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Biocatalysis and Pharmaceuticals: A Smart Tool for Sustainable Development

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ISBN: 9783039217083 9783039217090 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-709-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Biocatalysis, that is, the use of biological catalysts (enzymes, cells, etc.) for the preparation of highly valuable compounds is undergoing a great development, being considered an extremely sustainable approach to undertaking environmental demands. In this scenario, this book illustrates the versatility of applied biocatalysis for the preparation of drugs and other bioactive compounds through the presentation of different research articles and reviews, in which several authors describe the most recent developments in this appealing scientific area. By reading the excellent contributions gathered in this book, it is possible to have an updated idea about new advances and possibilities for a new exciting future.

Early Life Nutrition and Future Health

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ISBN: 9783039282500 9783039282517 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-251-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Inequity starts before birth and is programmed in part by nutritional exposures. If these exposures occur around the time of conception, during pregnancy, and/or in infancy or childhood (all critical periods of development) they may alter a child’s health trajectory and impact risk for impaired cognition and learning, and cardiometabolic, immune, and neuropsychiatric diseases and disorders. This Special Issue on “Early Life Nutrition and Future Health” has the following aims: 1) understand the origins of offspring health inequities from an early nutritional perspective; 2) uncover new insights into the environmental, biological, and social mechanisms that underpin these health outcomes in offspring; and 3) present novel targets and approaches to optimise health trajectories and prevent chronic diseases and disorders in later life and across generations. The research projects included herein highlight novel mechanistic, epidemiologic, and intervention studies that target key windows where nutrition has the greatest influence on future health (preconception, prenatal, and postnatal periods) and that explore vulnerable populations and animal models of early life nutritional programming.

Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics

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ISBN: 9783038979500 9783038979517 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-951-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The goal of this Special Issue, “Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics”, is to focus on the importance of pediatric nutrition with probiotics and prebiotics to improve gastrointestinal health in newborn, infants, and children.Specifically, the aim is to clarify if probiotics and prebiotics can influence gut microbiota composition and host-interaction favoring human health and preventing diseases.This new information will provide health care professionals with a widespread, clear and update evidence on probiotics and prebiotics and intestinal gut microbiota in pediatric care.

Keywords

acute diarrhea --- children --- Bacillus clausii --- efficacy --- randomized controlled trials --- breast feeding --- formula feeding --- human milk oligosaccharide --- 2?-fucosyllactose --- Lacto-N-neotetraose --- microbiota --- bifidobacteria --- acute gastroenteritis --- children --- Lactobacillus reuteri --- oral rehydration solution --- probiotics --- zinc --- probiotics --- allergy --- infants --- pediatrics --- human milk oligosaccharides --- human milk --- infant formula --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- preterm infant --- preterm infant --- probiotic --- human milk --- probiotic strain --- safety --- fecal microbiota --- protein hydrolyzed formulas --- cow’s milk protein --- tolerance acquisition --- non-IgE mediated allergy --- microbiome --- intestinal microbiota --- microbial programming --- nutritional programming --- allergy --- prevention --- neonatal --- preterm --- breast milk --- oligosaccharides --- diversity --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- sepsis --- growth --- constipation --- prebiotic --- intestinal transit time --- infant --- Bifidobacterium --- Lactobacillus --- probiotics --- asthma --- Childhood Asthma Control Test --- peak expiratory flow rate --- immunoglobulin E --- “Probiotics”[Mesh] --- “Pregnancy”[Mesh] --- “Infant, Newborn”[Mesh] --- Bifidobacterium breve --- probiotics --- paediatrics --- therapeutic microbiology --- celiac disease --- iron deficiency anemia --- gluten-free diet --- inulin --- prebiotics --- iron absorption --- hepcidin --- probiotics --- microbiota --- celiac disease --- gluten free diet --- probiotics --- functional gastrointestinal disorders --- functional abdominal pain disorders --- functional constipation --- infantile colic --- infant --- colic --- lactobacilli --- n/a --- fecal microbiota --- protein hydrolyzed formulas --- cow’s milk protein --- tolerance acquisition --- non-IgE mediated allergy --- n/a

