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Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides

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ISBN: 9783038972822 9783038972839 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-283-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-18 10:44:38
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Abstract

Our extreme and growing energy consumption, based on fossil fuels, has significantly increased the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which may lead to global and irreversible climate changes. We have plenty of renewable energy, e.g., sun and wind, but the fluctuations over time and geography call for a range of new ideas and, possibly, novel technologies. The most difficult challenge appears to be the development of the efficient and reliable storage of renewable energy. Hydrogen has long been considered as a potential means of energy storage; however, storage of hydrogen is also challenging. Therefore, a wide range of hydrogen-containing materials, with energy-related functions, has been discovered over the past few decades. The chemistry of hydrogen is very diverse, and so also are the new hydrides that have been discovered, not only in terms of structure and composition but also in terms of their properties. This has led to a wide range of new possible applications of metal hydrides that permeate beyond solid-state hydrogen storage. A variety of new hydrides, proposed as battery materials, has been discovered. These can exploit properties as fast ion conductors or as conversion-type electrodes with much higher potential energy capacities, compared to materials currently used in commercial batteries. Solar heat storage is also an area of great potential for metal hydrides, in principle offering orders of magnitude better storage performance than phase change materials. Recently, hydrides with optical and superconducting properties have also been investigated. This Special Issue of Inorganics, entitled “Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides”, is dedicated to the full range of emerging electronic, photonic, and energy-related, inorganic, hydrogen-containing materials.

Optical MEMS

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ISBN: 9783039213030 9783039213047 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-304-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microoptoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS), or optical microsystems are devices or systems that interact with light through actuation or sensing at a micro- or millimeter scale. Optical MEMS have had enormous commercial success in projectors, displays, and fiberoptic communications. The best-known example is Texas Instruments’ digital micromirror devices (DMDs). The development of optical MEMS was impeded seriously by the Telecom Bubble in 2000. Fortunately, DMDs grew their market size even in that economy downturn. Meanwhile, in the last one and half decade, the optical MEMS market has been slowly but steadily recovering. During this time, the major technological change was the shift of thin-film polysilicon microstructures to single-crystal–silicon microsructures. Especially in the last few years, cloud data centers are demanding large-port optical cross connects (OXCs) and autonomous driving looks for miniature LiDAR, and virtual reality/augmented reality (VR/AR) demands tiny optical scanners. This is a new wave of opportunities for optical MEMS. Furthermore, several research institutes around the world have been developing MOEMS devices for extreme applications (very fine tailoring of light beam in terms of phase, intensity, or wavelength) and/or extreme environments (vacuum, cryogenic temperatures) for many years. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on (1) novel design, fabrication, control, and modeling of optical MEMS devices based on all kinds of actuation/sensing mechanisms; and (2) new developments of applying optical MEMS devices of any kind in consumer electronics, optical communications, industry, biology, medicine, agriculture, physics, astronomy, space, or defense.

Keywords

scanning micromirror --- electromagnetic actuator --- angle sensor --- flame retardant 4 (FR4) --- variable optical attenuator (VOA) --- wavelength dependent loss (WDL) --- polarization dependent loss (PDL) --- micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) --- tunable fiber laser --- echelle grating --- DMD chip --- MEMS scanning micromirror --- fringe projection --- laser stripe scanning --- quality map --- large reflection variations --- 3D measurement --- laser stripe width --- vibration noise --- MLSSP --- MEMS scanning mirror --- wavefront sensing --- digital micromirror device --- ocular aberrations --- dual-mode liquid-crystal (LC) device --- infrared Fabry–Perot (FP) filtering --- LC micro-lenses controlled electrically --- spectrometer --- infrared --- digital micromirror device (DMD) --- signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) --- stray light --- programmable spectral filter --- digital micromirror device --- optical switch --- microscanner --- input shaping --- open-loop control --- quasistatic actuation --- residual oscillation --- usable scan range --- higher-order modes --- resonant MEMS scanner --- electrostatic --- parametric resonance --- NIR fluorescence --- intraoperative microscope --- 2D Lissajous --- fluorescence confocal --- metasurface --- metalens --- field of view (FOV) --- achromatic --- Huygens’ metalens --- bio-optical imaging --- optical coherence tomography --- confocal --- two-photon --- spectrometer --- MEMS mirror --- electrothermal bimorph --- Cu/W bimorph --- electrothermal actuation --- reliability --- n/a

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