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Advances in Neuroimmunology

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ISBN: 9783038425700 9783038425717 Year: Pages: X, 150 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-571-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-06 12:41:40
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Neuroimmunity is a relative new and rapidly expanding area of interest that critically impacts normal brain function and a wide range of neurological disorders. Neuroimmune mechanisms operate within the nervous system and between the nervous system and periphery. Glial cells of the nervous system play a primary role in neuroimmunity, through their ability to produce and respond to neuroimmune signaling factors, which serve a number of functions, such as homeostatic regulation of nervous system function and defense against insult and infection. Dysfunction of the neuroimmune system is now thought to be an important contributing factor to many disease and injury states.The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a representative view of current research in this growing field, with an emphasis on the central nervous system.

Neuroinflammation and Behaviour

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196029 Year: Pages: 181 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-602-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The brain and immune system are involved in an intricate network of bidirectional communication. This relationship is vital for optimal physiological and psychological development and functioning but can also result in unwanted outcomes. In particular, this interaction plays an important role in cognition, mood and behaviour. Neuroinflammation is known to contribute to neurological and affective disorders including impaired learning and memory, depressive, anxiety and schizoaffective symptoms, as well as pain. The development of these conditions often occurs on the backdrop of pre-existing physical illnesses which give rise to increased activation of the immune system, such as cancer, obesity, infection and autoimmune disorders. Similarly, psychological states can alter regulation of the immune system. This has been most extensively studied in the context of stress and immune function. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to the onset of inflammation-induced neuropathology and stress-induced immune suppression will contribute to the development of novel and effective treatment strategies for both the disease and its neurological side effects. In this research topic we explored the relationship between the immune system and the brain throughout life. We include both original research and review papers from animal, clinical and molecular perspectives.

Frontiers in Synaptic Plasticity: Dendritic Spines, Circuitries and Behavior

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199471 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-947-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The term “synaptic plasticity” is a broad concept, which is studied with a variety of experimental approaches. One focus is the impact of changes in synaptic, neuronal and glial morphology on brain circuitry and behavior. In this regard, unique animal models have been key to the study of affective and social behaviors and neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, there is a paucity of compilations directed toward the correlation of alterations in synaptic structure with various physiological and behavioral paradigms. This Frontiers Research Topic will, therefore, serve as an exciting forum for the exchange of novel hypotheses and data and an important resource and reference for investigators studying synaptic and brain plasticity, as well as those in related fields.

Biomedical Insights that Inform the Diagnosis of ME/CFS

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ISBN: 9783039283903 9783039283910 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-391-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a severe chronic health condition that is often misunderstood or ignored by health establishments. The lack of definitive diagnostic markers to separate ME/CFS patients from the healthy population as well as from other chronic disorders is problematic for both health professionals and researchers. A consortium of Australian researchers gathered to systematically understand ME/CFS, ranging from a deep analysis of clinical and pathology data to metabolomic profiles and the investigation of mitochondrial function. From this broad collaboration, a number of compelling insights have arisen that may form the basis of specific serum, blood, and/or urinary biomarkers of ME/CFS. This Special Edition reports on a conference centred on these biomedical discoveries, with other contributions, with a translation focus for predictive markers for ME/CFS diagnosis. By supporting health professionals with developments in diagnostics for this condition, the patients and their families will hopefully benefit from an improved recognition of the biomedical underpinnings of the condition and will be better able to access the care that is urgently required. This Special Edition contains a mix of speaker submissions and other accepted manuscripts that contributed to our objective of advancing biomedical insights to enable the accurate diagnosis of ME/CFS.

