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The Low-Density University

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ISBN: 9781421440989 Year: Pages: 185 DOI: 10.1353/book.77218 Language: English
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-03 09:57:48
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COVID-19 triggered an existential crisis for American higher education. Faced with few safe choices, most colleges and universities switched to remote learning during the 2020 spring semester. The future, however, provides more choices about how institutions can fulfill their mission of teaching and research. But how do we begin to make decisions in an uncertain and shifting environment? In this concise guide, authors Edward J. Maloney and Joshua Kim lay out clear ways colleges and universities can move forward in safe and effective ways. The Low-Density University presents fifteen scenarios for how colleges and universities can address the current crisis from a fully online semester to others with students in residence and in the classroom. How can changing the calendar or shifting to hybrid models of blended classrooms impact teaching, learning, and the college experience? Could we emerge from this crisis with new models that are better and more adapted to today's world? The Low-Density University focuses primarily on teaching and learning, but student life (housing, athletics, health, etc.) are core to the college experience. Can we devise safe and effective ways to preserve the best of that experience? The lessons here extend beyond the classroom. Just as the pandemic will change American higher education, the choices we make now will change what college looks like for generations to come.

Ecology, Virulence and Detection of Pathogenic and Pandemic Vibrio Parahaemolyticus

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199129 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-912-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram negative, halophilic bacterium that occurs in the coastal and estuarine environments worldwide and is implicated in several cases of seafood-born gastroenteritis around the globe. However, not all strains of V. parahaemolyticus are pathogenic. Clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus most often produce either the thermostable direct haemolysin (TDH) or TDH-related haemolysin (TRH) encoded by tdh and trh genes, respectively. A pandemic clone of O3:K6 which was first detected in Kolkata (India), has been responsible for many outbreaks in Asia and the USA. With the emergence of pandemic clone of V. parahaemolyticus, this organism has assumed significance. Although most of the V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks are invariably related to seafood consumption, pathogenic strains are rarely isolated from seafood. Virulent strains producing TDH or TRH and the pandemic clone, which is responsible for most of the outbreaks (that have occurred after 1996) have been rarely isolated from seafood and other environmental samples. This could be due to the occurrence of pathogenic strains in the estuarine environment at a lower level compared to non-pathogenic strains. Another reason can be that the pathogenic stains are more sensitive to dystropic conditions in the aquatic environment and rapidly become non-culturable. Similarity in growth kinetics between virulent and non-virulent strains also made the isolation of virulent strains from the aquatic environment difficult. Several studies were done to determine the factors responsible for an increased virulence and persistance of pandemic clone. However, none of those studies were conclusive. Several researchers have proposed various genetic markers for specific detection of pandemic clone of V. parahaemolyticus. But many of those genetic markers were found to be unreliable. Recently, seven genomic islands (VPaI-1 to VPaI-7) unique to pandemic clone were identified. This Research Topic is dedicated to improve our current understanding of ecology, pathogenesis and detection of pathogenic and pandemic clone of V. parahaemolyticus, and will also strive to identify areas of future development.

COVID-19 and World Order

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781421440750 Year: Pages: 455 DOI: 10.1353/book.77593 Language: English
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-03 09:57:48
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The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has killed hundreds of thousands of people and infected millions while also devastating the world economy. The consequences of the pandemic, however, go much further: they threaten the fabric of national and international politics around the world. As Henry Kissinger warned, ""The coronavirus epidemic will forever alter the world order."" What will be the consequences of the pandemic, and what will a post-COVID world order look like? No institution is better suited to address these issues than Johns Hopkins University, which has convened experts from within and outside of the university to discuss world order after COVID-19. In a series of essays, international experts in public health and medicine, economics, international security, technology, ethics, democracy, and governance imagine a bold new vision for our future.