Diet and Immune Function

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039216123 / 9783039216130 Year: Pages: 314 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-613-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Supporting initiation, development and resolution of appropriate immune responses is key to survival. Many nutrients and dietary components have been purported to have a role in supporting optimal immune function. This is vital throughout the life course, from the development and programming of the immune system in early life, to supporting immunity and reducing chronic inflammation in older people. In this special issue of Nutrients, we examine the evidence for the role of diet and dietary components in promoting protective immunity.

Keywords

inflammation --- toll-like receptor 4 --- obesity --- fatty acids --- protein hydrolysate --- bioactive peptide --- immunomodulation --- Toll-like receptor --- functional foods --- zinc --- sepsis --- biomarker --- supplementation --- homeostasis --- human milk oligosaccharides --- intestinal immune system --- microbiota --- fermented milk --- Th1/Th17 response --- inflammatory process --- growth factors --- breast milk --- immunonutrition --- cytokines --- lymphocytes --- selenocysteine --- macrophage --- T cell --- antibody --- inflammation --- cancer --- adults --- age-related immunity --- deficiency --- elderly --- immunosenescence --- infants --- infection --- micronutrients --- older people --- nutrition --- amino acids --- leukocytes --- skeletal muscle --- gut --- liver --- anorexia nervosa --- inflammatory markers --- inflammation --- cytokines --- chemokines --- adhesion molecules --- carbohydrates --- fiber --- food structure --- formulation --- plant --- microbiota --- inflammation --- metabolism --- nutrition guidelines --- vitamin E --- macrophages --- T cells --- dendritic cells --- immunomodulation --- infection --- polyphenols --- immune system --- inflammation --- molecular mechanisms --- nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) --- arachidonic acid --- mitogen-activated protein Kinase (MAPK) --- cytokines --- oxidative stress --- reactive oxygen species (ROS) --- cyclooxygenase (COX) --- nitric oxide synthase (NOS) --- lipoxygenase (LOX) --- superoxide dismutase (SOD) --- inhibitor of kappa kinase (IKK) --- extra-cellular signal regulated kinases (ERK) --- cancer --- anti-inflammation --- anti-tumorigenic --- chronic inflammatory conditions --- macrophages --- T helper 1 (Th1) --- Th17 --- Treg --- vitamin D --- immune system --- gut microbiota --- autoimmune diseases --- T cells --- weaning --- oligosaccharides --- non-digestible carbohydrates --- metabolites --- gut barrier --- tolerance --- nutrition --- immunity --- macronutrients --- micronutrients --- microbiome --- life course --- probiotic --- prebiotic --- inflammation

Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977827 9783038977834 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-783-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species. They can contaminate human food and animal feed, and have been a threat for thousands of years. The gastrointestinal tract is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. As unlikely as it sounds, the investigations concerning the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine are still in their early stages. This book gathers the most recent advances related to the characterization of the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins. Substantial data assembled on the damage caused to a number of histological structures and functions of the intestine remove any remaining doubt about this organ being a primary target for the toxicity of mycotoxins. An interesting overview of the detrimental effects of mycotoxins on the gut-hosted microbiota&mdash;now regarded as a fully-fledged organ associated with the gut&mdash;is also given. Finally, outstanding contributions in this book address questions relating to the suitability of current regulations to protect against alterations of the intestine, and to the efficacy assessment of new detoxification strategies using the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins as a relevant endpoint.

