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Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039287048 / 9783039287055 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-705-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Mycotoxins are considered the most frequently occurring natural contaminants in human and animal diets. Considering their potential toxic and carcinogenic effects, mycotoxin exposure assessment has particular importance in the context of health risk assessment. The magnitude of a given exposure allows the derivation of the associated risk and the potential for the establishment of a disease. Although food ingestion is considered a major route of human exposure to mycotoxins, other contexts may also result in exposure, such as specific occupational environments where exposure to organic dust also occurs due to the handling of organic materials. Animals could be exposed to mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated feed, subsequently entering in the food chain and thus constituting a source of exposure to humans. Human biomonitoring is considered a new frontier for the establishment of the human internal exposure to mycotoxins. Although several studies have summarized the potential outcomes associated with mycotoxin exposure, major gaps in data remain in recognizing the mycotoxins that are the cause of diseases. This book contributes provides research that supports the anticipation of potential consequences of the exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins, future risk assessments, and the establishment of preventive measures.

Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination

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ISBN: 9783039289370 / 9783039289387 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-938-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Contamination of foods and agricultural commodities by various types of toxigenic fungi is a concerning issue for human and animal health. Moulds naturally present in foods can produce mycotoxins and contaminate foodstuffs under favourable conditions of temperature, relative humidity, pH, and nutrient availability. Mycotoxins are, in general, stable molecules that are difficult to remove from foods once they have been produced. Therefore, the prevention of mycotoxin contamination is one of the main goals of the agriculture and food industries. Chemical control or decontamination techniques may be quite efficient; however, the more sustainable and restricted use of fungicides, the lack of efficiency in some foods, and the consumer demand for chemical-residue-free foods require new approaches to control this hazard. Therefore, food safety demands continued research efforts for exploring new strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. This Special Issue contains original contributions and reviews that advance the knowledge about the most current promising approaches to minimize mycotoxin contamination, including biological control agents, phytochemical antifungal compounds, enzyme detoxification, and the use of novel technologies.

Keywords

deoxynivalenol --- degradation --- photocatalysis --- ?-Fe2O3 --- degradation products --- Aspergillus flavus --- Penicillium verrucosum --- AITC --- fungal growth reduction --- mycotoxin reduction --- decontamination --- mycotoxins --- Aflatoxin M1 --- milk --- binding --- stability --- zearalenone --- biological detoxification --- Bacillus --- fermentation --- roasted coffee --- mycotoxigenic fungi --- ochratoxin A --- cold plasma --- detoxification --- brine shrimp bioassay --- mycotoxins --- Fusarium sp., Botrytis sp., apple pomace --- phloridzin --- quercetin glycosides --- pinnatifidanoside D --- deoxynivalenol --- wheat --- superheated steam --- wheat quality --- crisp biscuit --- biological control --- post-harvest phytopathogen --- Penicillium digitatum --- Penicillium italicum --- Geothrichum citri-aurantii --- zearalenone --- estrogen response element --- gene expression --- cell proliferation --- estrogen receptor --- biotransformation --- Fusarium --- mycotoxins --- garlic-derived extracts --- green chemistry --- fungi --- EU limits --- abiotic factors --- storage --- wheat --- maize --- oats --- fumonisin --- enzymatic detoxification --- fumonisin esterase FumD --- enzyme kinetics --- maize --- Zearalenone --- biodegradation --- probiotics --- cell-free extracts of Aspergillus oryzae --- pig production performance --- Bacillus --- Fusarium graminearum --- antagonism --- mode of action --- essential oils --- Satureja montana --- Origanum virens --- Aspergillus flavus --- aflatoxin --- corn --- nanoparticles --- Penicillium nordicum --- biocontrol agents --- dry-cured ham --- ochratoxin A (OTA) --- n/a

Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine

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ISBN: 9783038977827 9783038977834 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-783-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species. They can contaminate human food and animal feed, and have been a threat for thousands of years. The gastrointestinal tract is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. As unlikely as it sounds, the investigations concerning the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine are still in their early stages. This book gathers the most recent advances related to the characterization of the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins. Substantial data assembled on the damage caused to a number of histological structures and functions of the intestine remove any remaining doubt about this organ being a primary target for the toxicity of mycotoxins. An interesting overview of the detrimental effects of mycotoxins on the gut-hosted microbiota—now regarded as a fully-fledged organ associated with the gut—is also given. Finally, outstanding contributions in this book address questions relating to the suitability of current regulations to protect against alterations of the intestine, and to the efficacy assessment of new detoxification strategies using the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins as a relevant endpoint.

