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Book Series: Routledge Contemporary China Series ISBN: 9780203967690 9780415770859 9780415651622 9781135985271 9781135985264 9781135985226 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203967690 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Biology --- Social and Public Welfare --- Sociology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:13
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SARS (Acute Respiratory Syndrome) first presented itself to the global medical community as a case of atypical pneumonia in one small Chinese village in November 2002. Three months later the mysterious illness rapidly spread and appeared in Vietnam, Hong Kong, Toronto and then Singapore. The high fatality rate and sheer speed at which this disease spread prompted the World Health Organization to initiate a medieval practice of quarantine in the absence of any scientific knowledge of the disease. Now three years on from the initital outbreak, SARS poses no major threat and has vanished from the global media. Written by a team of contributors from a wide variety of disciplines, this book investigates the rise and subsequent decline of SARS in Hong Kong, mainland China and Taiwan. Multidisciplinary in its approach, SARS explores the epidemic from the perspectives of cultural geography, media studies and popular culture, and raises a number of important issues such as the political fate of the new democracy, spatial governance and spatial security, public health policy making, public culture formation, the role the media play in social crisis, and above all the special relations between the three countries in the context of globalization and crisis. It provides new and profound insights into what is still a highly topical issue in today’s world.

Keywords

outbreak --- patient --- virus --- atypical --- pneumonia --- crisis --- hong --- kong --- jiang --- yanyong

Emerging Approaches for Typing, Detection, Characterization, and Traceback of Escherichia coli

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451357 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-135-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains cause a large number of diseases in humans, including diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, urinary tract infections, and neonatal meningitis, while in animals they cause diseases such as calf scours and mastitis in cattle, post-weaning diarrhea and edema disease in pigs, and peritonitis and airsacculitis in chickens. The different E. coli pathotypes are characterized by the presence of specific sets of virulence-related genes. Therefore, it is not surprising that pathogenic E. coli constitutes a genetically heterogeneous family of bacteria, and they are continuing to evolve. Rapid and accurate molecular methods are critically needed to detect and trace pathogenic E. coli in food and animals. They are also needed for epidemiological investigations to enhance food safety, as well as animal and human health and to minimize the size and geographical extent of outbreaks. The serotype of E. coli strains has traditionally been determined using antisera raised against the >180 different O- (somatic) and 53 H- (flagellar) antigens. However, there are many problems associated with serotyping, including: it is labor-intensive and time consuming; cross reactivity of the antisera with different serogroups occurs; antisera are available only in specialized laboratories; and many strains are non-typeable. Molecular serotyping targeting O-group-specific genes within the E. coli O-antigen gene clusters and genes that are involved in encoding for the different flagellar types offers an improved approach for determining the E. coli O- and H-groups. Furthermore, molecular serotyping can be coupled with determination of specific sets of virulence genes carried by the strain offering the possibility to determine O-group, pathotype, and the pathogenic potential simultaneously. Sequencing of the O-antigen gene clusters of all of the known O-groups of E. coli is now complete, and the sequences have been deposited in the GenBank database. The sequence information has revealed that some E. coli serogroups have identical sequences while others have point mutations or insertion sequences and type as different serogroups in serological reactions. There are also a number of other ambiguities in serotyping that need to be resolved. Furthermore, new E. coli O-groups are being identified. Therefore, there is an essential need to resolve these issues and to revise the E. coli serotype nomenclature based on these findings. There are emerging technologies that can potentially be applied for molecular serotyping and detection and characterization of E. coli. On a related topic, the genome sequence of thousands of E. coli strains have been deposited in GenBank, and this information is revealing unique markers such as CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and virulence gene markers that could be used to identify E. coli pathotypes. Whole genome sequencing now provides the opportunity to study the role of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution and emergence of pathogenic E. coli strains. Whole genome sequencing approaches are being investigated for genotyping and outbreak investigation for regulatory and public health needs; however, there is a need for establishing bioinformatics pipelines able to handle large amounts of data as we move toward the use of genetic approaches for non-culture-based detection and characterization of E. coli and for outbreak investigations.

