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Nanofibres: Friend or Foe?

ISBN: 9783038422785 9783038422792 Year: Pages: XII, 178 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-19 09:28:28
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Nanofibers, particularly those of a carbonaceous content, have received increased interest in the past two decades due to their outstanding physico-chemical characteristics and their possibility to form and contribute towards a plethora of potentially advantageous materials for consumer, industrial and medical applications. Despite this, and together with the numerous research studies and published articles that have sought to investigate these aspects, the potential impact of CNTs is still not understood. Whether or not nanofibers may be able to provide a sophisticated alternative to conventional materials is still debatable, whilst their effects upon both environmental and human health are highly equivocal. How nanofibers are conceived can determine how they may interact with different environments, such as the human body. Understanding each key step of the synthesis and production of nanofibers to their use within potential applications is therefore essential in gaining an insight into how they may be perceived by any biological system and environment. Thus, obtaining such information will enable all scientific communities to begin to realize the potential advantages posed by nanofibers. The aim of this Special Issue therefore, was to provide a collective overview of nanofibers; ‘from synthesis to application’. The Issue particularly focuses upon carbon-based nanofibers, but also highlights alternative nanofiber types. Emphasis is given holistically, with articles discussing the production routes of nanofibers, their plight during their life-cycle (origin to applied form and effects over time), as well as how nanofibers could either incite conflict, or provide aid to human and environmental health.

Electrospun and Electrosprayed Formulations for Drug Delivery

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038979128 / 9783038979135 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-913-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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This book is comprised of important reviews and cutting-edge original research papers concerning electrospun and electrosprayed formulations in drug delivery. Electrospinning and electrospraying have, in recent years, attracted increasing attention in the pharmaceutical sector, with research in the area advancing rapidly. It is now possible to prepare extremely complex systems using multi-fluid processes, and to increase production rates to an industrial scale. Electrospun formulations can be produced under GMP conditions and are in clinical trials. In this volume, we explore a range of topics around electrospinning and electrospraying in controlled drug delivery. Four reviews cover the exciting potential of cyclodextrin-containing fibers and the many potential biomedical applications of electrospun fibers. The use of electrospinning to prepare amorphous systems and improve the dissolution rate and solubility of poorly soluble active ingredients is addressed, and the possibilities of such materials in tissue engineering are comprehensively covered. The six original research papers cover the effect of molecular properties on API release from Eudragit-based electrospun fibers; ferulic acid solid dispersions; electrospun medicines to treat psoriasis; scale up of electrospinning and its use to produce low-dose tablets; transepithelial permeation of drugs released from electrospun fibers, and the possibilities for the synergistic chemophotothermal treatment of cancer.

Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Nanomedicine

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216567 / 9783039216574 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-657-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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[This book focus on the most recent advances related to the design and processing methods of different nanobiomaterials, films, and fibers; surface functionalization strategies, including biological performance assessment and cytocompatibility; and their applications in tissue engineering strategies.]

Catalytic, Photocatalytic and Electrocatalytic Processes for the Valorisation of CO2

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039217786 / 9783039217793 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-779-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Increasing attention is being paid to the development of effective technologies for the sequestration of CO2 and its storage. Hopefully, this will result in processes that can lead to its valorisation as a chemical, e.g., for the regeneration of fuels, but also for the production of intermediates. These are usually energy demands and rather slow processes, requiring energy input and catalysts. Some examples are the innovative strategies for the hydrogenation, photoconversion, or electroreduction of carbon dioxide. This book collects original research papers, reviews, and commentaries focused on the challenges related to the valorisation and conversion of CO2.

Micro/Nano Materials for Clean Energy and Environment

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211289 / 9783039211296 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-129-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:41:30
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The Tsinghua University–University of Waterloo Joint Research Center for Micro/Nano Energy & Environment Technology (JCMEET) is a platform. It was established on Nov.11, 2017. The Chairperson of University Council of Tsinghua University, Dr. Xu Chen, and the President of the University of Waterloo, Dr. Feridun Hamdullahpur, attended the opening ceremony and unveiled the nameplate for the joint research center on 29th of March, 2018. The research center serves as a platform for researchers at both universities to conduct joint research in the targeted areas, and to meet regularly for information exchange, talent exchange, and knowledge mobilization, especially in the fields of micro/nano, energy, and environmental technologies. The center focuses on three main interests: micro/nano energy technology, micro/nano pollution control technology, and relevant fundamental research. In order to celebrate the first anniversary of the Joint Research Center, we were invited to serve as the Guest Editors of this Special Issue of Materials focusing on the topic of micro/nano-materials for clean energy and environment. It collects research papers from a broad range of topics related to micro/nanostructured materials aimed at future energy resources, low emission energy conversion, energy storage, energy efficiency improvement, air emission control, air monitoring, air cleaning, and many other related applications. This Special Issue provides an opportunity and example for the international community to discuss how to actively address the energy and environment issues that we are facing.

