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Fundamentals for the Anthropocene

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ISBN: 9783110567311 Year: Pages: 135 DOI: 10.1515/9783110567311 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Statistics --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-11 11:41:35
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This book seeks to bridge the gap between leading edge scholarship about the nature of the physical, tangible Universe and the nature of the life process on Earth on the one hand, and on the other hand challenges facing human society as to the current revolution in energy sources, national and international levels of political and economic organization, and humanity`s impacts upon the global ecosystem which have given rise to the depiction of a new era in earthlife termed the anthropocene.The author`s public career included responsibilities for economic policy formulation and implementation at the United States Department of Justice, the United States Agency for International Development, and a White House Office of Consumer Affairs. This provided an elevated overview of many current economic and political issues.These responsibilities stimulated a multi-decade exploration of leading academics` insights into the relational structuring of the Universe, non-equilibrium thermodynamics, complexity in the universe, and the structure of the life process. This book applies such fundamental insights to the question whether humanity will succeed or fail in its ambitious but uncertain quest.

Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics of Small Systems

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ISBN: 9783038970576 9783038970583 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-058-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-25 10:51:00
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A challenging frontier in modern statistical physics concerns systems with a small number of degrees of freedom, far from the thermodynamic limit. Beyond the general interest in the foundation of statistical mechanics, the relevance of this subject is due to the recent increase of resolution in the observation and manipulation of biological and man-made objects at micro- and nano-scales. A peculiar feature of small systems is the role played by fluctuations, which cannot be neglected and are responsible for many non-trivial behaviors. The study of fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities, such as energy or entropy, goes back to Einstein, Onsager, and Kubo; more recently, interest in this matter has grown with the establishment of new fluctuation–dissipation relations, and of so-called stochastic thermodynamics. This turning point has received a strong impulse from the study of systems that are far from the thermodynamic equilibrium, due to very long relaxation times, as in disordered systems, or due to the presence of external forcing and dissipation, as in granular or active matter. Applications of the thermodynamic and statistical mechanics of small systems range from molecular biology to micro-mechanics, including models of nano-transport, Brownian motors, and (living or artificial) self-propelled organisms.

Symmetry in Quantum Optics Models

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ISBN: 9783039218585 9783039218592 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-859-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:39:37
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Prototypical quantum optics models, such as the Jaynes–Cummings, Rabi, Tavis–Cummings, and Dicke models, are commonly analyzed with diverse techniques, including analytical exact solutions, mean-field theory, exact diagonalization, and so on. Analysis of these systems strongly depends on their symmetries, ranging, e.g., from a U(1) group in the Jaynes–Cummings model to a Z2 symmetry in the full-fledged quantum Rabi model. In recent years, novel regimes of light–matter interactions, namely, the ultrastrong and deep-strong coupling regimes, have been attracting an increasing amount of interest. The quantum Rabi and Dicke models in these exotic regimes present new features, such as collapses and revivals of the population, bounces of photon-number wave packets, as well as the breakdown of the rotating-wave approximation. Symmetries also play an important role in these regimes and will additionally change depending on whether the few- or many-qubit systems considered have associated inhomogeneous or equal couplings to the bosonic mode. Moreover, there is a growing interest in proposing and carrying out quantum simulations of these models in quantum platforms such as trapped ions, superconducting circuits, and quantum photonics. In this Special Issue Reprint, we have gathered a series of articles related to symmetry in quantum optics models, including the quantum Rabi model and its symmetries, Floquet topological quantum states in optically driven semiconductors, the spin–boson model as a simulator of non-Markovian multiphoton Jaynes–Cummings models, parity-assisted generation of nonclassical states of light in circuit quantum electrodynamics, and quasiprobability distribution functions from fractional Fourier transforms.

