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Memristors for Neuromorphic Circuits and Artificial Intelligence Applications

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ISBN: 9783039285761 / 9783039285778 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-577-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Artificial Intelligence (AI) has found many applications in the past decade due to the ever increasing computing power. Artificial Neural Networks are inspired in the brain structure and consist in the interconnection of artificial neurons through artificial synapses. Training these systems requires huge amounts of data and, after the network is trained, it can recognize unforeseen data and provide useful information. The so-called Spiking Neural Networks behave similarly to how the brain functions and are very energy efficient. Up to this moment, both spiking and conventional neural networks have been implemented in software programs running on conventional computing units. However, this approach requires high computing power, a large physical space and is energy inefficient. Thus, there is an increasing interest in developing AI tools directly implemented in hardware. The first hardware demonstrations have been based on CMOS circuits for neurons and specific communication protocols for synapses. However, to further increase training speed and energy efficiency while decreasing system size, the combination of CMOS neurons with memristor synapses is being explored. The memristor is a resistor with memory which behaves similarly to biological synapses. This book explores the state-of-the-art of neuromorphic circuits implementing neural networks with memristors for AI applications.

Keywords

memristor --- artificial synapse --- neuromorphic computing --- memristor-CMOS hybrid circuit --- temporal pooling --- sensory and hippocampal responses --- cortical neurons --- hierarchical temporal memory --- neocortex --- memristor-CMOS hybrid circuit --- defect-tolerant spatial pooling --- boost-factor adjustment --- memristor crossbar --- neuromorphic hardware --- memristor --- compact model --- emulator --- neuromorphic --- synapse --- STDP --- pavlov --- neuromorphic systems --- spiking neural networks --- memristors --- spike-timing-dependent plasticity --- RRAM --- vertical RRAM --- neuromorphics --- neural network hardware --- reinforcement learning --- AI --- neuromorphic computing --- multiscale modeling --- memristor --- optimization --- RRAM --- simulation --- memristors --- neuromorphic engineering --- OxRAM --- self-organization maps --- synaptic device --- memristor --- neuromorphic computing --- artificial intelligence --- hardware-based deep learning ICs --- circuit design --- memristor --- RRAM --- variability --- time series modeling --- autocovariance --- graphene oxide --- laser --- memristor --- crossbar array --- neuromorphic computing --- wire resistance --- synaptic weight --- character recognition --- neuromorphic computing --- Flash memories --- memristive devices --- resistive switching --- synaptic plasticity --- artificial neural network --- spiking neural network --- pattern recognition --- strongly correlated oxides --- resistive switching --- neuromorphic computing --- transistor-like devices --- artificial intelligence --- neural networks --- resistive switching --- memristive devices --- deep learning networks --- spiking neural networks --- electronic synapses --- crossbar array --- pattern recognition

Quantum Foundations. 90 Years of Uncertainty

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ISBN: 9783038977544 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-755-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The name of Joseph Fourier is also inseparable from the study of the mathematics of heat. Modern research on heat equations explores the extension of the classical diffusion equation on Riemannian, sub-Riemannian manifolds, and Lie groups. In parallel, in geometric mechanics, Jean-Marie Souriau interpreted the temperature vector of Planck as a space-time vector, obtaining, in this way, a phenomenological model of continuous media, which presents some interesting properties.

Flexible Electronics: Fabrication and Ubiquitous Integration

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ISBN: 9783038978282 9783038978299 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-829-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Flexible Electronics platforms are increasingly used in the fields of sensors, displays, and energy conversion with the ultimate goal of facilitating their ubiquitous integration in our daily lives. Some of the key advantages associated with flexible electronic platforms are: bendability, lightweight, elastic, conformally shaped, nonbreakable, roll-to-roll manufacturable, and large-area. To realize their full potential, however, it is necessary to develop new methods for the fabrication of multifunctional flexible electronics at a reduced cost and with an increased resistance to mechanical fatigue. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase short communications, research papers, and review articles that focus on novel methodological development for the fabrication, and integration of flexible electronics in healthcare, environmental monitoring, displays and human-machine interactivity, robotics, communication and wireless networks, and energy conversion, management, and storage.

Emerging Memory and Computing Devices in the Era of Intelligent Machines

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ISBN: 9783039285020 / 9783039285037 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-503-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Computing systems are undergoing a transformation from logic-centric towards memory-centric architectures, where overall performance and energy efficiency at the system level are determined by the density, performance, functionality and efficiency of the memory, rather than the logic sub-system.

Keywords

3D-stacked --- DRAM --- in-DRAM cache --- low-latency --- low-power --- resistive memory --- crossbar --- in-memory computing --- analogue computing --- matrix-vector multiplication --- ECG --- voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy --- magnetoresistive random access memory --- magnetic tunnel junction --- bioelectronic devices --- bionanohybrid material --- biomemory --- biologic gate --- bioprocessor --- protein --- nucleic acid --- nanoparticles --- SONOS --- flash memory --- charge spreading --- plasma treatment --- Oxygen-related trap --- data retention --- BCH --- decoder --- iBM --- GPU --- hybrid --- flash memory --- Galois field --- CUDA --- in-memory computing --- logic-in-memory --- non-von Neumann architecture --- configurable logic-in-memory architecture --- memory wall --- convolutional neural networks --- emerging technologies --- perpendicular Nano Magnetic Logic (pNML) --- silicon oxide-based memristors --- resistance switching mechanism --- variability --- conductive filament --- Weibull distribution --- quantum point contact --- real-time system --- dynamic voltage scaling --- task placement --- low-power technique --- nonvolatile memory --- neuromorphic system --- Hebbian training --- guide training --- memristor --- image classification --- STT-MRAM --- flip-flop --- power gating --- low-power --- bipolar resistive switching characteristics --- annealing temperatures --- solution-based dielectric --- resistive random access memory (RRAM) --- multi-level cell --- phase change memory --- programmable ramp-down current pulses --- Fast Fourier Transform --- in-memory computing --- associative processor --- non-von neumann architecture --- in-memory computing --- memristor --- RISC-V --- Internet of things --- blockchain --- U-shape recessed channel --- floating gate --- neuromorphic computing --- MCU (microprogrammed control unit) --- chalcogenide --- electrochemical metallization cell --- electrochemical metallization (ECM) --- ion conduction --- memristor --- self-directed channel (SDC) --- memristor --- crossbar array --- wire resistance --- synaptic weight --- character recognition --- n/a

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