Emerging Approaches for Typing, Detection, Characterization, and Traceback of Escherichia coli, 2nd Edition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454334 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-433-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains cause a large number of diseases in humans, including diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, urinary tract infections, and neonatal meningitis, while in animals they cause diseases such as calf scours and mastitis in cattle, post-weaning diarrhea and edema disease in pigs, and peritonitis and airsacculitis in chickens. The different E. coli pathotypes are characterized by the presence of specific sets of virulence-related genes. Therefore, it is not surprising that pathogenic E. coli constitutes a genetically heterogeneous family of bacteria, and they are continuing to evolve. Rapid and accurate molecular methods are critically needed to detect and trace pathogenic E. coli in food and animals. They are also needed for epidemiological investigations to enhance food safety, as well as animal and human health and to minimize the size and geographical extent of outbreaks. The serotype of E. coli strains has traditionally been determined using antisera raised against the >180 different O- (somatic) and 53 H- (flagellar) antigens. However, there are many problems associated with serotyping, including: it is labor-intensive and time consuming; cross reactivity of the antisera with different serogroups occurs; antisera are available only in specialized laboratories; and many strains are non-typeable. Molecular serotyping targeting O-group-specific genes within the E. coli O-antigen gene clusters and genes that are involved in encoding for the different flagellar types offers an improved approach for determining the E. coliO- and H-groups. Furthermore, molecular serotyping can be coupled with determination of specific sets of virulence genes carried by the strain offering the possibility to determine O-group, pathotype, and the pathogenic potential simultaneously. Sequencing of the O-antigen gene clusters of all of the known O-groups of E. coli is now complete, and the sequences have been deposited in the GenBank database. The sequence information has revealed that some E. coli serogroups have identical sequences while others have point mutations or insertion sequences and type as different serogroups in serological reactions. There are also a number of other ambiguities in serotyping that need to be resolved. Furthermore, new E. coli O-groups are being identified. Therefore, there is an essential need to resolve these issues and to revise the E. coli serotype nomenclature based on these findings. There are emerging technologies that can potentially be applied for molecular serotyping and detection and characterization of E. coli. On a related topic, the genome sequence of thousands of E. coli strains have been deposited in GenBank, and this information is revealing unique markers such as CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and virulence gene markers that could be used to identify E. coli pathotypes. Whole genome sequencing now provides the opportunity to study the role of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution and emergence of pathogenic E. coli strains. Whole genome sequencing approaches are being investigated for genotyping and outbreak investigation for regulatory and public health needs; however, there is a need for establishing bioinformatics pipelines able to handle large amounts of data as we move toward the use of genetic approaches for non-culture-based detection and characterization of E. coli and for outbreak investigations.

Marine Biotoxins and Seafood Poisoning

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ISBN: 9783039218189 9783039218196 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-819-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Marine biotoxins may pose a threat to the human consumption of seafood and seafood products. The increasing global trade and higher demand for seafood products worldwide represents a challenge for food safety authorities, policy makers, food business operators, and the scientific community, in particular, researchers devoted to environmental sciences, toxicology, and analytical chemistry. In addition, due to changes in climate conditions and technological developments, new and emerging marine toxins are being detected in regions where they were previously unknown. This Special Issue highlight studies aiming to the develop detection methods for marine biotoxins for better understanding the dynamics of accumulation/elimination of marine biotoxins and their effects on marine organisms, as well as toxin exposure studies that aim to evaluate the risks associated with the consumption of contaminated seafood.

Environmental Enrichment of Pigs

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ISBN: 9783039280780 9783039280797 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-079-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Pigs have a strong motivation to explore and root. In conventional pig husbandry systems, this need is difficult to fulfil, unless adequate enrichment materials are provided. This book summarises how enrichment strategies for pigs have evolved over the last few decades in different countries and provides a vast array of possibilities to enhance the exploratory needs of pigs. The role of enrichment material on avoidance of tail biting outbreaks or as an element triggering positive emotions in pigs is also discussed.

Skin-Related Neglected Tropical Diseases (Skin-NTDs)—A New Challenge

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ISBN: 9783039212538 9783039212545 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-254-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue explores the range of clinical manifestations and epidemiology of both skin NTDs and common skin disease in endemic regions, the use of common diagnostic and management pathways, the different technologies that play a role in diagnosis and training, the role of patient involvement at a community level, as well as the assessment of the results of different initiatives in the field.

