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Optimizing the Delivery of Multiple Ecosystem Goods and Services in Agricultural Systems

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452965 Year: Pages: 199 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-296-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Ecology --- Environmental Sciences --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Abstract

Agricultural land is subjected to a variety of societal pressures, as demands for food, animal feed, and biomass production increase, with an added requirement to simultaneously maintain natural areas and mitigate climatic and environmental impacts. The biotic elements of agricultural systems interact with the abiotic environment to generate a number of ecosystem functions that offer services benefiting humans across many scales of time and space. The intensification of agriculture generally reduces biodiversity including that within soil, and impacts negatively upon a number of regulating and supporting ecosystem services. There is a global need toward achieving sustainable agricultural systems, as also highlighted in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. There is hence a need for management regimes that enhance both agricultural production and the associated provision of multiple ecosystem services. The articles of this Research Topic enhance our knowledge of how management practices applied to agricultural systems affect the delivery of multiple ecosystem services and how trade-offs between provisioning, regulating, and supporting services can be handled both above- and below-ground. They also show the diversity of topics that need to be considered within the framework of ecosystem services delivered by agricultural systems, from knowledge on basic concepts and newly-proposed frameworks, to a focus on specific ecosystem types such as grasslands and high nature-value farmlands, pollinator habitats, and soil habitats. This diversity of topics indicates the need for broader-scope research, integrated with targeted scientific research to promote sustainable agricultural practices and to ensure food security.

Optimizing Miscanthus for the Sustainable Bioeconomy: From Genes to Products

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455669 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-566-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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In this Research Topic we report advances in fundamental and applied aspects of the perennial C4 bioenergy crop Miscanthus (Miscanthus spp.) and its role in mitigating climate change as part of the bioeconomy. Miscanthus is extremely well suited for bioenergy, biofuel and bioproduct production over a wide geographic area including Europe and North America as well as its native Asia.

Miscanthus offers a unique perspective within plant science: the challenge is to domesticate this novel crop for diverse environments and uses while simultaneously developing sustainable value chains to displace fossil fuels and contribute to climate change mitigation. Contributions to this Research Topic were offered from leading Miscanthus researchers from different parts of the world. We accepted 16 articles from 95 authors, which have generated 21,161 views at March 26 2018. Nine of the articles are the output of the European FP7 OPTIMISC project and describe multiple experiments investigating a common set of Miscanthus genotypes in Europe and Asia. These papers are complemented by seven additional articles from global authors, providing a comprehensive analysis of the state of the art of Miscanthus research and application.

Causes and Consequences of Species Diversity in Forest Ecosystems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213092 9783039213108 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-310-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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What are the causes and consequences of species diversity in forested ecosystems, and how is this species diversity being affected by rapid environmental and climatic change, movement of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores into new biogeographic regions, and expanding human populations and associated shifts in land-use patterns? In this book, we explore these questions for assemblages of forest trees, shrubs, and understory herbs at spatial scales ranging from small plots to large forest dynamics plots, at temporal scales ranging from seasons to centuries, in both temperate and tropical regions, and across rural-to-urban gradients in land use.

Keywords

Ericaceae --- variation partitioning --- climate --- species-area relationship --- mid-domain effect --- spatial patterns --- individual species-area relationship --- tropical evergreen mixed forest --- competition and facilitation --- Vietnam --- microarthropod --- diversity --- seasonal variations --- stand development --- biodiversity --- climate --- human footprint --- productivity --- topography --- USDA Forest Service --- herbaceous layer --- excess nitrogen --- canopy structure --- temperate forests --- Fagus sylvatica --- Pinus sylvestris --- Picea abies --- Pseudotsuga menziesii --- forest management --- tree species diversity --- forest conversion --- gamma diversity --- landscape scale --- Biodiversity Exploratories --- climate change --- temperature --- precipitation --- Hubbard Brook --- elevational shifts --- mountains --- species diversity --- structural complexity --- legacies --- wind damage --- uprooting --- trunk breakage --- understory plant communities --- natural disturbance-based silviculture --- forest management --- species conservation --- northern hardwood forests --- abundance --- Bray-Curtis --- codispersion analysis --- Smithsonian ForestGEO --- Shannon diversity --- Simpson diversity --- spatial analysis --- species richness --- windthrow --- tornado --- tree species --- disturbance severity --- tree regeneration --- salvaging --- salvage logging --- succession --- Climatic change --- species diversity --- potential habitats --- China --- Maxent --- Salicaceae --- herbaceous perennial species --- household respondents --- questionnaire survey --- species richness --- woody species --- temperate forests --- species richness --- assemblage lineage diversity --- phylogenetic diversity --- evolutionary diversity --- United States --- trees --- TILD

Sustainable Cropping Systems

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ISBN: 9783039289073 / 9783039289080 Year: Pages: 326 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-908-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Global crop production must substantially increase to meet the needs of a rapidly growing population. This is constrained by the availability of nutrients, water, and land. There is also an urgent need to reduce the negative environmental impacts of crop production. Collectively, these issues represent one of the greatest challenges of the twenty-first century. Sustainable cropping systems based on ecological principles are the core of integrated approaches to solve this critical challenge. This special issue provides an international basis for revealing the underlying mechanisms of sustainable cropping systems to drive agronomic innovations. It includes review and original research articles that report novel scientific findings on improvement in cropping systems related to crop yields and their resistance to biotic and abiotic stressors, resource use efficiency, environmental impact, sustainability, and ecosystem services.

Keywords

organic cropping system --- maize --- soybean --- wheat --- partial returns --- Zea mais L. --- Triticum aestivum L. --- Helianthus annuus L. --- organic fertilization --- mineral N fertilization --- protein crops --- systematic review --- Europe --- multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) --- potato (Solanum tuberosum) --- shade --- light --- yield --- growth --- quality --- cover crops --- agrobiodiversity --- conventionalization --- system approach --- harvesting strategies --- forage yield and quality --- forage sorghum --- pearl millet --- Texas High Plains --- kura clover --- living mulch --- cover crop --- perennial --- conservation --- nitrogen --- forage --- economics --- farmer’s perception --- maize --- push-pull technology --- stemborer --- no-tillage --- conservation agriculture --- durum wheat --- gluten fractions --- SDS-PAGE analysis --- leguminous cover crop --- vetch --- double cropping --- grain yield --- N uptake --- N use efficiency --- rice --- hierarchical patch dynamics --- cropping system design --- up-scaling --- vineyard system --- complexity --- organization --- cropping systems --- water --- nitrogen --- WHCNS --- scenario analyses --- maize production --- nitrogen use efficiency --- nitrogen nutrition --- Acidic soil --- crop rotation --- enzyme activities --- green manure --- sustainable yield index --- nutrient balance --- crop residue incorporation --- straw decomposition --- residue C and N release --- SOC and STN stocks --- cover crop --- manure --- nitrate --- nitrogen --- cereal rye --- maize --- no-tillage --- cover crop --- irrigation --- weed suppression --- gross margin --- faba bean --- forage pea --- fall grazing --- cover crop --- catch crop --- nutrient cycling --- cropping systems --- sustainable crop production --- agroecology --- nutrient use efficiency --- water use efficiency --- environmental quality

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