal radiation --- heat transfer --- chemical reaction --- mass transfer --- method of moment --- numerical results --- transient analysis --- pumps --- moment of inertia --- water hammer --- pipe flow --- wind turbine --- downwind --- tower shadow --- load --- tower --- BEM --- actuator disc --- CANDU-6 --- PHWR --- moderator --- turbulence --- OpenFOAM --- printed circuit heat exchanger --- supercritical LNG --- zigzag type --- heat transfer performance --- gas turbine engine --- particle deposition --- capture efficiency --- multiphase flow --- tip leakage flow --- detached-eddy simulation --- vortex breakdown --- transonic compressor --- POD --- tip leakage flow --- decomposition region --- decomposition dimensionalities --- vortex identification --- SPIV --- fire-spreading characteristics --- real vehicle experiments --- toxic gases --- temperature distributions --- unsteady heat release rate --- thermal energy recovery --- flue gas --- dew point temperature --- condensation --- Aspen® --- thermoacoustic electricity generator --- multi-stage --- traveling-wave heat engine --- push-pull --- inertance-compliance --- acoustic streaming --- n/a

Human Health Engineering

Author:
ISBN: 9783039284085 9783039284092 Year: Pages: 428 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-409-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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In this Special Issue on human health engineering, we invited submissions exploring recent contributions to the field of human health engineering, which is the technology used for monitoring the physical or mental health status of individuals in a variety of applications. Contributions focused on sensors, wearable hardware, algorithms, or integrated monitoring systems. We organized the different papers according to their contributions to the main aspects of the monitoring and control engineering scheme applied to human health applications, including papers focusing on measuring/sensing physiological variables, contributions describing research on the modelling of biological signals, papers highlighting health monitoring applications, and finally examples of control applications for human health. In comparison to biomedical engineering, the field of human health engineering also covers applications on healthy humans (e.g., sports, sleep, and stress) and thus not only contributes to develop technology for curing patients or supporting chronically ill people, but also more generally for disease prevention and optimizing human well-being.

Keywords

artefact correction --- head-shaped phantom --- spherical phantom --- gradient artefact --- simultaneous EEG–fMRI --- calcaneal spur --- pain minimum compressive pressure --- contour of shoe insole --- insole foot area --- health information --- interface formats --- older adults --- wearable devices --- usability --- emotional reaction --- ADHD --- screening --- machine learning --- SVM --- children --- novel --- nomophobia --- anxiety --- smartphone --- internet --- cyberaddiction --- new technologies --- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease --- COPD --- oxygen uptake --- VO2 --- kinetics --- exercise testing --- rehabilitation robotics --- soft walking assistive robot --- long-term effect --- gait characteristics --- elderly person --- blood pressure estimation --- photoplethysmogram --- pulse wave --- pulse oximeter --- wearable device --- Kano-TRIZ design theory --- quality function deployment --- four-wheeled rollator --- model predictive control --- orthosis control --- muscle modeling --- arm --- Hill muscle --- swarm optimization --- pneumatic artificial muscle --- sliding mode control --- fractional calculus --- antagonistic actuator --- weight loss --- mHealth --- dynamic model --- adaptive control --- spirometry --- airflow limitation --- airway resistance --- specific airway conductance --- COPD --- body-plethysmography --- forced expiration --- alveolar pressure --- emphysema --- computed tomography --- air-trapping --- thermal comfort --- bicycle helmet --- smart wearables --- adaptive model --- streaming data --- thermal sensation --- adaptive model --- personalized model --- machine leaning --- support-vector-machine --- adaptive control --- streaming algorithm --- thermoregulation --- homeostasis --- cold-induced-vasodilation --- cold-induced-vasoconstriction --- control system --- dynamic modelling --- powered mobility --- dyskinetic cerebral palsy --- dystonia --- choreoathetosis --- mobility scale --- movement disorder --- children --- youth --- reliability --- validity --- feature engineering --- intensive care unit --- mortality prediction --- hard-margin support vector machines --- driver drowsiness --- thermoregulation --- distal skin temperature --- decision tree --- heart model --- Van der Pol --- FitzHugh–Nagumo --- relaxation oscillator --- electrocardiographic signal --- bicycle helmets --- thermal manikin --- convective and evaporative heat loss --- zonal performance characteristics --- freestyle skiing aerials --- knee joint --- ligament --- finite element simulation --- lifting technique --- stoop --- squat --- work-related musculoskeletal disorders --- musculoskeletal modeling --- spine --- shoulder --- back loading --- harmonization --- meta-analysis --- missing data --- multiple imputations --- information technology --- remoteness --- cohort studies --- control parameter reference --- stance assistance --- magnetorheological brake --- body mass index --- walking speed --- ankle torque --- ankle angular velocity --- n/a