Keywords

mice --- aflatoxin B1 --- intestinal bacterial flora --- response --- Clostridium sp. WJ06 --- deoxynivalenol --- pig --- intestinal morphology --- microbial diversity --- aflatoxin M1 --- ochratoxin A --- intestinal epithelial cells --- tight junction --- permeability --- ileum --- jejunum --- deoxynivalenol --- piglet --- contaminated feed --- tight junction --- aflatoxin B1 --- small intestine --- histopathological lesions --- ultrastructural changes --- toll-like receptors --- T-2 toxin --- enteric nervous system --- pig --- vasoactive intestinal polypeptide --- mycotoxins --- zearalenone --- deoxynivalenol --- histology --- ultrastructure --- large intestine --- pig --- Claviceps --- liver --- digestive tract --- mycotoxin --- sclerotia --- ergot alkaloids --- toxicity --- deoxynivalenol --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 --- intestine --- transcriptome --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- lipid metabolism --- fumonisin --- microbiota --- pigs --- MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing --- intestinal microbiota --- hydrogen-rich water --- lactulose --- Fusarium mycotoxins --- piglets --- functional oligosaccharides --- mycotoxins --- swine --- explant technique --- intestinal morphology --- goblet cells --- deoxynivalenol --- zearalenone --- pig --- colon microbiota --- Lactobacillus --- detoxification --- zearalenone --- doses --- caecal water --- genotoxicity --- pre-pubertal gilts --- atlantic salmon --- deoxynivalenol --- feed --- intestine --- PCR --- proliferating cell nuclear antigen --- suppressor of cytokine signaling --- tight junctions --- Zearalenone --- N-acetylcysteine --- SIEC02 cells --- Mitochondrial apoptosis --- n/a

Modern Technologies and Their Influence in Fermentation Quality

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ISBN: 9783039289479 / 9783039289486 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-948-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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During the last few years, industrial fermentation technologies have advanced in order to improve the quality of the final product. Some examples of those modern technologies are the biotechnology developments of microbial materials, such as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts or lactic bacteria from different genera. Other technologies are related to the use of additives and adjuvants, such as nutrients, enzymes, fining agents, or preservatives and their management, which directly influence the quality and reduce the risks in final fermentation products. Other technologies are based on the management of thermal treatments, filtrations, pressure applications, ultrasounds, UV, and so on, which have also led to improvements in fermentation quality in recent years. The aim of the issue is to study new technologies able to improve the quality parameters of fermentation products, such as aroma, color, turbidity, acidity, or any other parameters related to improving sensory perception by the consumers. Food safety parameters are also included.

Keywords

itaconic acid --- A. terreus --- pH control --- glucose --- kinetic analysis --- Gompertz-model --- biogenic amines --- ethyl carbamate --- ochratoxin A --- sulfur dioxide --- phthalates --- HACCP --- Yeasts --- alcoholic beverages --- resveratrol --- glutathione --- trehalose --- tryptophan --- melatonin --- serotonin --- tyrosol --- tryptophol --- hydroxytyrosol --- IAA --- probiotics --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- Lachancea thermotolerans --- Metschnikowia pulcherrima --- Schizosaccharomyces pombe --- Pichia kluyveri --- non-Saccharomyces --- biocontrol application --- non-Saccharomyces screening --- SO2 reduction --- lactic acid bacteria --- yeasts --- chemical analyses --- volatile compounds --- sensory evaluation --- shiraz --- low-ethanol wines --- sequential culture --- Hanseniaspora uvarum yeast --- aromatic/sensorial profiles --- narince --- autochthonous --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- aroma --- white wine --- cashew apple juice --- non-conventional yeasts --- alcoholic beverages --- aroma profile --- Hanseniaspora guilliermondii --- Torulaspora microellipsoides --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- meta-taxonomic analysis --- vineyard soil --- wine-related bacteria --- wine-related fungi --- sequential inoculation --- Saccharomyces --- non-Saccharomyces --- Riesling --- aroma compound --- Torulaspora delbrueckii --- Pichia kluyveri --- Lachancea thermotolerans --- Tannat --- must replacement --- hot pre-fermentative maceration --- wine color --- wine composition --- climate change --- food quality --- viticulture --- wine --- fermentation --- yeast --- Saccharomyces --- non-Saccharomyces --- alcoholic fermentation --- lactic acid bacteria --- malolactic fermentation --- native yeast --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- aroma --- Malvar (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) --- white wine --- yeasts --- Bombino bianco --- technological characterization --- enzymatic patterns --- amino acid decarboxylation --- Lachancea thermotolerans --- non-Saccharomyces --- Saccharomyces --- acidity --- food safety --- HACCP --- wine quality --- color --- human health-promoting compounds --- biocontrol --- wine flavor --- low ethanol wine --- Vineyard Microbiota --- wine color --- wine aroma --- climate change

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