Keywords

myalgic encephalomyelitis --- chronic fatigue syndrome --- diagnosis --- symptoms --- muscles --- neurology --- myalgic encephalomyelitis --- chronic fatigue syndrome --- post-exertional malaise --- assessment --- patient-driven questionnaire --- participatory research --- myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) --- energy metabolism --- potential biomarkers --- fatigue syndrome --- chronic --- exercise --- hypoacetylation --- methylhistidine --- histone deacetylation --- myalgic encephalomyelitis --- chronic fatigue syndrome --- diagnostic biomarker --- inflammation and immunity --- metabolism --- mitochondria --- circadian rhythm --- neuro-inflammation --- myalgic encephalomyelitis --- chronic fatigue syndrome --- activin --- pathology --- biomarker --- cytokine --- machine learning --- reference intervals --- myalgic encephalomyelitis --- chronic fatigue syndrome --- ME/CFS --- diagnosis --- metabolism --- mitochondria --- inflammation --- immune system --- signaling --- gut microbiota --- tryptophan metabolism --- indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase --- bistability --- kynurenine pathway --- substrate inhibition --- myalgic encephalomyelitis --- chronic fatigue syndrome --- mathematical model --- critical point --- immunological --- chronic fatigue syndrome --- myalgic encephalomyelitis --- biomarker --- neuroimmune --- Epstein Barr virus --- hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis --- CFS (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) --- ME (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis) --- medical retirement --- prognosis --- work rehabilitation --- n/a

Neuroproteomics

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039281060 9783039281077 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-107-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The Neuroproteomics Special Issue overviews the unique challenges that must be addressed to carry out meaningful MS/proteomics analyses on neural tissues and the technologies that are available to meet these challenges. The articles on Alzheimer’s disease, addiction, and schizophrenia illustrate how MS/proteomics technologies can be used to improve our ability to diagnose and understand the molecular basis for neurological diseases. Several articles will be of interest to investigators beyond the field of neurological disorders. The review on the discovery of biofluid biomarkers of neurodegenerative dementias will be of interest to investigators searching for other disease biomarkers. Similarly, the review on the role of neuroproteomics in elucidating mechanisms of drug addiction provides an overview of the utility of MS/proteomics approaches for addressing critical questions in addiction neuroscience that should be applicable to investigators involved in virtually any area of biomedical research. Likewise, the article on developing targeted MS approaches for quantifying postsynaptic density proteins will be useful for any investigator who wishes to design targeted assays for virtually any protein. Finally, the peroxidase-mediated proximity labeling technology, described in the article on mapping the proteome of the synaptic cleft, will be of interest to investigators interested in mapping other spatially restricted proteomes.

Keywords

proteomics --- basal ganglia --- synapses --- synapse specificity --- neuronal circuits --- axons --- dendrites --- neurodegeneration --- synapse --- postsynaptic --- proteome --- mass spectrometry --- protein interaction networks --- connectome --- neurodegeneration --- Alzheimer’s disease --- cerebrospinal fluid --- plasma --- serum --- proteomics --- biomarkers --- LC-MS/MS --- cocaine --- addiction --- cytokine --- neuroimmune --- ventral tegmental area --- peptidylglycine ?-amidating monooxygenase --- cilia --- mating --- signal peptide --- prohormone convertase --- carboxypeptidase --- matrix metalloproteinase --- subtilisin --- pherophorin --- morphine --- opioid receptors --- conformational antibody --- analgesia --- GPCR signaling --- phosphorylation --- AMPA receptor complex --- transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein --- synaptic plasticity --- adolescence --- corticosterone --- proteomics --- yohimbine --- progressive ratio --- reinstatement --- ethanol --- nicotinic receptor --- CaMKII --- PKA --- quantitative phosphoproteomics --- mouse --- phosphorylation --- nicotine --- proteomics --- proteome --- mass spectrometry --- Alzheimer’s disease --- protein aggregation --- laser capture microdissection --- splicing --- U1 snRNP --- synapse --- synaptic cleft --- trans-synaptic adhesion --- proximity labeling --- SynCAM --- Cadm --- Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase zeta --- R-PTP-zeta --- Ptprz1 --- neuroproteome --- drug abuse --- neuropeptidomics --- phosphorylation --- interactome --- cell type --- neuroscience --- proteomics --- mass spectrometry --- neuron --- proximity labeling --- affinity chromatography --- neuroproteomics --- biotinylation --- amphetamine --- spinophilin --- protein phosphatase-1 --- dopamine --- striatum --- mass spectroscopy --- bioinformatics --- FGF14 --- voltage gated channels --- schizophrenia --- autism --- Alzheimer’s Disease --- sex-specific differences --- synaptic plasticity --- cognitive impairment --- excitatory/inhibitory tone --- n/a --- postsynaptic density --- PSD --- parallel reaction monitoring --- PRM --- targeted proteomics --- data-independent acquisition --- DIA --- quantitative mass spectrometry --- n/a