Keywords

mice --- aflatoxin B1 --- intestinal bacterial flora --- response --- Clostridium sp. WJ06 --- deoxynivalenol --- pig --- intestinal morphology --- microbial diversity --- aflatoxin M1 --- ochratoxin A --- intestinal epithelial cells --- tight junction --- permeability --- ileum --- jejunum --- deoxynivalenol --- piglet --- contaminated feed --- tight junction --- aflatoxin B1 --- small intestine --- histopathological lesions --- ultrastructural changes --- toll-like receptors --- T-2 toxin --- enteric nervous system --- pig --- vasoactive intestinal polypeptide --- mycotoxins --- zearalenone --- deoxynivalenol --- histology --- ultrastructure --- large intestine --- pig --- Claviceps --- liver --- digestive tract --- mycotoxin --- sclerotia --- ergot alkaloids --- toxicity --- deoxynivalenol --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 --- intestine --- transcriptome --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- lipid metabolism --- fumonisin --- microbiota --- pigs --- MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing --- intestinal microbiota --- hydrogen-rich water --- lactulose --- Fusarium mycotoxins --- piglets --- functional oligosaccharides --- mycotoxins --- swine --- explant technique --- intestinal morphology --- goblet cells --- deoxynivalenol --- zearalenone --- pig --- colon microbiota --- Lactobacillus --- detoxification --- zearalenone --- doses --- caecal water --- genotoxicity --- pre-pubertal gilts --- atlantic salmon --- deoxynivalenol --- feed --- intestine --- PCR --- proliferating cell nuclear antigen --- suppressor of cytokine signaling --- tight junctions --- Zearalenone --- N-acetylcysteine --- SIEC02 cells --- Mitochondrial apoptosis --- n/a

Anti-Photoagaing and Photo-Protective Compounds from Marine Organisms

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039280445 9783039280452 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-045-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This Special Issue Book ""Anti-Photoagaing and Photo-Protective Compounds from Marine Organisms"" is aimed at collecting literature on the below-mentioned keyword topics, which can significantly increase our basic understanding of marine-derived compounds in cosmeceutical product development and increases the value of marine products at the industrial level.

Looking Forward to the Future of Heparin: New Sources, Developments and Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038429494 9783038429500 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-950-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Looking Forward to the Future of Heparin: New Sources, Developments and Applications that was published in Molecules

Keywords

thrombin inhibition --- LMWH --- antithrombin --- heparin oligosaccharides --- ternary complex --- heparin --- hepcidin --- iron homeostasis --- anemia --- heparin-induced thrombocytopenia --- diagnosis --- functional assay --- platelets --- heparin --- heparan sulphate --- TGF-? --- bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) --- growth and differentiation factor (GDF) --- GDNF --- BMP antagonists --- noggin --- sclerostin --- gremlin --- heparin --- enoxaparin --- subarachnoid hemorrhage --- edema --- brain injury --- inflammation --- cisplatin --- low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) --- ovarian cancer --- resistance --- heparin --- glycosaminoglycans --- chondroitin sulfate --- perylene diimide dyes --- dermatan sulfate --- fluorescent probe --- Heparin Red --- assay --- dermatan sulfate --- human plasma --- heparin --- alginate --- sulfated alginate --- biomaterials --- heparin --- heparan sulfate --- serglycin --- proteoglycan --- recombinant expression --- bioreactor --- theranostics --- solid lipid nanoparticles --- iron oxide nanoparticles --- heparin coating --- intestinal lymphatic absorption --- heparin --- heparin process --- manufacturing methods --- industrial --- super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) --- hyaluronic acid (HA) --- bovine serum albumin (BSA) --- Fe3O4·DA-BSA/HA --- paclitaxel (PTX) --- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) --- low-molecular-weight heparin --- dalteparin --- NMR --- LC-MS --- affinity chromatography --- danaparoid sodium --- low molecular weight glycosaminoglycans --- orthogonal multi-analytical methods --- sequence and compositional investigations --- component quantitative analysis --- heparin --- crude heparin --- NMR --- quantitative NMR --- PCA --- chemometric --- HSQC --- bovine heparin --- porcine heparin --- molecular weight --- size exclusion chromatography --- pharmacopeia --- Fondaparinux sodium --- extended physicochemical characterization --- qNMR --- single crystal X-ray structure --- reference standard --- iduronic acid conformation --- Arixtra® --- n/a --- n/a --- n/a

Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: Implications for Maternal and Infant Health

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ISBN: 9783039280544 9783039280551 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-055-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Pregnancy is a viewed as a window to future health. With the birth of the developmental origins of human adult disease hypothesis, research and clinical practice has turned its attention to the influence of maternal factors such as health and lifestyle surrounding pregnancy as a means to understand and prevent the inter-generational inheritance of chronic disease susceptibility. Outcomes during pregnancy have long-lasting impacts on both women on children. Moreover, nutrition early in life can influence growth and the establishment of lifelong eating habits and behaviors. This Special Issue on “Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation: Implications for Maternal and Infant Health” is intended to highlight new epidemiological, mechanistic and interventional studies that investigate maternal nutrition around the pregnancy period on maternal and infant outcomes. Submissions may include original research, narrative reviews, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Keywords

milk oligosaccharides --- infant formula --- 6?-sialyllactose --- cognitive development --- sialic acid --- maternal nutrition --- breast milk --- premature delivery --- milk composition --- nutritional intervention --- pregnant women --- overweight --- obesity --- total sugars --- energy --- vitamin B12 --- micronutrients --- pregnancy --- adolescents --- folate --- growth chart --- breastfeeding --- physiological body-weight loss --- thermal control --- basal maintenance expenditure --- maternal diet quality --- pregnancy --- lactation --- infancy --- growth --- body composition --- early programming --- hepatic lipogenesis --- insulin-resistant pregnancy --- metabolic flexibility --- non-alcoholic fatty liver disease --- slow digesting carbohydrates --- pregnancy --- gestational weight gain intervention --- eating behavior --- restraint --- disinhibition --- uncontrolled and emotional eating --- fetal growth --- overweight and obesity --- generalized linear models --- passive immunization --- antibodies --- lactation --- prematurity --- proteolysis --- breast milk --- full breastfeeding --- postpartum --- weight retention --- obesity --- prenatal intervention --- meal replacements --- randomized clinical trial --- lifestyle intervention --- obesity --- RDA --- micronutrients --- hippocampus --- DNA methylation --- DNA sequencing --- iron --- neurobiology --- transcriptome --- micronutrient deficiency --- neuroplasticity --- maternal obesity --- gestational weight gain --- immunological properties --- human milk --- nutrition --- health --- Pregnancy --- obesity --- diet quality --- Healthy Eating Index --- food cravings --- mindful eating --- education --- race --- food photography --- pregnancy --- energy expenditure --- energy intake --- physical activity --- metabolic rate --- fetal development

Marine Chitin 2019

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039360727 / 9783039360734 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03936-073-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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In 2019, we sent out a call for submissions to a Special Issue of Marine Drugs entitled “Marine Chitin 2019”, and we are pleased that this issue has now been published. Over 16 high-impact papers were included in this issue, which we now plan to publish as a book. In addition, we now seek to publish a further Special Issue of Marine Drugs, “Marine Chitin 2020–2021”. As before, we plan to produce an authoritative and exciting issue that will encompass breakthroughs in scientific and industrial chitin and chitosan research. Significant advances in chitin and chitosan research have been made since the 1970s, and current overviews in recent publications involving chitin and chitosan research advances are in need of an update.