Joseph Fourier 250th Birthday. Modern Fourier Analysis and Fourier Heat Equation in Information Sciences for the XXIst century

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ISBN: 9783038977469 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-747-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:17:10
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For the 250th birthday of Joseph Fourier, born in 1768 in Auxerre, France, this MDPI Special Issue will explore modern topics related to Fourier Analysis and Heat Equation. Modern developments of Fourier analysis during the 20th century have explored generalizations of Fourier and Fourier–Plancherel formula for non-commutative harmonic analysis, applied to locally-compact, non-Abelian groups. In parallel, the theory of coherent states and wavelets has been generalized over Lie groups. One should add the developments, over the last 30 years, of the applications of harmonic analysis to the description of the fascinating world of aperiodic structures in condensed matter physics. The notions of model sets, introduced by Y. Meyer, and of almost periodic functions, have revealed themselves to be extremely fruitful in this domain of natural sciences. The name of Joseph Fourier is also inseparable from the study of the mathematics of heat. Modern research on heat equations explores the extension of the classical diffusion equation on Riemannian, sub-Riemannian manifolds, and Lie groups. In parallel, in geometric mechanics, Jean-Marie Souriau interpreted the temperature vector of Planck as a space-time vector, obtaining, in this way, a phenomenological model of continuous media, which presents some interesting properties. One last comment concerns the fundamental contributions of Fourier analysis to quantum physics: Quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The content of this Special Issue will highlight papers exploring non-commutative Fourier harmonic analysis, spectral properties of aperiodic order, the hypoelliptic heat equation, and the relativistic heat equation in the context of Information Theory and Geometric Science of Information.

Friction Stir Welding and Processing in Alloy Manufacturing

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ISBN: 9783039212071 9783039212088 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-208-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered to be the most significant development in metal joining in decades and, in addition, is a ""green"" technology due to its energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and versatility. This process offers a number of advantages over conventional joining processes. Furthermore, because welding occurs via the deformation of material at temperatures below the melting temperature, many problems commonly associated with joining of dissimilar alloys can be avoided, and thus, high-quality welds are produced. Due to this fact, FSW has been widely used in different industrial applications where metallurgical characteristics should be retained, such as in the aeronautic, naval, and automotive industries.

Development of Unconventional Reservoirs

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ISBN: 9783039285808 / 9783039285815 Year: Pages: 522 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-581-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The need for energy is increasing and but the production from conventional reservoirs is declining quickly. This requires an economically and technically feasible source of energy for the coming years. Among some alternative future energy solutions, the most reasonable source is from unconventional reservoirs. As the name “unconventional” implies, different and challenging approaches are required to characterize and develop these resources. This Special Issue covers some of the technical challenges for developing unconventional energy sources from shale gas/oil, tight gas sand, and coalbed methane.

Keywords

CO2 huff-n-puff --- condensate recovery --- shale gas condensate reservoir --- fractured tight reservoir --- stress-dependent permeability --- fracture penetration extent --- theoretical model --- shale gas --- multi-stage fracturing horizontal wells --- well interference --- transient pressure --- numerical analysis --- shale gas --- methane adsorption capacity --- Langmuir volume --- Langmuir pressure --- total organic carbon --- clay content --- coal rank --- petrophysical properties --- coalbed methane --- adsorption capacity --- Niutitang formation --- TOC recovery --- organic pores --- porosity --- pore structure --- unconventional reservoirs --- gravel pack --- sand control --- gradation optimization --- visual experiment --- coal measure gases (coalbed gas --- shale gas --- and tight sand gas) --- co-exploitation --- wellbore stability --- wettability --- zeta potential --- drilling fluid --- adsorption and desorption isotherms --- sorption hysteresis --- medium volatile bituminous coal --- equation of state --- NIST-Refprop --- gas compressibility factors --- original gas in-place --- gas shale --- NMR --- helium porosimetry --- clay bound water --- porosity --- pore size distribution --- low-pressure gas adsorption --- MICP --- tight gas reservoirs --- Klinkenberg slippage theory --- high pressure and low flowrate --- gas permeability measurement --- adsorption --- unconventional reservoirs --- pulse decay test --- unsteady state non-equilibrium sorption --- pseudo-steady-state non-equilibrium sorption --- equilibrium sorption --- capillary number --- initial water saturation --- capillary trapping --- residual gas distribution --- nuclear magnetic resonance --- ultra-deep well --- shock loads --- perforated string --- safety analysis --- optimization measures --- convolutional neural network --- well testing --- tight reservoirs --- pressure derivative --- automatic classification --- air flooding --- catalyst-activated low temperature oxidation --- oxidation reaction pathway --- catalytic oxidation characteristics --- Changqing tight oil --- organic-rich shale --- gas adsorption and desorption --- sorption hysteresis --- Langmuir model --- compositional 3D --- dual-porosity system --- total organic carbon (TOC) --- Computer Modelling Group (CMG) --- GEM® --- coalbed methane --- gas content --- diffusion coefficient --- reservoir simulation --- deepwater well --- perforation safety --- peak pressure --- numerical model --- orthogonal test --- limestone and calcareous mudstone interbedding --- gas content --- source-mixed gas --- fractures --- northern Guizhou --- water imbibition --- oil migration --- tight oil reservoirs --- nuclear magnetic resonance --- semi-analytical model --- reorientation fractures --- horizontal well --- tight reservoir --- flow behavior --- tight gas sand --- unconventional --- porosity–permeability --- hydraulic flow units --- electrical resistivity --- NMR --- micro-CT image --- petrophysics --- petrography --- carbon dioxide sequestration --- caprock integrity --- shale alteration --- rock-water-CO2 interaction --- lab tests under reservoir condition --- fractured-vuggy reservoirs --- physical model --- water flooding effect --- injection and production pattern --- gravity differentiation --- flow channel