Iron as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases Volume 1

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280827 9783039280834 Year: Pages: 472 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-083-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Abstract

Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms, a cofactor playing a crucial role in a number of vital functions, including oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and respiration. However, its ability to exchange electrons renders excess iron potentially toxic, since it is capable of catalyzing the formation of highly poisonous free radicals. As a consequence, iron homeostasis is tightly controlled by sophisticated mechanisms that have been partially elucidated. Because of its biological importance, numerous disorders have been recently linked to the deregulation of iron homeostasis, which include not only the typical disorders of iron overload and deficiency but also cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. This leads iron metabolism to become an interesting therapeutic target for novel pharmacological treatments against these diseases. Several therapies are currently under development for hematological disorders, while other are being considered for different pathologies. The therapeutic targeting under study includes the hepcidin/ferroportin axis for the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis, complex cytosolic machineries for the regulation of the intracellular iron status and its association with oxidative damage, and reagents exploiting proteins of iron metabolism such as ferritin and transferrin receptor. A promising potential target is a recently described form of programmed cell death named ferroptosis, in which the role of iron is essential but not completely clarified. This Special Issue has the aim to summarize the state-of-the-art, and the latest findings published in the iron field, as well as to elucidate future directions.

Keywords

cinnamic acid derivatives --- soybean seed ferritin --- iron release --- binding ability --- Fe2+-chelating activity --- reducibility --- adverse event profile --- anaemia --- bioengineering --- labile iron --- intravenous iron --- iron-carbohydrate complex --- iron processing --- iron metabolism --- infection --- innate immunity --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- anemia of inflammation --- pharmaceutical targets --- iron deficiency anemia --- nutrient iron --- oral iron therapy --- FeSO4 --- NaFeEDTA --- non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) --- developing countries --- Indonesia --- neurodegeneration --- mitochondria --- therapy --- heme --- haem --- Iron-sulfur --- Friedreich Ataxia --- Oxidative stress --- Iron chelators --- iron deficiency --- anemia --- cancer --- hepcidin --- patient blood management --- malaria --- iron deficiency --- hepcidin --- TNF --- children --- Africa --- Anemia --- iron deficiency --- oral iron salts --- intravenous iron --- Sucrosomial® iron --- M cells --- bioavailability --- tolerability --- efficacy --- iron --- gut microbiota --- iron supplementation --- iron transporters --- mucosal immunity --- SCFA --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) --- colorectal cancer --- oxidative stress --- anaemia --- cardiovascular disease --- chronic kidney disease --- IV iron therapy --- bone homeostasis --- iron overload --- iron deficiency --- osteoclast --- osteoblast --- osteoporosis --- neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation --- iron chelation therapy --- multifunctional iron chelators --- fluorescent iron chelator --- 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone --- fluorophore --- rhodamine --- membrane interactions --- bacteria --- antibacterial activity --- histidine --- iron --- anemia --- oxidative stress --- kidney --- chelation --- iron --- retina --- age-related macular degeneration (AMD) --- iron --- lipid --- obesity --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- iron chelation --- phlebotomy --- NCOA4 --- ferritinophagy --- iron homeostasis --- erythropoiesis --- ferroptosis --- cancer --- Tfr2 --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- erythropoiesis --- SNC --- ferritin --- iron mobilization --- chaotropes --- flavin nucleotide --- electron transfer --- kinetics --- ferritin --- iron --- iron delivery --- nanotechnology --- nanocage --- drug delivery --- inflammation --- serum biomarker --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- hemochromatosis --- anemia --- hepcidin --- iron deficiency anemia --- iron dextran --- neonatal period --- pig --- supplementation --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neuroinflammation --- neurodegeneration --- cytokines --- neuroimmune responses --- iron --- genetic hemochromatosis --- non transferrin bound iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- venesections --- Anemia of chronic disease --- anemia of inflammation --- hepcidin --- anti-hepcidin therapy --- iron supplementation --- macrophage --- central nurse macrophage --- red pulp macrophage --- Kupffer cell --- iron metabolism --- erythropoiesis --- erythroblastic islands --- erythrophagocytosis --- inflammation --- iron homeostasis --- lung diseases --- oxygen sensing --- hypoxia --- ferritin --- hereditary hyperferritinemia --- hereditary hypoferritinemia --- iron metabolism --- cataracts syndrome --- neurodegenerative disease --- n/a --- iron --- neurodegeneration --- NBIA --- hepcidin --- iron --- lung --- acute lung injury --- COPD --- lung infection --- cystic fibrosis --- iron --- anaemia --- infection --- malaria --- immunity --- brain development --- growth --- microbiome --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- iron supplementation --- infants --- children --- low and middle income countries --- liver --- iron --- hepcidin --- Mek/Erk --- Hfe --- Bmp/Smad --- iron --- mycobacteria --- immunity --- Alzheimer’s disease --- iron homeostasis --- ferroptosis --- senescence --- chelators --- macrophages --- iron --- metabolism --- inflammation --- iron --- ferritin --- acute kidney injury --- chronic kidney disease --- vascular calcification --- iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- Interleukin-6 --- infection --- rheumatoid arthritis --- iron homeostasis --- iron absorption --- non-haem iron --- flavonoids --- developmental --- iron deficiency anemia --- neonatal --- transferrin receptor --- treatment --- hemochromatosis --- HFE --- natural history --- T lymphocytes --- MHC --- CD8+ T cells --- prevention --- iron homeostasis --- hepcidin --- protein binding --- peritoneal dialysis --- iron --- hepcidin --- iron regulatory proteins --- cardiomyocyte --- chronic heart failure --- pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells --- pulmonary arterial hypertension --- iron --- brain --- neurophysiology --- cognition --- social behavior --- didox --- iron chelators --- antitumor compound --- iron metabolism --- RRM2 --- SLC40A1 --- ferroportin --- iron overload --- non-HFE --- ferritin --- hemochromatosis --- iron --- chelation --- neurodegenerative diseases --- pituitary --- brain --- hemopexin --- heme homeostasis --- iron homeostasis --- hemolysis --- haptoglobin --- ferroptosis --- inflammation --- biomarker --- heme oxygenase --- liver --- microbiome --- trauma --- hemorrhage --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- iron homeostasis --- ferroportin --- n/a