Additive Manufacturing: Alloy Design and Process Innovations

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039283521 / 9783039283538 Year: Pages: 372 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-353-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the manufacturing processes that warrants the attention of industrialists, researchers and scientists, because of its ability to produce materials with a complex shape without theoretical restrictions and with added functionalities. There are several advantages to employing additive manufacturing as the primary additive manufacturing process. However, there exist several challenges that need to be addressed systematically. A couple such issues are alloy design and process development. Traditionally alloys designed for conventional cast/powder metallurgical processes were fabricated using advanced AM processes. This is the wrong approach considering that the alloys should be coined based on the process characteristics and meta-stable nature of the process. Hence, we must focus on alloy design and development for AM that suits the AM processes. The AM processes, however, improve almost every day, either in terms of processing capabilities or processing conditions. Hence, the processing part warrants a section that is devoted to these advancements and innovations. Accordingly, the present Special Issue (book) focuses on two aspects of alloy development and process innovations. Here, 45 articles are presented covering different AM processes including selective laser melting, electron beam melting, laser cladding, direct metal laser sintering, ultrasonic consolidation, wire arc additive manufacturing, and hybrid manufacturing. I believe that this Special Issue bears is vital to the field of AM and will be a valuable addition.

Keywords

concrete --- slag --- valorization --- cement --- circular economy --- wire feeding additive manufacturing --- wire lateral feeding --- macro defects --- side spatters --- selective laser melting --- numerical analysis --- thermal behaviour --- AlSi10Mg alloy --- design --- disc brake --- 3D metal printing --- direct metal laser sintering --- thermal stress analysis --- radial grooves --- nickel alloys --- Hastelloy X alloy --- additive manufacturing --- microstructure --- scanning electron microscopy (SEM) --- laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) --- selective laser melting --- titanium alloy --- heat treatment --- microstructure --- microhardness measurement --- arc additive manufacturing --- Al–5Si alloy --- pulse frequency --- arc current --- microstructure --- porosity --- 2219 aluminum alloy --- constitutive model --- microstructural evolution --- continuous dynamic recrystallization --- hot deformation --- selective laser melting --- amorphous alloy --- finite element analysis --- residual stress --- 2219 aluminum alloy --- intermediate thermo-mechanical treatment --- storage energy --- CuAl2 phase --- grain refinement --- selective laser melting --- GH4169 --- temperature and stress fields --- simulation --- model --- selective laser melting --- divisional scanning --- residual stress --- deformation --- thermal conductivity --- tensile strength --- inoculation --- gray cast iron --- additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg --- Al6061 --- SLM process parameters --- performance characteristics --- AlSi10Mg --- multi-laser manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- microstructure --- mechanical property --- additive manufacturing --- metal powders --- powder flowability --- powder properties --- aluminum --- water absorption --- laser cladding deposition --- 12CrNi2 alloy steel powder --- substrate preheating --- microstructure and properties --- residual stress --- ultrafast laser --- femtosecond --- ablation --- scanning --- additive surface structuring --- hydrophobicity --- parts design --- additive manufacturing --- fused filament fabrication --- fatigue --- Taguchi --- ABS --- additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg --- Al6061 --- SLM process parameters --- quality of the as-built parts --- aluminum alloys --- selective laser melting (SLM) --- mechanical properties --- selective laser melting --- H13 tool steel --- process parameters --- scanning strategy --- support strategy --- porosity reduction --- selective laser melting --- Ti6Al4V alloy --- martensitic transformation --- texture evolution --- mechanical properties --- M300 mold steel --- elastic abrasive --- PSO-BP neural network algorithm --- parameter optimization --- WxNbMoTa --- refractory high-entropy alloy --- laser cladding deposition --- rapid solidification --- bulk metallic glasses --- selective laser melting --- Cu50Zr43Al7 --- mechanical properties --- Ti-6Al-4V --- wear --- additive manufacturing --- properties --- in-process temperature in MPBAM --- analytical modeling --- high computational efficiency --- molten pool evolution --- laser power absorption --- latent heat --- scanning strategy --- powder packing --- graphene nano-sheets (GNSs) --- epoxy solder --- intermetallic compound (IMC) --- laser powder bed fusion --- additive manufacturing --- aluminum --- composition --- mechanical properties --- localized inductive heating --- hot stamping steel blanks --- tailored properties --- magnetizer --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg alloy --- dynamic properties --- impact --- crystallographic texture --- Additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- volumetric heat source --- thermal capillary effects --- melt pool size --- selective laser melting --- Inconel 718 --- crystallographic texture --- subgranular dendrites --- epitaxial growth --- 3D printing --- continuous carbon fiber --- thermosetting epoxy resin --- mechanical properties --- Powder bed --- fatigue --- Hot Isostatic Pressure --- Electron Beam Melting --- stability lobe diagram --- milling --- process-damping --- dynamic characteristics --- thin-walled weak rigidity parts --- Al–Si --- selective laser melting (SLM) --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- selective laser melting --- microstructure --- defects --- Inconel 718 --- laser energy density --- selective laser melting --- molten pool dynamic behavior --- equivalent processing model --- workpiece scale --- nickel-based superalloy --- numerical simulation --- metallic glasses --- composite materials --- interfaces --- additive manufacturing --- ultrasonic bonding --- 3D printing --- Al–Mg–Si alloy --- quenching rate --- microstructures --- mechanical properties --- paint bake-hardening --- precipitates --- additive manufacturing --- powder bed fusion --- selective laser melting --- regular mixing --- ball milling --- flowability --- Ti-6Al-4V --- microstructure --- element segregation --- laves phase --- vanadium --- laser cladding --- arc additive manufacture --- Al–Mg alloy --- Mg content --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- n/a

Additive Manufacturing: Alloy Design and Process Innovations

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039284146 / 9783039284153 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-415-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

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Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the manufacturing processes that warrants the attention of industrialists, researchers and scientists, because of its ability to produce materials with a complex shape without theoretical restrictions and with added functionalities. There are several advantages to employing additive manufacturing as the primary additive manufacturing process. However, there exist several challenges that need to be addressed systematically. A couple such issues are alloy design and process development. Traditionally alloys designed for conventional cast/powder metallurgical processes were fabricated using advanced AM processes. This is the wrong approach considering that the alloys should be coined based on the process characteristics and meta-stable nature of the process. Hence, we must focus on alloy design and development for AM that suits the AM processes. The AM processes, however, improve almost every day, either in terms of processing capabilities or processing conditions. Hence, the processing part warrants a section that is devoted to these advancements and innovations. Accordingly, the present Special Issue (book) focuses on two aspects of alloy development and process innovations. Here, 45 articles are presented covering different AM processes including selective laser melting, electron beam melting, laser cladding, direct metal laser sintering, ultrasonic consolidation, wire arc additive manufacturing, and hybrid manufacturing. I believe that this Special Issue bears is vital to the field of AM and will be a valuable addition.