Keywords

chitosan --- cytotoxicity --- polymer film --- sodium carbonate --- soluble chitosan complex --- chitin --- chitosan --- protease --- chitinase --- chitosan oligomers --- chitooligosaccharides --- anti-inflammatory action --- RAW264.7 macrophage --- chitosan oleate salt --- amphiphilic polymer --- PLGA --- nanoparticles --- mucoadhesion --- Caco-2 cell culture --- nile red --- curcumin --- chitooligosaccharide --- immunostimulatory activity --- RAW 264.7 cells --- mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) --- phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt --- chitosan oligosaccharides --- streptomycin --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- biofilms --- conjugation --- chitin --- marine sponges --- scaffolds --- Aplysina archeri --- express method --- bromotyrosines --- crude oil --- blood --- methylene blue --- chitin --- chitosan --- Paenibacillus --- chitosanase --- chitosan oligomers --- ?-glucosidase inhibitor --- antioxidant --- Polybius henslowii --- marine resources --- chitosan --- chitooligosaccharides --- antifungal activity --- antioxidant activity --- chitin --- collagen --- electrospinning --- mechanical property --- 2D correlation spectroscopy --- polymorph --- chitosan lactate --- chitosan tartrate --- chitosan citrate --- Eudragit® S100 --- layer-by-layer film --- mucoadhesive film --- Tenofovir controlled release --- pH responsive release --- vaginal preexposure prophylaxis --- HIV sexual transmission --- chitin --- chitosan --- wound treatment --- derivatization --- nanocomposites --- chitosan --- antibacterial activity --- Clostridium perfringens --- pork sausage --- chitin --- chitosan --- chitooligosaccharides --- enzymatic modification --- biotechnology --- chitinase --- chitosanase --- lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase --- chitin deacetylase --- chitosan-coated liposomes --- chitosan hydrogel --- mucoadhesion --- vaginal infections --- antibacterial activity --- Staphylococcus epidermidis --- Staphylococcus aureus --- chitin --- roller compaction --- ball milling --- direct compression --- compression work --- crushing strength --- Hausner ratio --- Kawakita analysis --- bulk density --- dissolution

Breastfeeding: Short and Long-Term Benefits to Baby and Mother

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039289219 / 9783039289226 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-922-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Breastfeeding is the preferred method of feeding in early life. It is also one of the most cost-effective childhood survival interventions. Breastfeeding practices are important for preventing child mortality and morbidity, as well as ensuring the optimal growth, health, and development of infants. The public health benefits of breastfeeding have been well documented in the medical literature, and include the following: associations with decreased risk for early-life diseases such as otitis media, respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea, and early childhood obesity (to name but a few). This Special Issue book includes a collection of studies on the use of novel methods to improve breastfeeding rates, and research exploring the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding for both the infant and mother, including technology-based approaches.

Keywords

breast milk metabolome --- glycome --- lipidome --- free amino acid --- preterm infant --- growth trajectory --- galactagogues --- low milk supply --- lactation --- breast milk --- breast feeding --- human milk carbohydrates --- lactose --- oligosaccharides --- infant --- body composition --- lactation --- daily intake --- breastfeeding frequency --- milk intake --- breastfeeding --- infections --- birth cohort --- hospitalizations --- antibiotic use --- exclusive breastfeeding --- Australia --- skin-to-skin --- culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) --- breastfeeding --- multiple pregnancy --- neonate --- premature birth --- milk bank --- pregnancy outcomes --- breastfeeding --- lactoferrin --- prolonged lactation --- child nutrition --- cortisol --- cortisone --- growth --- circadian rhythm --- human milk --- fenugreek --- milk flow --- milk composition --- litter size --- maternal protein restriction --- plasma metabolic parameters --- caesarean section --- initiation of breastfeeding --- maternal age --- gestational age --- United Arab Emirates --- breastfeeding --- infants --- ECOWAS --- antenatal care --- pregnancy --- infant mortality --- breastfeeding --- EWAS --- DNA methylation --- twins --- EPIC --- NTR --- ALSPAC --- breastfeeding --- caries --- childhood --- Aboriginal --- breastfeeding --- infant --- parity --- maternal behavior --- educational status --- self-efficacy --- risk factors --- prognosis --- sensitivity and specificity --- practice --- breastfeeding --- breast milk --- temperament --- fatty acids --- LC-PUFA --- omega-3 --- omega-6 --- DHA --- AA --- children --- early life nutrition --- perinatal --- maternal stress --- maternal anxiety --- infant crying --- breastfeeding --- breastfeeding --- Africa --- antenatal care --- infants --- ECOWAS --- mortality --- vitamin A --- retinoic acid --- vitamin A deficiency --- lactating mammary gland --- weaning --- involution

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