Iron as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases Volume 2

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039281145 9783039281152 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-115-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Abstract

Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms, a cofactor playing a crucial role in a number of vital functions, including oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and respiration. However, its ability to exchange electrons renders excess iron potentially toxic, since it is capable of catalyzing the formation of highly poisonous free radicals. As a consequence, iron homeostasis is tightly controlled by sophisticated mechanisms that have been partially elucidated. Because of its biological importance, numerous disorders have been recently linked to the deregulation of iron homeostasis, which include not only the typical disorders of iron overload and deficiency but also cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. This leads iron metabolism to become an interesting therapeutic target for novel pharmacological treatments against these diseases. Several therapies are currently under development for hematological disorders, while other are being considered for different pathologies. The therapeutic targeting under study includes the hepcidin/ferroportin axis for the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis, complex cytosolic machineries for the regulation of the intracellular iron status and its association with oxidative damage, and reagents exploiting proteins of iron metabolism such as ferritin and transferrin receptor. A promising potential target is a recently described form of programmed cell death named ferroptosis, in which the role of iron is essential but not completely clarified. This Special Issue has the aim to summarize the state-of-the-art, and the latest findings published in the iron field, as well as to elucidate future directions.

Keywords

cinnamic acid derivatives --- soybean seed ferritin --- iron release --- binding ability --- Fe2+-chelating activity --- reducibility --- adverse event profile --- anaemia --- bioengineering --- labile iron --- intravenous iron --- iron-carbohydrate complex --- iron processing --- iron metabolism --- infection --- innate immunity --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- anemia of inflammation --- pharmaceutical targets --- iron deficiency anemia --- nutrient iron --- oral iron therapy --- FeSO4 --- NaFeEDTA --- non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) --- developing countries --- Indonesia --- neurodegeneration --- mitochondria --- therapy --- heme --- haem --- Iron-sulfur --- Friedreich Ataxia --- Oxidative stress --- Iron chelators --- iron deficiency --- anemia --- cancer --- hepcidin --- patient blood management --- malaria --- iron deficiency --- hepcidin --- TNF --- children --- Africa --- Anemia --- iron deficiency --- oral iron salts --- intravenous iron --- Sucrosomial® iron --- M cells --- bioavailability --- tolerability --- efficacy --- iron --- gut microbiota --- iron supplementation --- iron transporters --- mucosal immunity --- SCFA --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) --- colorectal cancer --- oxidative stress --- anaemia --- cardiovascular disease --- chronic kidney disease --- IV iron therapy --- bone homeostasis --- iron overload --- iron deficiency --- osteoclast --- osteoblast --- osteoporosis --- neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation --- iron chelation therapy --- multifunctional iron chelators --- fluorescent iron chelator --- 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone --- fluorophore --- rhodamine --- membrane interactions --- bacteria --- antibacterial activity --- histidine --- iron --- anemia --- oxidative stress --- kidney --- chelation --- iron --- retina --- age-related macular degeneration (AMD) --- iron --- lipid --- obesity --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- iron chelation --- phlebotomy --- NCOA4 --- ferritinophagy --- iron homeostasis --- erythropoiesis --- ferroptosis --- cancer --- Tfr2 --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- erythropoiesis --- SNC --- ferritin --- iron mobilization --- chaotropes --- flavin nucleotide --- electron transfer --- kinetics --- ferritin --- iron --- iron delivery --- nanotechnology --- nanocage --- drug delivery --- inflammation --- serum biomarker --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- hemochromatosis --- anemia --- hepcidin --- iron deficiency anemia --- iron dextran --- neonatal period --- pig --- supplementation --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neuroinflammation --- neurodegeneration --- cytokines --- neuroimmune responses --- iron --- genetic hemochromatosis --- non transferrin bound iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- venesections --- Anemia of chronic disease --- anemia of inflammation --- hepcidin --- anti-hepcidin therapy --- iron supplementation --- macrophage --- central nurse macrophage --- red pulp macrophage --- Kupffer cell --- iron metabolism --- erythropoiesis --- erythroblastic islands --- erythrophagocytosis --- inflammation --- iron homeostasis --- lung diseases --- oxygen sensing --- hypoxia --- ferritin --- hereditary hyperferritinemia --- hereditary hypoferritinemia --- iron metabolism --- cataracts syndrome --- neurodegenerative disease --- n/a --- iron --- neurodegeneration --- NBIA --- hepcidin --- iron --- lung --- acute lung injury --- COPD --- lung infection --- cystic fibrosis --- iron --- anaemia --- infection --- malaria --- immunity --- brain development --- growth --- microbiome --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- iron supplementation --- infants --- children --- low and middle income countries --- liver --- iron --- hepcidin --- Mek/Erk --- Hfe --- Bmp/Smad --- iron --- mycobacteria --- immunity --- Alzheimer’s disease --- iron homeostasis --- ferroptosis --- senescence --- chelators --- macrophages --- iron --- metabolism --- inflammation --- iron --- ferritin --- acute kidney injury --- chronic kidney disease --- vascular calcification --- iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- Interleukin-6 --- infection --- rheumatoid arthritis --- iron homeostasis --- iron absorption --- non-haem iron --- flavonoids --- developmental --- iron deficiency anemia --- neonatal --- transferrin receptor --- treatment --- hemochromatosis --- HFE --- natural history --- T lymphocytes --- MHC --- CD8+ T cells --- prevention --- iron homeostasis --- hepcidin --- protein binding --- peritoneal dialysis --- iron --- hepcidin --- iron regulatory proteins --- cardiomyocyte --- chronic heart failure --- pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells --- pulmonary arterial hypertension --- iron --- brain --- neurophysiology --- cognition --- social behavior --- didox --- iron chelators --- antitumor compound --- iron metabolism --- RRM2 --- SLC40A1 --- ferroportin --- iron overload --- non-HFE --- ferritin --- hemochromatosis --- iron --- chelation --- neurodegenerative diseases --- pituitary --- brain --- hemopexin --- heme homeostasis --- iron homeostasis --- hemolysis --- haptoglobin --- ferroptosis --- inflammation --- biomarker --- heme oxygenase --- liver --- microbiome --- trauma --- hemorrhage --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- iron homeostasis --- ferroportin --- n/a

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