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Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783039280728 9783039280735 Year: Pages: 375 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-073-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Abstract

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a highly polymorphic and diverse multigene locus in all jawed vertebrate species that has an integral role in adaptive/innate immune systems, transplantation, and infectious and autoimmune diseases. The MHC supra-locus in mammalian vertebrates is usually partitioned into three distinct regions, known as classes I, II, and III, which, to varying extents, can be found conserved in nonmammalian jawed vertebrates, such as bony fish, amphibians, and bird lineages. The MHC gene region is characterized particularly by the expression of class I and class II glycoproteins that bind peptides derived from intracellular or extracellular antigens to circulating T-cells. While this expressed antigenic specificity remains the predominant interest with respect to MHC function and polymorphism in a population, a broader concept has emerged that examines the MHC as a multifunctional polymorphic controller that facilitates and regulates genome diversity with a much greater array of functions and effects than just MHC-restricted antigen recognition. This volume of 19 reprints presented by various experts and collected from the Special Issue of Cells on “MHC in Health and Disease” covers a broad range of topics on the genomic diversity of the MHC regulatory system in various vertebrate species, including MHC class I, II, and III genes; innate and adaptive immunity; neurology; transplantation; haplotypes; infectious and autoimmune diseases; fecundity; conservation; allelic lineages; and evolution. Taken together, these articles demonstrate the immense complexity and diversity of the MHC structure and function within and between different vertebrate species.

Keywords

MHC-I- and MHC-II-dependent inter-individual recognition --- MHC-II-associated sperm-egg recognition --- MHC-I-based mother-fetus recognition --- giant panda --- long-fragment super haplotype --- MHC --- genetic drift --- haplotype --- crested ibis --- founder effect --- bottleneck --- conservation genetics --- selection --- fish --- MHC --- polymorphism --- disease resistance --- quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies --- evolution --- HCP5 --- lncRNA --- MHC --- HLA --- human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) --- cancer --- autoimmune diseases --- competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) --- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) --- human papillomavirus (HPV) --- astrogliosis --- PNS/CNS interface --- microglial reaction --- synaptic covering --- ?2m knockout mice --- HLA-B27 --- viral peptides --- computational analysis --- ankylosing spondylitis --- KIR --- KIR–HLA pairs --- ethnic populations in China --- molecular dynamics simulation --- major histocompatibility complex --- antigen --- T-cell receptor --- domain movements --- autoimmunity --- risk genes --- expression --- regulation --- swine leukocyte antigen --- reproductive performance --- production trait --- haplotype --- micro-mini-pigs --- disease association --- haplotype --- HLA polymorphism --- major histocompatibility complex (MHC) --- pedigree --- phase --- protocol --- single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) --- T1DGC --- type 1 diabetes (T1D) --- BK virus --- polyomavirus --- nephropathy --- human leukocyte antigen-E --- kidney transplantation --- MHC --- ancestral haplotype --- autoimmune disease --- cynomolgus macaque --- Macaca fascicularis --- MHC polymorphism --- experimental medicine --- nonhuman primate models --- DXO --- DOM3Z --- NELF-E --- RD --- SKIV2L --- SKI2W --- STK19 --- RP1 --- NSDK --- RLR --- miR1236 --- SVA --- RNA quality control --- 5??3? RNA decay --- 3??5? mRNA turnover --- antiviral immunity --- interferon ? --- promoter-proximal transcriptional pause --- exosomes --- nuclear kinase --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- Ski complex --- trichohepatoenteric syndrome --- melanoma --- major histocompatibility complex --- MHC --- evolution --- nonclassical --- fish --- MHC genes --- birds --- disease resistance --- orthology --- life history --- gene duplication --- long-read sequencing --- high-throughput sequencing --- concerted evolution --- ecology --- MHC --- major histocompatibility complex --- Old World camels --- camels --- dromedary --- Bactrian camel --- SNP --- n/a

Molecular Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology of Crop Plants Breeding

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ISBN: 9783039288779 / 9783039288786 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-878-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Abstract

This Special Issue on molecular genetics, genomics, and biotechnology in crop plant breeding seeks to encourage the use of the tools currently available. It features nine research papers that address quality traits, grain yield, and mutations by exploring cytoplasmic male sterility, the delicate control of flowering in rice, the removal of anti-nutritional factors, the use and development of new technologies for non-model species marker technology, site-directed mutagenesis and GMO regulation, genomics selection and genome-wide association studies, how to cope with abiotic stress, and an exploration of fruit trees adapted to harsh environments for breeding purposes. A further four papers review the genetics of pre-harvest spouting, readiness for climate-smart crop development, genomic selection in the breeding of cereal crops, and the large numbers of mutants in straw lignin biosynthesis and deposition.

Keywords

phloem metabolites --- electrospray ionisation --- mass spectrometry --- cultivar --- quality groups --- nitrogen --- faba bean --- zt-1 --- linkage map --- SSR --- ISSR --- Brassica napus --- GmDof4 --- GmDof11 --- oleic acid --- fatty acid composition --- differentially expressed genes --- drought --- RNA-seq --- RNA editing --- wheat --- climate change --- mapping populations --- genetic resources --- mutation breeding --- genome editing --- new plant breeding techniques --- “omics” data --- bioinformatics --- rice --- CRISPR/Cas9 --- Wx --- TGW6 --- mutations --- maintainer --- cytoplasmic male sterile --- amylose content --- anther --- protein --- cytoplasmic male sterility --- fertility restoration --- sunflower --- Rf1 gene --- GWAS --- Pentatricopeptide Repeats --- PPR genes --- association mapping --- candidate genes --- gene mapping --- lodicule --- non-open hull 1(noh1) --- rice --- crops --- quantitative genetics --- estimated breeding value --- genomic prediction --- plant breeding --- breeding scheme --- pedigree --- genetic value --- wheat --- pre-harvest sprouting --- seed dormancy --- abscisic acid --- gibberellin --- QTL/genes --- brown midrib --- cell wall --- gold hull and internode --- grass family --- lignin --- monolignol pathway --- mutational breeding --- orange lemma --- transgenic cereals --- SNP --- SSR --- next generation sequencing --- genotyping by sequencing --- Japanese plum --- SSR --- diversity --- genetic structure --- candidate genes --- genomic selection --- mutants --- ddRAD sequencing --- genotyping-by-sequencing --- CRISPR/Cas9 site directed mutagenesis --- genome-wide association scan --- genetic modification --- F1 hybrids --- QTL

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2020 (2)