SPIG2018

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038978503 9783038978510 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-851-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Nuclear Physics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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This Special Issue covers a wide range of topics from fundamental studies to applications of ionized gases. It is dedicated to four topics of interest: 1. ATOMIC COLLISION PROCESSES (electron and photon interactions with atomic particles, heavy particle collisions, swarms, and transport phenomena); 2. PARTICLE AND LASER BEAM INTERACTION WITH SOLIDS (atomic collisions in solids, sputtering and deposition, and laser and plasma interactions with surfaces); 3. LOW TEMPERATURE PLASMAS (plasma spectroscopy and other diagnostic methods, gas discharges, and plasma applications and devices); 4. GENERAL PLASMAS (fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and collective phenomena). This Special Issue of Atoms will highlight the need for continued research on ionized gas physics in different topics ranging from fundamental studies to applications, and will review current investigations.

Keywords

strong-field physics --- attoscience --- bicircular field --- high-order harmonic generation --- above-threshold ionization --- spin-polarized electrons --- capacitively-coupled discharge --- oxygen --- particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision --- electron heating --- secondary electron emission --- Large Helical Device (LHD) --- deuterium experiment --- ion temperature of 10 keV --- plasma research --- spectroscopic study --- dispersion interferometer --- modified theories of gravity --- methods: analytical --- methods: numerical --- galaxies: elliptical --- galaxies: fundamental parameters --- non-equilibrium --- collisions --- radiation --- planetary atmospheric entry --- laser matter interaction --- laser-induced breakdown --- plasma --- spectroscopy --- streak camera --- plasma --- spectral lines --- Stark broadening --- oxygen --- silicon --- spectroscopy --- gas discharges --- plasma applications --- databases --- virtual observatory --- cross sections --- rate coefficients --- runway electron --- plasma current --- fusion plasma --- tokamak --- glow discharge --- argon --- nitrogen admixture --- discharge voltage --- diffuse discharge --- constricted discharge --- electrical theory of DBDs --- QV-plot --- instantaneous power --- rainbow scattering --- positron channeling effect --- time-dependent Schrödinger equation --- chiral single wall carbon nanotubes --- black hole physics --- cosmology --- quasar spectroscopy --- cosmological parameters --- ionized gas --- broad line region --- Rydberg atoms --- dynamic instability --- control of atomic states --- Förster resonance --- plasma spectroscopy --- Stark broadening --- plasma diagnostics --- line shape modeling --- Zeeman-Doppler broadening --- Balmer line series --- radiative recombination --- photoacoustic --- photothermal --- inverse problem --- thermal memory --- minimum volume cell --- neural networks --- thermal diffusivity --- conductivity --- linear coefficient of thermal extension --- AGN --- black holes --- gravitational waves --- binary black holes --- quasars --- photodetachment --- magnetically confined fusion --- neutral beam injection --- plasma heating --- optical cavity amplification --- low-energy electrons --- electron–molecule interactions --- astrochemistry --- laboratory plasma --- astrophysical plasma --- fusion plasma --- lasers --- stars --- extragalactic objects --- spectra --- spectroscopy --- scaling laws