Keywords

Mycobacterium ulcerans --- animal reservoir --- transmission --- scabies --- Cushing syndrome --- iatrogenic --- topical corticosteroids --- teledermatology --- eHealth --- mHealth --- long range diagnosis --- dermatology --- telepathology --- technology --- skin disease --- podoconiosis --- lymphedema --- neglected tropical diseases --- NTDs --- mental health --- community engagement --- patient involvement --- stigma --- teledermatology --- Africa --- primary health care --- skin diseases --- tele-expertise --- yaws --- Treponema pallidum --- onchodermatitis --- onchocercal skin disease --- onchocerciasis --- ivermectin --- mycetoma --- clinical presentation --- review --- scabies --- neglected tropical diseases --- impetigo --- mass drug administration --- ivermectin --- integration --- neglected tropical diseases --- disease mapping --- mass drug administration --- morbidity management --- skin diseases --- mobile phone application --- NTDs --- dermatology --- mHealth --- leprosy --- leprosy --- leprosy diagnosis --- PCR --- slit skin smears --- point of care test --- skin biopsy --- early diagnosis --- scabies --- outbreak --- drought --- emergency state --- scabies --- diagnosis --- digital handheld microscope --- resource-poor setting --- Amerindian communities --- Amazon lowland --- case management --- integration --- mass drug administration --- neglected tropical diseases --- skin infections --- skin NTDs --- surveillance --- training --- tropical skin diseases --- n/a --- Mite-Gallery Unit (MGU) --- Entodermoscopy (EDS) --- Dry Dermatoscopy (d-DS) --- Wet Dermatoscopy (w-DS) --- Enhanced Dermatoscopy (e-DS) --- subcutaneous mycosis --- actinomycetoma --- eumycetoma --- sporotrichosis Community dermatology

Equine Viruses

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ISBN: 9783039283200 / 9783039283217 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-321-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has recently estimated that the world equid population exceeds 110 million. Working equids (horses, ponies, donkeys, and mules) remain essential to ensure the livelihood of poor communities around the world. In many developed countries, the equine industry has significant economical weight, with around 7 million horses in Europe alone. The close relationship between humans and equids and the fact that the athlete horse is the terrestrial mammal that travels the most worldwide after humans are important elements to consider in the transmission of pathogens and diseases, amongst equids and to other species. The potential effect of climate change on vector ecology and vector-borne diseases is also of concern for both human and animal health. In this Special Issue, we intend to explore our understanding of a panel of equine viruses, looking at their pathogenicity, their importance in terms of welfare and potential association with diseases, their economic importance and impact on performance, and how their identification can be helped by new technologies and methods.

Keywords

equine papillomaviruses --- horse --- genital wart --- phylogeny --- evolution --- Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus --- vaccine --- strain selection --- Animal Rule --- cDNA cloned virus --- virus stock propagation --- African horse sickness --- virus structure --- replication --- vaccine strategies --- Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 --- horse --- PCR --- sequencing --- ORF30 --- ORF33 --- ORF34 --- ORF68 --- equine herpesvirus type 1 --- outbreak --- respiratory disease --- abortion --- neuropathogenic strain --- myeloencephalopathy --- phylogeny --- ORF30 --- MLST --- Parvoviridae --- Eqcopivirus --- horse parvovirus-CSF --- equine hepacivirus --- equine parvovirus H --- bosavirus --- virome --- equine coronavirus --- Ireland --- enteric disease --- equine rhinitis virus A --- Thoroughbred racehorses --- loss of performance --- equine parvovirus-hepatitis --- Germany --- risk factors --- transmission --- arbovirus --- flavivirus --- hematophagous arthropod --- hepacivirus A --- hepatitis --- insects --- mosquito-borne virus --- virus transmission --- equine coronavirus --- spike S1 protein --- ELISA --- virus neutralization --- seroprevalence --- MxA --- equine Mx1 --- influenza A viruses --- polymerase activity --- interspecies transmission --- nucleoprotein --- equine influenza --- non-primate hepacivirus --- equine hepacivirus --- in utero transmission --- horse --- fetuses --- encephalitis --- arbovirus --- rabies --- Equid herpesviruses --- Borna disease virus --- West Nile virus --- horses --- n/a