COVID-19 in the Global South

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781529215885 9781529217278 Year: Pages: 219 Language: English
Publisher: Bristol University Press
Subject: History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2020-11-19 00:25:17
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"Available Open Access under CC-BY-NC-ND licence. Bringing together a range of experts across various sectors, this important volume explores some of the key issues that have arisen in the Global South with the COVID-19 pandemic. Situating the worldwide health crisis within broader processes of globalisation, the book investigates implications for development and gender, as well as the effects on migration, climate change and economic inequality. Contributors consider how widespread and long-lasting responses to the pandemic should be, while paying particular attention to the accentuated risks faced by vulnerable populations. Providing answers that will be essential to development practitioners and policy makers, the book offers vital insights into how the impact of COVID-19 can be mitigated in some of the most challenging socio-economic contexts worldwide. "

Dull Disasters? How planning ahead will make a difference

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ISBN: 9780198785576 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198785576.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: World Bank Group
Subject: Economics --- Social and Public Welfare --- Social Sciences --- History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2016-07-14 11:01:15
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Economic losses from disasters are now reaching an average of US$250–$300 billion a year. In the last 20 years, more than 530,000 people died as a direct result of extreme weather events; millions more were seriously injured. Most of the deaths and serious injuries were in developing countries. Meanwhile, highly infectious diseases will continue to emerge or re-emerge, and natural hazards will not disappear. But these extreme events do not need to turn into large-scale disasters. Better and faster responses are possible. The authors contend that even though there is much generosity in the world to support the responses to and recovery from natural disasters, the current funding model, based on mobilizing financial resources after disasters take place, is flawed and makes responses late, fragmented, unreliable, and poorly targeted, while providing poor incentives for preparedness or risk reduction. The way forward centres around reforming the funding model for disasters, moving towards plans with simple rules for early action and that are locked in before disasters through credible funding strategies—all while resisting the allure of post-disaster discretionary funding and the threat it poses for those seeking to ensure that disasters have a less severe impact.

Vitamin D and Human Health

ISBN: 9783038420569 9783038420576 Year: Pages: 476 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 08:50:54
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Vitamin D research has expanded greatly over the last 10 years, with a more than two-fold increase in annual publications listed in Pubmed with the key word ‘vitamin D’ from 1675 in 2005 to 3953 in 2014. Part of this increase is due to research showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a wide range of diseases and health outcomes. Until the 1980s, the primary focus of vitamin D research (in combination with calcium supplementation) was on bone diseases. Since then, observational studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with increased risk of many diseases: both acute and chronic. This book contains publications on several of these disease groups linked to vitamin D deficiency.

One Health and Zoonoses

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ISBN: 9783039212958 9783039212965 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-296-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The One Health concept recognizes that the health of humans, animals, and their ecosystems are interconnected, and that a coordinated, collaborative, multidisciplinary, and cross-sectoral approach is necessary to fully understand and respond to potential or existing risks that originate at the animal–human–ecosystems interfaces. Thus, the One Health concept represents a holistic vision for addressing some of the complex challenges that threaten human and animal health, food safety, and the environments in which diseases flourish. There are many examples showing how the health of humans is related to the health of animals and the environment. Diseases shared between humans and animals are zoonoses. Some zoonoses have been known for many years, whereas others have emerged suddenly and unexpectedly. Over 70% of all new emerging diseases over the past few decades have been zoonoses that have emerged from wildlife, most often from bats, rodents, or birds. Examples of zoonoses are many and varied, ranging from rabies to bovine tuberculosis, and from Japanese encephalitis to SARS. Clearly, a One Health approach is essential for understanding their ecology, and for outbreak response and the development of control strategies. However, the One Health concept and approach is much broader than zoonoses; it extends to including antimicrobial resistance, food safety, and environmental health and, consequently, impacts on global health security, economic wellbeing, and international trade. It is this breadth of One Health that connects the papers in this Special Issue.