Miniaturized Transistors

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039210107 9783039210114 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-011-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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What is the future of CMOS? Sustaining increased transistor densities along the path of Moore's Law has become increasingly challenging with limited power budgets, interconnect bandwidths, and fabrication capabilities. In the last decade alone, transistors have undergone significant design makeovers; from planar transistors of ten years ago, technological advancements have accelerated to today's FinFETs, which hardly resemble their bulky ancestors. FinFETs could potentially take us to the 5-nm node, but what comes after it? From gate-all-around devices to single electron transistors and two-dimensional semiconductors, a torrent of research is being carried out in order to design the next transistor generation, engineer the optimal materials, improve the fabrication technology, and properly model future devices. We invite insight from investigators and scientists in the field to showcase their work in this Special Issue with research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on trends in micro- and nanotechnology from fundamental research to applications.

Keywords

flux calculation --- etching simulation --- process simulation --- topography simulation --- CMOS --- field-effect transistor --- ferroelectrics --- MOS devices --- negative-capacitance --- piezoelectrics --- power consumption --- thin-film transistors (TFTs) --- compact model --- surface potential --- technology computer-aided design (TCAD) --- metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) --- topography simulation --- metal gate stack --- level set --- high-k --- fin field effect transistor (FinFET) --- line edge roughness --- metal gate granularity --- nanowire --- non-equilibrium Green’s function --- random discrete dopants --- SiGe --- variability --- band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) --- electrostatic discharge (ESD) --- tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) --- Silicon-Germanium source/drain (SiGe S/D) --- technology computer aided design (TCAD) --- bulk NMOS devices --- radiation hardened by design (RHBD) --- total ionizing dose (TID) --- Sentaurus TCAD --- layout --- two-dimensional material --- field effect transistor --- indium selenide --- phonon scattering --- mobility --- high-? dielectric --- low-frequency noise --- silicon-on-insulator --- MOSFET --- inversion channel --- buried channel --- subthreshold bias range --- low voltage --- low energy --- theoretical model --- process simulation --- device simulation --- compact models --- process variations --- systematic variations --- statistical variations --- FinFETs --- nanowires --- nanosheets --- semi-floating gate --- synaptic transistor --- neuromorphic system --- spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) --- highly miniaturized transistor structure --- low power consumption --- drain engineered --- tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) --- polarization --- ambipolar --- subthreshold --- ON-state --- doping incorporation --- plasma-aided molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) --- segregation --- silicon nanowire --- n/a

Nonlinear Dynamics and Entropy of Complex Systems with Hidden and Self-excited Attractors

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783038978985 9783038978992 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-899-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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In recent years, entropy has been used as a measure of the degree of chaos in dynamical systems. Thus, it is important to study entropy in nonlinear systems. Moreover, there has been increasing interest in the last few years regarding the novel classification of nonlinear dynamical systems including two kinds of attractors: self-excited attractors and hidden attractors. The localization of self-excited attractors by applying a standard computational procedure is straightforward. In systems with hidden attractors, however, a specific computational procedure must be developed, since equilibrium points do not help in the localization of hidden attractors. Some examples of this kind of system are chaotic dynamical systems with no equilibrium points; with only stable equilibria, curves of equilibria, and surfaces of equilibria; and with non-hyperbolic equilibria. There is evidence that hidden attractors play a vital role in various fields ranging from phase-locked loops, oscillators, describing convective fluid motion, drilling systems, information theory, cryptography, and multilevel DC/DC converters. This Special Issue is a collection of the latest scientific trends on the advanced topics of dynamics, entropy, fractional order calculus, and applications in complex systems with self-excited attractors and hidden attractors.

