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Teaching ethics in organ transplantation and tissue donation - cases and movies

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783941875401 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.17875/gup2010-395 Language: English
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2012-04-11 21:20:13
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Organ transplantation is a thrilling new option for modern surgery giving hope for chronically ill patients, and, at the same time, stirring controversial ethical questions on human identity and the meaning of the human body. Being a global and transnational endeavor, organ transplantation raises universal ethical concerns and, yet, has to be adapted to culturally mediated believes. In this book, 30 case studies collected from all over the world illustrate the range of global and local, ethical, social, and cultural problems associated with this new form of treatment. Together with a list of relevant movies, the collection provides a unique resource for ethics education in medicine, health care, philosophy, and religious studies. The authors have completed the teaching material by a systematic introduction into the field of transplantation ethics.

The Vestibular System in Cognitive and Memory Processes in Mammals

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197446 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-744-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Since the beginning of life, all plant and animal kingdoms have been developed or modified based on gravity along with atmospheric composition and solar radiation existing on Earth. Gravity is mainly encoded by the otolithic sensors of the vestibular system but its role has been largely underestimated in favor of the vestibular semicircular canals and reduced to oculomotor and postural coordination. Over the last decade, it has been demonstrated that sensory information provided by the vestibular system is crucial in spatial-memory processes in rats and humans. More recently a role in attention processes has been raised. This topic aims to report and demonstrate the role and integration of vestibular information in cognitive processes in rodent models and human at the behavioral, imaging and electrophysiological levels.

Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics

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Book Series: Routledge Annals of Bioethics ISBN: 9780203971024 9789026519529 9781138002227 9781135302283 9781135302276 9781135302238 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203971024 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:31
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Regional Perspectives in Bioethics" illustrates the ways in which the national and international political landscape encompasses persons from diverse and often fragmented moral communities with widely varying moral intuitions, premises, evaluations and commitments.

Keywords

medical --- brain --- death --- organ --- transplantation --- informed --- consent --- hospital --- committees --- embryonic

Perspektiven des Medizinrechts im 21. Jahrhundert

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ISBN: 9783940344083 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2007-31 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Series "Göttinger Schriften zum Medizinrecht" (medicine law), which deals with several important debates in modern medicine such as gene therapy, research with embryonic stem cells, bio databases, living organ donation, and in general the economisation of the health system.

Olfactory subsystems in mammals: morphology, genetic and evolution

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195541 Year: Pages: 75 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-554-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The nasal cavity and the elements it comprises are lined by mucosa. This mucosa contains olfactory sensory neurons, which are organized into four different territories: main olfactory epithelium, septal organ, vomeronasal epithelium and ganglion of Grünemberg. From a morphological point of view, these territories could initially be considered as isolated olfactory subsystems, which - as a whole or independently - have been addressed in the contributions enclosed in this Topic.

Plant Organ Abscission: From Models to Crops

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453283 Year: Pages: 271 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-328-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Plant organ abscission is a developmental process regulated by the environment, stress, pathogens and the physiological status of the plant. In particular, seed and fruit abscission play an important role in seed dispersion and plant reproductive success and are common domestication traits with important agronomic consequences for many crop species. Indeed, in natural populations, shedding of the seed or fruit at the correct time is essential for reproductive success, while for crop species the premature or lack of abscission may be either beneficial or detrimental to crop productivity. The use of model plants, in particular Arabidopsis and tomato, have led to major advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying organ abscission, and now many workers pursue the translation of these advances to crop species. Organ abscission involves specialized cell layers called the abscission zone (AZ), where abscission signals are perceived and cell separation takes place for the organ to be shed. A general model for plant organ abscission includes (1) the differentiation of the AZ, (2) the acquisition of AZ cells to become competent to respond to various abscission signals, (3) response to signals and the activation of the molecular and cellular processes that lead to cell separation in the AZ and (4) the post-abscission events related to protection of exposed cells after the organ has been shed. While this simple four-phase framework is helpful to describe the abscission process, the exact mechanisms of each stage, the differences between organ types and amongst diverse species, and in response to different abscission inducing signals are far from elucidated. For an organ to be shed, AZ cells must transduce a multitude of both endogenous and exogenous signals that lead to transcriptional and cellular and ultimately cell wall modifications necessary for adjacent cells to separate. How these key processes have been adapted during evolution to allow for organ abscission to take place in different locations and under different conditions is unknown. The aim of the current collection of articles is to present and be able to compare recent results on our understanding of organ abscission from model and crop species, and to provide a basis to understand both the evolution of abscission in plants and the translation of advances with model plants for applications in crop species.

Recent Advances in Scar Biology

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ISBN: 9783038973980 9783038973997 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-399-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Pathology --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-29 11:30:03
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Scars develop in the final stage of wound healing. Wound healing and scarring involve complex biological pathways, and the exact mechanisms by which they are initiated, evolved, and regulated remain to be fully elucidated. Scarless wound healing is a major goal of medical science. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to elucidate the relevant clinical, histopathological, and molecular manifestations of scars, and to understand how these manifestations relate to each other.This Special Issue covers a selection of recent research topics and current review articles in the field of scar research for all kinds of tissues and organs.