Keywords

concrete --- slag --- valorization --- cement --- circular economy --- wire feeding additive manufacturing --- wire lateral feeding --- macro defects --- side spatters --- selective laser melting --- numerical analysis --- thermal behaviour --- AlSi10Mg alloy --- design --- disc brake --- 3D metal printing --- direct metal laser sintering --- thermal stress analysis --- radial grooves --- nickel alloys --- Hastelloy X alloy --- additive manufacturing --- microstructure --- scanning electron microscopy (SEM) --- laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) --- selective laser melting --- titanium alloy --- heat treatment --- microstructure --- microhardness measurement --- arc additive manufacturing --- Al–5Si alloy --- pulse frequency --- arc current --- microstructure --- porosity --- 2219 aluminum alloy --- constitutive model --- microstructural evolution --- continuous dynamic recrystallization --- hot deformation --- selective laser melting --- amorphous alloy --- finite element analysis --- residual stress --- 2219 aluminum alloy --- intermediate thermo-mechanical treatment --- storage energy --- CuAl2 phase --- grain refinement --- selective laser melting --- GH4169 --- temperature and stress fields --- simulation --- model --- selective laser melting --- divisional scanning --- residual stress --- deformation --- thermal conductivity --- tensile strength --- inoculation --- gray cast iron --- additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg --- Al6061 --- SLM process parameters --- performance characteristics --- AlSi10Mg --- multi-laser manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- microstructure --- mechanical property --- additive manufacturing --- metal powders --- powder flowability --- powder properties --- aluminum --- water absorption --- laser cladding deposition --- 12CrNi2 alloy steel powder --- substrate preheating --- microstructure and properties --- residual stress --- ultrafast laser --- femtosecond --- ablation --- scanning --- additive surface structuring --- hydrophobicity --- parts design --- additive manufacturing --- fused filament fabrication --- fatigue --- Taguchi --- ABS --- additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg --- Al6061 --- SLM process parameters --- quality of the as-built parts --- aluminum alloys --- selective laser melting (SLM) --- mechanical properties --- selective laser melting --- H13 tool steel --- process parameters --- scanning strategy --- support strategy --- porosity reduction --- selective laser melting --- Ti6Al4V alloy --- martensitic transformation --- texture evolution --- mechanical properties --- M300 mold steel --- elastic abrasive --- PSO-BP neural network algorithm --- parameter optimization --- WxNbMoTa --- refractory high-entropy alloy --- laser cladding deposition --- rapid solidification --- bulk metallic glasses --- selective laser melting --- Cu50Zr43Al7 --- mechanical properties --- Ti-6Al-4V --- wear --- additive manufacturing --- properties --- in-process temperature in MPBAM --- analytical modeling --- high computational efficiency --- molten pool evolution --- laser power absorption --- latent heat --- scanning strategy --- powder packing --- graphene nano-sheets (GNSs) --- epoxy solder --- intermetallic compound (IMC) --- laser powder bed fusion --- additive manufacturing --- aluminum --- composition --- mechanical properties --- localized inductive heating --- hot stamping steel blanks --- tailored properties --- magnetizer --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg alloy --- dynamic properties --- impact --- crystallographic texture --- Additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- volumetric heat source --- thermal capillary effects --- melt pool size --- selective laser melting --- Inconel 718 --- crystallographic texture --- subgranular dendrites --- epitaxial growth --- 3D printing --- continuous carbon fiber --- thermosetting epoxy resin --- mechanical properties --- Powder bed --- fatigue --- Hot Isostatic Pressure --- Electron Beam Melting --- stability lobe diagram --- milling --- process-damping --- dynamic characteristics --- thin-walled weak rigidity parts --- Al–Si --- selective laser melting (SLM) --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- selective laser melting --- microstructure --- defects --- Inconel 718 --- laser energy density --- selective laser melting --- molten pool dynamic behavior --- equivalent processing model --- workpiece scale --- nickel-based superalloy --- numerical simulation --- metallic glasses --- composite materials --- interfaces --- additive manufacturing --- ultrasonic bonding --- 3D printing --- Al–Mg–Si alloy --- quenching rate --- microstructures --- mechanical properties --- paint bake-hardening --- precipitates --- additive manufacturing --- powder bed fusion --- selective laser melting --- regular mixing --- ball milling --- flowability --- Ti-6Al-4V --- microstructure --- element segregation --- laves phase --- vanadium --- laser cladding --- arc additive manufacture --- Al–Mg alloy --- Mg content --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- n/a

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