Drinking Water Quality and Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977261 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-727-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The quality of drinking water is paramount for public health. Despite important improvements in the last decades, access to safe drinking water is not universal. The World Health Organization estimates that almost 10% of the population in the world do not have access to improved drinking water sources. Among other diseases, waterborne infections cause diarrhea, which kills nearly one million people every year, mostly children under 5 years of age. On the other hand, chemical pollution is a concern in high-income countries and an increasing problem in low- and middle-income countries. Exposure to chemicals in drinking water may lead to a range of chronic non-communicable diseases (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease), adverse reproductive outcomes, and effects on children’s health (e.g., neurodevelopment), among other health effects. Although drinking water quality is regulated and monitored in many countries, increasing knowledge leads to the need for reviewing standards and guidelines on a nearly permanent basis, both for regulated and newly identified contaminants. Drinking water standards are mostly based on animal toxicity data, and more robust epidemiologic studies with accurate exposure assessment are needed. The current risk assessment paradigm dealing mostly with one-by-one chemicals dismisses the potential synergisms or interactions from exposures to mixtures of contaminants, particularly at the low-exposure range. Thus, evidence is needed on exposure and health effects of mixtures of contaminants in drinking water. Finally, water stress and water quality problems are expected to increase in the coming years due to climate change and increasing water demand by population growth, and new evidence is needed to design appropriate adaptation policies.This Special Issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) focuses on the current state of knowledge on the links between drinking water quality and human health.

Keywords

Vibrio pathogens --- rural water resources --- public health --- sub-Saharan Africa --- diarrhoeal disease --- HWTS implementation --- water and sanitation --- drinking water guidance --- infant exposure --- chemical risk assessment --- duration extrapolation --- acute gastroenteritis --- risk --- tap water --- time series study --- turbidity --- urban area --- water operation data --- THMs --- cancer --- effect measure modification --- drinking water --- drinking water --- exposure assessment --- sodium --- potassium --- magnesium --- calcium --- spatial variations --- Denmark --- water safety plans --- drinking water quality --- risk management --- impact assessment --- Asia-Pacific region --- diarrhea --- fever --- cough --- Nigeria --- infant health --- drinking water --- inorganic manganese --- health-based guideline --- infants --- pharmaceuticals --- human health --- environment --- drug labels --- screening method --- LTD --- uncertainty factors --- risk assessment --- risk context --- biomonitoring --- dental health --- drinking water --- fluoride --- pharmacokinetic modeling --- waterborne disease outbreak --- simulation study --- health insurance data --- space–time detection --- drinking water --- nitrate --- cancer --- adverse reproductive outcomes --- methemoglobinemia --- thyroid disease --- endogenous nitrosation --- N-nitroso compounds --- E. coli --- monitoring --- drinking water --- water safety plan --- sanitary inspection --- gravity-fed piped water scheme --- risk management --- chlorination by-product --- France --- environmental exposure --- organic matter --- tap water --- trihalomethanes --- private wells --- groundwater --- drinking water --- animal feeding operation --- fecal coliforms --- enterococci --- E. coli --- Maryland --- nitrite --- disinfection by-product --- drinking water distribution systems --- seasonality --- atrazine --- community water system --- low birth weight --- preterm birth --- small for gestational age --- water contamination --- endocrine disruptor --- drinking water --- radioactivity --- annual effective dose --- carcinogenic --- chronic kidney disease --- end-stage renal disease --- water contaminants --- zinc --- ammonia --- chemical oxygen demand --- dissolved oxygen --- arsenic

Family Iridoviridae Molecular and Ecological Studies of a Family Infecting Invertebrates and Ectothermic Vertebrates

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039215164 9783039215171 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-517-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Ranaviruses and other viruses within the family Iridoviridae, infect a wide range of ecologically and commercially important ectothermic vertebrates, i.e., bony fish, amphibians, and reptiles, and invertebrates, including agricultural and medical pests and cultured shrimp and crayfish, and are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. Understanding the impact of these various agents on diverse host species requires the combined efforts of ecologists, veterinarians, pathologists, comparative immunologists and molecular virologists. Unfortunately, investigators involved in these studies often work in discipline-specific silos that preclude interaction with others whose insights and approaches are required to comprehensively address problems related to ranavirus/iridovirus disease. Our intent here is to breakdown these silos and provide a forum where diverse researchers with a common interest in ranavirus/iridovirus biology can profitably interact. As a colleague once quipped, “Three people make a genius.” We are hoping to do something along those lines by presenting a collection of research articles dealing with issues of anti-viral immunity, identification of a potentially novel viral genus exemplified by erythrocytic necrosis virus, viral inhibition of innate immunity, identification of novel hosts for lymphocystivirus and invertebrate iridoviruses, and modelling studies of ranavirus transmission. Collectively these and others will exemplify the breadth of ongoing studies focused on this virus family.

