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Perception and Cognition: Interactions in the Ageing Brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199372 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-937-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Healthy ageing can lead to declines in both perceptual and cognitive functions. Impaired perception, such as that resulting from hearing loss or reduced visual or tactile resolution, increases demands on ‘higher-level’ cognitive functions to cope or compensate. It is possible, for example, to use focused attention to overcome perceptual limitations. Unfortunately, cognitive functions also decline in old age. This can mean that perceptual impairments are exacerbated by cognitive decline, and vice versa, but also means that interventions aimed at one type of decline can lead to improvements in the other. Just as improved cognition can ameliorate perceptual deficits, improving the stimulus can help offset cognitive deficits. For example, making directions and routes easy to follow can help compensate for declines in navigation abilities. In this Topic, we bring together papers from both auditory and visual researchers that address the interaction between perception and cognition in the ageing brain. Many of the studies demonstrate that a broadening of representations or increased reliance on gist underlie perceptual and cognitive age-related declines. There is also clear evidence that impaired perception is associated with poor cognition although, encouragingly, it can also be seen that good perception is associated with better cognition. Compensatory cognitive strategies were less successful in improving perception than might be expected. We also present papers which highlight important methodological considerations that are required when studying the older brain.

Keywords

older --- Elderly --- visual --- auditory --- Ageing --- Cognition --- cross-modal --- Compensation --- training

Late-career Risks in Changing Welfare States

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Book Series: Changing Welfare States ISBN: 9789089646774 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_621791 Language: English
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-04 11:01:17
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Motivated by debates about welfare state retrenchment and growing economic insecurity, this book takes a closer look at the situation of older workers in Germany and the US. It first provides an in-depth account of country differences in key social programs - and of crucial changes since the 1980s. To better understand the impact of these changes on the lives of ordinary citizens, the second part of the book uses household panel data to examine the changing financial consequences of late-career job loss and retirement. Income losses due to men's retirement have grown in both countries, consistent with gradual declines in the generosity of public pension schemes and other public programs. In the US, income trajectories have also become more heterogeneous, with more workers suffering very large income losses and having low income after retirement. Changes in employer-sponsored pensions, in particular the rise of defined-contribution plans, appear to have been a major factor behind this trend. In Germany, where generous early retirement options were phased out after the mid-1990s, there is evidence that workers are paying a growing price for late-career job loss or health problems, which often lead to involuntary early retirement.

Improving Psychiatric Care for Older People: Barbara Robb’s Campaign 1965-1975

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Book Series: Mental Health in Historical Perspective ISBN: 9783319548128 9783319548135 Year: Pages: 283 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54813-5 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-23 12:33:33
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This book tells the story of Barbara Robb and her pressure group, Aid for the Elderly in Government Institutions (AEGIS). In 1965, Barbara visited 73-year-old Amy Gibbs in a dilapidated and overcrowded National Health Service psychiatric hospital back-ward. She was so appalled by the low standards that she set out to make improvements. Barbara’s book Sans Everything: A case to answer was publicly discredited by a complacent and self-righteous Ministry of Health. However, inspired by her work, staff in other hospitals ‘whistle-blew’ about events they witnessed, which corroborated her allegations. Barbara influenced government policy, to improve psychiatric care and health service complaints procedures, and to establish a hospitals' inspectorate and ombudsman. The book will appeal to campaigners, health and social care staff and others working with older people, and those with an interest in policy development in England, the 1960s, women’s history and the history of psychiatry and nursing.

Guiden till Spaniensverige

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Book Series: Anthropology & Society ISBN: 9789176350560 9789176350591 9789176350577 9789176350584 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.16993/bao Language: Swedish
Publisher: Stockholm University Press
Subject: Social and Public Welfare --- Anthropology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:11
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"""Guiden till Spaniensverige"" (The Guide to Spanish-Sweden) is an ethnographic account on the mobilisation of a social community of Swedish migrants who otherwise belongs to the diverse networks of lifestyle migrants or resident tourists in Southern Spain. The book is based on interviews with people who are engaged in Scandinavian associations/clubs or in other ways involved in practices which are associated with a Swedish community in Costa Blanca and Costa del Sol, which are two main destinations for lifestyle migrants in Spain. In addition the analysis is based on the discursive material that the social clubs, and to some extent other organisations and networks, are using in the service to their members. The book demonstrates how the practices of the large Scandinavian social clubs, but also other organisations like the Swedish church and some of the business associations, are operating at the locus of an ethnic and transnationalised form of community-making. The offering of a home-like social arena with social and cultural activities are privileging the Swedish language and the Swedish origin. This study concludes that the social practices employed by the clubs are guiding potential members to a social space in which preferably ‘senior’ Swedish migrants meet, socialise, and, to some extent, also consume in ‘Swedish’. The book argues that the practices of the social clubs reveal the contours and infrastructure of a lifestyle diaspora in which a comfortable life in Spain – but in Swedish and with maintained relations with the Swedish society – is accentuated and given priority."