Influenza Virus and Vaccination

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039288175 / 9783039288182 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-818-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The influenza virus poses a threat to human health and is responsible for global epidemics every year. In addition to seasonal infections, influenza can cause occasional pandemics of great consequence when novel viruses are introduced into humans. Despite the implementation of comprehensive vaccination programs, influenza viruses continue to pose an important and unpredictable global public health threat. They are one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality each year and have a significant economic impact. In recent years, research has been conducted to find alternative approaches to influenza vaccine development, including the generation of universal vaccines. Notably, significant progress in the field of influenza infection, transmission, and immunity have contributed to our understanding of influenza biology, and to expanding the technological approaches for the generation of more efficient strategies against influenza infections. Moreover, highly remarkable developments have been made in the implementation of new methodologies to evaluate the efficiency of vaccines and improve them for use on domestic animals such as poultry, horses, dogs or pigs. This enables us to decrease the exposure of humans to potentially pandemic viruses. The articles in this Special Issue will address the importance of influenza to human health and the advances in influenza research that have led to the development of better therapeutics and vaccination strategies.

Human Mobility, Spatiotemporal Context, and Environmental Health: Recent Advances in Approaches and Methods

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ISBN: 9783039211838 9783039211845 Year: Pages: 382 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-184-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Environmental health researchers have long used concepts like the neighborhood effect to assessing people’s exposure to environmental influences and the associated health impact. However, these are static notions that ignore people’s daily mobility at various spatial and temporal scales (e.g., daily travel, migratory movements, and movements over the life course) and the influence of neighborhood contexts outside their residential neighborhoods. Recent studies have started to incorporate human mobility, non-residential neighborhoods, and the temporality of exposures through collecting and using data from GPS, accelerometers, mobile phones, various types of sensors, and social media. Innovative approaches and methods have been developed. This Special Issue aims to showcase studies that use new approaches, methods, and data to examine the role of human mobility and non-residential contexts on human health behaviors and outcomes. It includes 21 articles that cover a wide range of topics, including individual exposure to air pollution, exposure and access to green spaces, spatial access to healthcare services, environmental influences on physical activity, food environmental and diet behavior, exposure to noise and its impact on mental health, and broader methodological issues such as the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) and the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP). This collection will be a valuable reference for scholars and students interested in recent advances in the concepts and methods in environmental health and health geography.

Keywords

obesity --- built environment --- activity space --- regression analysis --- UGCoP --- foodscape exposure --- activity space --- commuting route --- space-time kernel density estimation --- time-weighted exposure --- Beijing --- cycling for transportation --- bike paths --- train stations --- subway stations --- adults --- Brazil --- fuel consumption --- emissions estimation --- GPS trace --- big data --- air pollution exposure --- human mobility --- mobile phone data --- dynamic assessment --- GIS --- GPS --- activity space --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- noise pollution --- mental disorders --- built environment --- multilevel model --- China --- PM concentrations --- crop residue burning --- correlation analysis --- interannual and seasonal variations --- China --- the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP) --- human mobility --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- UGCoP --- car ownership --- car use --- built environment --- spatial autocorrelation --- multilevel Bayesian model --- geographical accessibility --- Healthcare services --- GIS --- E2SFCA --- CHAS --- Singapore --- environmental health --- food environment --- environmental context cube --- environmental context exposure index --- the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) --- GPS --- GIS --- healthcare accessibility --- catchment areas --- access probability --- taxi GPS trajectories --- E2SFCA --- greenspace exposure --- health --- human mobility --- physical activity --- structural equation modeling --- Guangzhou --- healthcare accessibility --- population demand --- geographic impedance --- the elderly --- urban planning --- 3SFCA --- real-time traffic --- crowdedness --- well-being experience --- long-distance walking --- collective leisure activity --- walking event --- urban leisure --- missing data --- spatial data --- imputation --- geographic imputation --- activity space --- ecological momentary assessment --- EMA --- walking --- active travel --- ageing --- physical environment --- personal projects --- activity space --- Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) --- spatial accessibility --- multimodal network --- primary healthcare --- China --- 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic --- transport modes --- rail travel --- spatial spread --- quantile regression --- green space --- road traffic accidents --- cognitive aging --- activity space --- life-course perspectives --- environmental exposures

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