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H2 Established and Emerging Techniques for Characterising the Formation, Structure and Performance of Calcified Structures under Ocean Acidification (Book chapter)

Book title: Oceanography and Marine Biology

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Ocean Engineering & Oceanography ISBN: 9780367134150 9780429026379 Year: Pages: 40 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-11 11:21:03
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Abstract

Ocean acidification (OA) is the decline in seawater pH and saturation levels of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals that has led to concerns for calcifying organisms such as corals, oysters and mussels because of the adverse effects of OA on their biomineralisation, shells and skeletons. A range of cellular biology, geochemistry and materials science approaches have been used to explore biomineralisation. These techniques have revealed that responses to seawater acidification can be highly variable among species, yet the underlying mechanisms remain largely unresolved. To assess the impacts of global OA, researchers will need to apply a range of tools developed across disciplines, many of which are emerging and have not yet been used in this context. This review outlines techniques that could be applied to study OA-induced alterations in the mechanisms of biomineralisation and their ultimate effects on shells and skeletons. We illustrate how to characterise, quantify and monitor the process of biomineralisation in the context of global climate change and OA. We highlight the basic principles, as well as the advantages and disadvantages, of established, emerging and future techniques for OA researchers. A combination of these techniques will enable a holistic approach and better understanding of the potential impact of OA on biomineralisation and its consequences for marine calcifiers and associated ecosystems.

Effects of Climate Change Across Ocean Regions

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455027 Year: Pages: 169 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-502-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) highlighted that conditions within Earth’s ocean are changing more rapidly than any of the time during the past 65 million years, and as a consequence, major changes are occurring in natural and human systems. While this major report as enhanced our understanding of the complexity of ocean issues, we propose this research topic as an opportunity to expand discussion on past, present and future changes across oceans regions.

The Future of Coral Reefs Subject to Rapid Climate Change: Lessons from Natural Extreme Environments

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457175 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-717-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Examination of corals and reef-associated organisms which endure in extreme coral reef environments is challenging our understanding of the conditions that organisms can survive under. By studying individuals naturally adapted to unfavorable conditions, we begin to better understand the important traits required to survive rapid environmental and climate change. This Research Topic, comprising reviews, and original research articles, demonstrates the current state of knowledge regarding the diversity of extreme coral habitats, the species that have been studied, and the knowledge to-date on the mechanisms, traits and trade-offs that have facilitated survival.

Gas Hydrate: Environmental and Climate Impacts

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218448 9783039218455 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-845-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Special Issue reports research spanning from the analysis of indirect data, modeling, and laboratory and geological data confirming the intrinsic multidisciplinarity of gas hydrate studies. The study areas are (1) Arctic, (2) Brazil, (3) Chile, and (4) the Mediterranean region. The results furnished an important tessera of the knowledge about the relationship of a gas hydrate system with other complex natural phenomena such as climate change, slope stability and earthquakes, and human activities.

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