Evidence-Based Programming for Older Adults

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195855 Year: Pages: 361 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-585-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-02 10:49:06
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There is increased world-wide concern about the impact of multiple chronic conditions, especially among the rapidly aging population. Simultaneously, over the past decade there has been an emergence of state-wide and national initiatives to reduce the burden of chronic conditions that draw upon the translation of evidence-based programs (EPB) into community practice. Yet, little has been written about the national and international implementation, dissemination, and sustainability of such programs. This Research Topic features articles about EBPs for older adults, including a range of articles that focus on the infrastructure needed to widely disseminate EBP as well as individual participant impacts on physical, mental, and social aspects of health and well-being. Using a pragmatic research perspective, this Research Topic will advance knowledge that aims to enhance practice, inform policy and build systems of support and delivery in regard to the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of evidence-based interventions for older adults. The focus is on knowledge transfer rather than knowledge generation but with a dual emphasis on the dissemination and sustainability of EBP that have been tested and shown effective as well as the adaptation of practice-based interventions into evidence-based programs. This Research Topic draws upon grand-scale efforts to deliver these programs, and include both U.S. as well as international examples. Commentaries discuss processes in the development and measurement of EBP and reflect perspectives from program developers and major national and regional funders of EBP as well as professionals and practitioners in the field. The full-length articles focus on four major programmatic areas: (1) chronic disease self-management programs; (2) fall prevention programs; (3) general wellness and physical activity programs; and (4) mental health programs. Additionally, articles are included to discuss cross-cutting issues related to building partnerships and the research infrastructure for the implementation, evaluation, and dissemination of evidence-based programming. The intent of this Research Topic is to enhance practice, inform policy, and build systems of support and delivery for EBP. It is written for a diverse audience and contains practical implications and recommendations for introducing, delivering, and sustaining EBP in a multitude of settings.

Veiklos tyrimas organizacijoje. Socialinių paslaugų senyvo amžiaus žmonėms atvejis

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9786094672019 Year: Pages: 200 p. Language: Lithuanian
Publisher: Vytautas Magnus University
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-01 12:35:23
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The aim of the study presented in the monograph is to reveal peculiarities, methodological strengths and limitations of participatory action research (PAR) in social service organizations. PAR is analysed as a methodological approach which involves scholars and research participants into a process of reflection, knowledge production and construction of new meanings. PAR application area is quite broad – this strategy is applied in communities, business, education, health and welfare organizations in order to increase involvement of citizens as well as their empowerment in communities and organizations. While highlighting originality and singularity of PAR in organizations, authors of the study discuss notions, definitions and distinctive features of PAR. The scholars distinguish novelty, empowering nature, methodological nuances and criticism toward PAR. The monograph presents models, the process, and stages of PAR. Based on PAR implementation in social service organizations, a need for movement from action to reflection and empowerment of research participants to take the responsibility of the changes in organizations is emphasized. The research sheds a light on psychosocial functioning of organizations as well as their readiness for change. Results and insights drawn by the research create preconditions to increase efficiency and effectiveness of organizations. The investigation presented in the monograph was implemented in social service organizations which provide services for the elderly. Lithuanian population is aging, therefore agencies which provide elderly care should be able to respond to changes in the market and satisfy clients` needs. This is relevant for profit organizations and business enterprises which become more active in the social service sector offering their activities for older people. This study presents the situation of older people in European Union and Lithuania. An overview of theoretical resources is carried out by revealing factors of organizational effectiveness and readiness for changes, concepts and typologies of organizational cultures, elements which are related to psychosocial functioning of organizations: job satisfaction, management, conflicts and their solutions, teamwork and stress at work. Recognition which embraces processes on micro, mezzo and macro levels is another concept that is discussed and analysed in the study. The research presented in the monograph included several stages. In the first stage of the research, a qualitative interpretative study was carried out by interviewing representatives of focus group. The researchers disclosed practical experiences, ideas, achievements, challenges and concerns, questions and tensions that arose in the organizations. 4 institutions participated in the research in this stage – 2 public organizations of home care and 2 private organizations of institutional long-term care. In the second stage of the investigation, a quantitative research was conducted to identify tendencies of readiness for change in social service organizations. 401 respondents from municipal and state organizations and 109 respondents from private agencies (510 in total) participated in the survey. In this stage of the research, objectives were: 1) to identify main factors and elements which determine the functioning of public and private agencies for social services; 2) to reveal differences between public and private organizations of social services; 3) to analyse attitude of employees working in public and private organizations toward development of organizations and to evaluate factors which foster agencies‘ development; 4) to delineate issues which are important and relevant for each organization and its psycho-social functioning. The third stage of the research was dedicated to construct a new knowledge on changes to be initiated in the organizations. 2 case studies were conducted by applying a constructivist version of grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006). The first case study was carried out in municipal organizations of home social services for the elderly. The second case study was conducted in public agencies which provide institutional long-term services for the elderly. The main techniques and methods of this research were individual interviews, interviews with focus groups and group discussions as well as methodological seminars to get a feedback from research participants. Five managers and 38 employees participated in the study. The research has empowered the authors to provide methodological recommendations for the implementation of PAR in organizations. The study actualized principles and elements of successful implementation of PAR in agencies of social services – a need to reflect processes and get a feedback in organizations, foster creativity and reciprocity in relationships between researchers and research participants at organizations, support trust and respect, avoid harm and disrespect.