Keywords

amphibians --- histopathology --- immunohistochemistry --- Mexico --- outbreak --- ranavirus --- risk assessment --- Iridoviridae --- frog virus 3 --- FV3 --- ranavirus --- immunofluorescence --- intracellular localization --- iridovirus --- ranavirus --- epidemiology --- antibody --- ELISA --- virus isolation --- prevalence --- native-fish conservation --- biosecurity --- endemic disease --- Unconventional T cell --- nonclassical MHC --- antiviral immunity --- interferon --- DIV1 --- SHIV --- CQIV --- Macrobrachium rosenbergii --- Macrobrachium nipponense --- Procambarus clarkii --- white head --- susceptible species --- viral load --- erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) --- viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) --- Pacific salmon --- Pacific herring --- British Columbia --- SHIV --- DIV1 --- Decapodiridovirus --- Exopalaemon carinicauda --- susceptibility --- host --- ISDL --- amphibian --- Ranavirus --- frog virus 3 --- mathematical models --- Bayesian inference --- viral immune evasion --- immunomodulators --- NF-?B --- Imd --- DNA virus --- host-pathogen interactions --- IIV-6 --- Rana grylio virus (RGV) --- iridovirus core proteins --- protein interaction --- aquatic animals --- cross-species transmission --- yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) --- co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) --- megalocytivirus --- iridovirus --- European chub --- Lymphocystis disease virus --- Artemia spp. --- viral infection --- Sparus aurata --- viral transmission --- eDNA --- Ranavirus --- Common frog --- Rana temporaria --- early detection --- virus surveillance --- n/a --- transmission modelling --- susceptible-infected (SI) models --- emerging infection --- ranavirosis --- Iridoviridae --- disease dynamics --- ranavirus --- virus binding --- heparan sulfate --- Andrias davidianus ranavirus --- Rana grylio virus --- envelope protein --- lizard --- bearded dragon --- Pogona vitticeps --- cricket --- Gryllus bimaculatus

Disturbance Effects on Soil Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Forest Ecosystems

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ISBN: 9783039286669 / 9783039286676 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-667-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Forest ecosystems are often disturbed by agents such as harvesting, fire, wind, insects and diseases, and acid deposition, with differing intensities and frequencies. Such disturbances can markedly affect the amount, form, and stability of soil organic carbon in, and the emission of greenhouse gases, including CO2, CH4, and N2O from, forest ecosystems. It is vitally important that we improve our understanding of the impact of different disturbance regimes on forest soil carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions to guide our future research, forest management practices, and policy development. This Special Issue provides an important update on the disturbance effects on soil carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in forest ecosystems in different climate regions.

Keywords

carbon stock changes --- forest --- greenhouse gas inventory --- IPCC --- South Korea --- greenhouse gas emission --- soil respiration --- coastal wetlands --- anthropogenic effect --- CO2 production and diffusion --- soil properties --- CO2 emission --- surface soil layer --- forest soils --- autotrophic respiration --- heterotrophic respiration --- CO2 effluxes --- decomposition --- forest disturbance --- tree mortality --- storm damage --- insect outbreak --- land use types --- soil organic carbon --- soil total nitrogen --- N addition --- soil respiration --- microbe --- subtropical forest --- soil organic carbon --- soil microbial residue --- forest conversion --- natural forest --- assisted natural regeneration --- plantation --- CO2 --- CH4 --- N2O --- soil --- biochar --- sensitivity --- temperature --- stoichiometric ratios --- landform --- rocky desertification --- karst graben basin --- warming --- nitrogen --- greenhouse gas --- soil characteristics --- microbial properties --- soil quality --- successive planting --- generation --- stand age --- clear-cutting --- Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr --- biochar --- Camellia oleifera --- DCD --- nitrification inhibitor --- nitrous oxide --- calcareous soil --- plum plantation ages --- organic carbon mineralization --- fitting parameters --- organic carbon accumulation --- karst graben basin --- land use pattern --- bacterial community --- next-generation sequencing --- subtropical forest --- calcareous soils --- red soils --- soil CO2 --- carbon source–sink --- CH4 emissions --- CO2 emissions --- climate change mitigation --- global change --- land-use change --- N2O emissions --- soil carbon sequestration

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