Umstrittene Körperteile

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Book Series: Histoire ISBN: 9783839432327 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: 10.14361/9783839432327 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 11:01:22
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How did the Swiss organ donation crisis come about? Despite reforms and advertising campaigns, from the late '80s, Swiss transplant medicine began to lament an increasing mistrust in organ donation and falling donor numbers. Simon Hofmann throws light on the role of doctors, nurses, family members and donees, but also of the media, politicians and the pharmaceutical industry. In doing so, he draws out the relations between hospital practices, public debates, and fictitious narratives about organ smuggling. He tells a complex and contradictory story of modern biomedicine at the edge of life and death, which is shaped as much by economic calculations as by utopian hope and traumatic fears.

Antibody Repertoire and Graft Outcome Following Solid Organ Transplantation

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452415 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-241-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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The first real major breakthrough that laid the basis of HLA antibody detection in the field of solid organ transplantation, came with the introduction of the complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) test in 1964 by Terasaki and McClelland. Since then, methods for antibody detection have evolved remarkably from conventional cell-based assays to the current advanced solid phase systems on the Luminex platform, with increasing degree of sensitivity and specificity. The latter have been indispensable for more accurate identification of donor specific HLA antibodies in broadly reactive allo antisera, and to guide donor selection and kidney paired exchange programs through virtual crossmatching, in addition to serving as excellent tools for initiating pre-transplant desensitization and post- transplant antibody monitoring. Consensus is evolving on the optimal routine employment of these methods in donor selection strategies along with an understanding of the clinical relevance of antibodies detected by each of them. The immunoassays based on the Luminex platform and flow cytometric beads are however unable to discriminate complement fixing from non-complement fixing HLA antibodies. This is important because the former are considered clinically more pertinent in the peri-transplant period. The C1q assay which is a modification of the solid phase assay based on Luminex single antigen beads, which can be used effectively to monitor high dose IVIG desensitization is essentially a surrogate complement fixing assay, retaining the exquisite sensitivity and specificity of the Luminex platform. Currently, information obtained from these assays is preliminary and much needs to be done to standardize technologies and set a consensus ‘MFI cut off’ for antibody positivity. Besides the overriding influence of anti-HLA antibodies on overall solid organ graft survival, immune response to non-HLA antigens has become a topic of substantial interest in recent years. An ever expanding list of non-HLA antigens has been implicated in graft rejection for various organs, of which the most noted are the Major Histocompatibility Complex class I chain-related molecule A (MICA), Vimentin, Myosin, Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), Tubulin and Collagen. MICA is one of the most polymorphic and extensively studied non-HLA antigenic targets especially in renal transplantation. Although there are clear indications of MICA antibodies being associated with adverse graft outcome, to date a definitive consensus on this relationship has not been agreed. Because MICA molecules are not expressed constitutively on immunocompetent cells such as T and B lymphocytes, it is of utmost importance to address the impact of MICA donor specific antibodies (DSA) as compared to those that are non- donor specific (NDSA) on graft outcome. The soluble isoform of MICA molecule (sMICA) that is derived from the proteolytic shedding of membrane bound molecules has the potential to engage the NK-cell activating receptor NKG2D and down-regulate its expression. Consequent to the interaction of NKG2D by sMICA, the receptor ligand complex is endocytosed and degraded and thus suppresses NKG2D mediated lysis of the target by NK cells. Thus interaction between NKG2D and sMICA leads to expansion of immunosuppressive/anergic T cells thereby resulting in suppression of NKG2D mediated host innate immunity. These concept support the possible involvement of an immunosuppressive role for sMICA during allotransplantation as shown recently for heart transplantation. This research topic focuses on the clinical utility of investigating the complete antibody repertoire in solid organ transplantation.

Organs-on-chips

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039289172 / 9783039289189 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-918-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Recent advances in microsystems technology and cell culture techniques have led to the development of organ-on-chip microdevices that produce tissue-level functionality, not possible with conventional culture models, by recapitulating natural tissue architecture and microenvironmental cues within microfluidic devices.

Keywords

microfluidics --- vascularization --- organ-on-a-chip --- vascularized tumor model --- tissue engineering --- microfluidic device --- cell culture --- organ-on-chips --- lung epithelial cell --- surfactant protein --- angiogenesis --- shear stress --- biomechanics --- vessel branching --- beating force --- bio-mechanical property --- cardiac 3D tissue --- human induced pluripotent Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CM) --- tissue engineering --- vacuum chuck --- barrier permeability --- epithelial–endothelial interface --- paracellular/transcellular transport --- organ-on-chip --- MEMS --- silicon --- PDMS --- membranes --- cell --- strain --- stress --- lattice light-sheet microscopy --- 3D cell culture system --- functional neuron imaging --- 3D cell culture --- neuronal cells --- SH-SY5Y cells --- image-based screening --- nanogrooves --- neuronal cell networks --- neuronal guidance --- drug metabolism --- biomimetic oxidation --- microfluidics --- organ-on-a-chip --- liver-on-a-chip --- liver-on-a-chip --- drug hepatotoxicity --- drug metabolism --- organoid --- 3D cell culture --- spheroid array --- high-throughput screening --- drug efficacy --- organ-on-a-chip (OOC) --- microfluidic device --- mechanical cue --- shear flow --- compression --- stretch --- strain --- syringe pump --- integrated pump --- passive delivery --- organs-on-chips --- microfluidics --- drug absorption --- fluoroelastomer --- ischemia/reperfusion injury --- thrombolysis --- organ-on-a-chip --- endothelial cell activation --- microfluidics --- microfabrication --- organ-on-a-chip --- trans-epithelial electrical resistance --- multi-culture --- n/a

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