Document sobre envelliment i vulnerabilitat

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Col·lecció de Bioètica ISBN: 9788447540532 Year: Pages: 64 Language: Catalan, Spanish, English
Publisher: Publicacions i Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona
Subject: Internal medicine --- Philosophy --- Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-22 14:11:48
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Els plantejaments i les recomanacions que es fan en aquest Document desitgen promoure millores en la qualitat de vida de les persones grans, fomentant la presa de decisions prèvies —tant individuals com socials— i reivindicant la promoció dels valors de solidaritat i de no-discriminació.

Advances in Research on Age in the Workplace and Retirement

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453931 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-393-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Shifts in the age composition of the workforce coupled with dynamic definitions of retirement represent important issues that influence work processes and, more generally, the experience of working across one’s career. For example, redefinitions of careers and the changing nature of working have contributed to the emergence of distinct forms and patterns of work experiences across the prototypical work lifespan. Likewise, older individuals are increasingly delaying retirement in favor of longer-term labor force participation. The study of age and work, and work and retirement by industrial, work, and organizational (IWO) psychologists and scholars of human resources management and organizational behavior (HR/OB) has recently proliferated in part as a result of such trends, along with the recognition that age-related processes are important indicators of various proximal (e.g., job attitudes, work behaviors, work motives, and wellbeing) and distal outcomes (e.g., sustainable employability, climates for aging, and firm performance) at various levels of abstraction in modern work environments.Recent theoretical advances have suggested that age, along with individual psychological factors and various contextual influences can jointly influence work outcomes that contribute to long-term employment success, including work performance, job attitudes, work orientations, and motivations. Similar theoretical developments concerning retirement have postulated individual and contextual elements that drive success in the transition from career and work roles to non-work and leisure as well as post-retirement bridge employment roles.In this Research Topic, we aim to curate a collection of papers that are representative of current trends and advances in thinking about and investigating the role of age in workplace processes and the changing nature of retirement. Our hope is to showcase various contemporary ideas and rigorous empirical studies as a means to inform broader thinking and to support enhanced theorizing and organizational practice regarding these processes.

Evidence-Based Practices to Reduce Falls and Fall-Related Injuries Among Older Adults

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456093 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-609-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Falls and fall-related injuries among older adults have emerged as serious global health concerns, which place a burden on individuals, their families, and greater society. As fall incidence rates increase alongside our globally aging population, fall-related mortality, hospitalizations, and costs are reaching never seen before heights.Because falls occur in clinical and community settings, additional efforts are needed to understand the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that cause falls among older adults; effective strategies to reduce fall-related risk; and the role of various professionals in interventions and efforts to prevent falls (e.g., nurses, physicians, physical therapists, occupational therapists, health educators, social workers, economists, policy makers).As such, this Research Topic sought articles that described interventions at the clinical, community, and/or policy level to prevent falls and related risk factors. Preference was given to articles related to multi-factorial, evidence-based interventions in clinical (e.g., hospitals, long-term care facilities, skilled nursing facilities, residential facilities) and community (e.g., senior centers, recreation facilities, faith-based organizations) settings. However, articles related to public health indicators and social determinants related to falls were also included based on their direct implications for evidence-based interventions and best practices.

Mittendrin?

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Beitrage zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft ISBN: 9783847402572 9783847406365 Year: Pages: 273 DOI: 10.3224/84740636 Language: German
Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-22 11:21:04
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Older people today find themselves in a more favourable life situation than previous generations: Many of them have a high standard of living, a high level of education and good health. In view of this potential, the question arises as to what plans and ideas older people have today about living in the "third age". What decisions do they make in their transition to retirement with regard to further employment participation, civil society involvement or family support? This volume presents current findings from the interdisciplinary study "Transitions and Old Age Potential (TOP)" by the Federal Institute for Population Research on the life plans, potentials and transitions of 55- to 70-year-olds in Germany. In addition to presenting current scientific results, the volume aims to derive recommendations for action for politicians, companies and civil society organisations - and not least for the elderly themselves.

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