Keywords

new chaotic system --- multiple attractors --- electronic circuit realization --- S-Box algorithm --- chaotic systems --- circuit design --- parameter estimation --- optimization methods --- Gaussian mixture model --- chaotic system --- empirical mode decomposition --- permutation entropy --- image encryption --- hidden attractors --- fixed point --- stability --- nonlinear transport equation --- stochastic (strong) entropy solution --- uniqueness --- existence --- multiscale multivariate entropy --- multistability --- self-reproducing system --- chaos --- hidden attractor --- self-excited attractor --- fractional order --- spectral entropy --- coexistence --- multistability --- chaotic flow --- hidden attractor --- multistable --- entropy --- core entropy --- Thurston’s algorithm --- Hubbard tree --- external rays --- chaos --- Lyapunov exponents --- multiple-valued --- static memory --- strange attractors --- fractional discrete chaos --- entropy --- projective synchronization --- full state hybrid projective synchronization --- generalized synchronization --- inverse full state hybrid projective synchronization --- inverse generalized synchronization --- multichannel supply chain --- service game --- chaos --- entropy --- BOPS --- Hopf bifurcation --- self-excited attractors --- multistability --- sample entropy --- PRNG --- Non-equilibrium four-dimensional chaotic system --- entropy measure --- adaptive approximator-based control --- neural network --- uncertain dynamics --- synchronization --- fractional-order --- complex-variable chaotic system --- unknown complex parameters --- chaotic map --- fixed point --- chaos --- approximate entropy --- implementation --- hidden attractor --- hyperchaotic system --- multistability --- entropy analysis --- hidden attractor --- complex systems --- fractional-order --- entropy --- chaotic maps --- chaos --- spatial dynamics --- Bogdanov Map --- chaos --- laser --- resonator

Recent Advances in Mechanics of Non-Newtonian Fluids

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039283088 9783039283095 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-309-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Non-Newtonian (non-linear) fluids are common in nature, for example, in mud and honey, but also in many chemical, biological, food, pharmaceutical, and personal care processing industries. This Special Issue of Fluids is dedicated to the recent advances in the mathematical and physical modeling of non-linear fluids with industrial applications, especially those concerned with CFD studies. These fluids include traditional non-Newtonian fluid models, electro- or magneto-rheological fluids, granular materials, slurries, drilling fluids, polymers, blood and other biofluids, mixtures of fluids and particles, etc.

Keywords

inhomogeneous fluids --- non-newtonian fluids --- lubrication approximation (76A05, 76D08, 76A20) --- particle interaction --- viscoplastic fluid --- Bingham fluid --- computational fluid dynamics --- porous media --- convection --- Bingham fluid --- yield stress --- channel flow --- power-law fluid --- shear-dependent viscosity --- Reynolds equation --- lubrication approximation --- lid-driven cavity --- projection method --- shear-thinning --- aspect ratio --- Re numbers --- Brinkman equation --- viscosity ratio --- first- and second-order slip --- similarity transformation --- porous medium --- generalised simplified PTT --- Phan-Thien–Tanner (PTT) model --- Mittag–Leffler --- Couette flow --- Poiseuille–Couette flow --- non-isothermal flows --- creeping flows --- viscous fluid --- optimal control --- boundary control --- pressure boundary conditions --- weak solution --- existence theorem --- marginal function --- hemoglobin --- biological capacitor --- non-equilibrium thermodynamics --- hemoglobe capacitor --- thermodynamic capacitor --- smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) --- meshless --- fluid-solid interaction (FSI) --- membrane --- rupture --- SPH-FEM --- stokesian dynamics --- dense suspension --- rheology --- bubble suspension --- suspension viscosity --- Gamma densitometer --- high viscosity oil --- slug translational velocity --- closure relationship --- wormlike micellar solutions (WMS) --- enhanced oil recovery (EOR) --- chemical EOR (cEOR) --- viscoelastic surfactants (VES) --- non-linear fluids --- variable viscosity --- natural convection --- convection-diffusion --- buoyancy force --- lubrication --- suspensions --- viscoplastic fluids --- cement --- biofluids --- oil recovery --- porous media

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