Synthesis and Applications of Biopolymer Composites

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211326 / 9783039211333 Year: Pages: 312 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-133-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book, as a collection of 17 research articles, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of environmentally friendly and biodegradable biopolymer composites and nanocomposites. Recently, the demand has been growing for a clean and pollution-free environment and an evident target regarding the minimization of fossil fuel usage. Therefore, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based commodity plastics by biodegradable materials arising from biological and renewable resources. Biopolymers—polymers produced from natural sources either chemically from a biological material or biosynthesized by living organisms—are suitable alternatives for addressing these issues due to their outstanding properties, including good barrier performance, biodegradation ability, and low weight. However, they generally possess poor mechanical properties, a short fatigue life, low chemical resistance, poor long-term durability, and limited processing capability. In order to overcome these deficiencies, biopolymers can be reinforced with fillers or nanofillers (with at least one of their dimensions in the nanometer range). Bionanocomposites are advantageous for a wide range of applications, such as in medicine, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food packaging, agriculture, forestry, electronics, transport, construction, and many more.

Keywords

nanocellulose --- protease sensor --- human neutrophil elastase --- peptide-cellulose conformation --- aerogel --- glycol chitosan --- ?-tocopherol succinate --- amphiphilic polymer --- micelles --- paclitaxel --- chitosan --- PVA --- nanofibers --- electrospinning --- nanocellulose --- carbon nanotubes --- nanocomposite --- conductivity --- surfactant --- Poly(propylene carbonate) --- thermoplastic polyurethane --- compatibility --- toughness --- biopolyester --- compatibilizer --- cellulose --- elastomer --- toughening --- biodisintegration --- heat deflection temperature --- biopolymers composites --- MgO whiskers --- PLLA --- in vitro degradation --- natural rubber --- plasticized starch --- polyfunctional monomers --- physical and mechanical properties --- cross-link density --- water uptake --- chitosan --- deoxycholic acid --- folic acid --- amphiphilic polymer --- micelles --- paclitaxel --- silk fibroin --- glass transition --- DMA --- FTIR --- stress-strain --- active packaging materials --- alginate films --- antimicrobial agents --- antioxidant activity --- biodegradable films --- essential oils --- polycarbonate --- thermal decomposition kinetics --- TG/FTIR --- Py-GC/MS --- wheat gluten --- potato protein --- chemical pre-treatment --- structural profile --- tensile properties --- biocomposites --- natural fibers --- poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate) --- biodegradation --- impact properties --- chitin nanofibrils --- poly(lactic acid) --- nanocomposites --- bio-based polymers --- natural fibers --- biomass --- biocomposites --- fiber/matrix adhesion --- bio-composites --- mechanical properties --- poly(lactic acid) --- cellulose fibers --- n/a

Novel Non-Precious Metal Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Electrode Reactions

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039215409 / 9783039215416 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-541-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Research on alternative energy harvesting technologies, conversion and storage systems with high efficiency, cost-effective and environmentally friendly systems, such as fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, unitized regenerative cells, and water electrolyzers has been stimulated by the global demand on energy. The conversion between oxygen and water plays a key step in the development of oxygen electrodes: oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), processes activated mostly by precious metals, like platinum. Their scarcity, their prohibitive cost, and declining activity greatly hamper large-scale applications. This issue reports on novel non-precious metal electrocatalysts based on the innovative design in chemical compositions, structure, and morphology, and supports for the oxygen reaction.

Processing-Structure-Properties Relationships in Polymers

Author:
ISBN: 9783039218806 / 9783039218813 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-881-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This collection of research and review papers is aimed at depicting the state of the art on the possible correlations between processing variables, obtained structure and special properties which this structure induces on the plastic part. The extraordinary capacity of plastics to modify their properties according to a particular structure is evidenced for several transformation processes and for many applications. The final common goal is to take profit of this peculiar capacity of plastics by inducing, through a suitable processing, a specific spatial organization.

Keywords

carbon nanotube --- homogeneous dispersion --- ethylene vinyl acetate --- mechanical performance --- electrical conductivity --- microencapsulation --- melamine polyphosphate --- polyurethane --- composite --- flame retardant --- biodegradable nanofibers --- PLGA --- collagen --- epinephrine --- lidocaine --- polyimide film --- linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) --- copper clad laminate --- structure and properties --- polymorphism --- isotactic polypropylene --- deformation --- phase transitions --- uniaxial compression --- uniaxial tensile deformation --- temperature --- in situ X-ray --- cavitation --- indentation --- Harmonix AFM --- polymer morphology --- mechanical properties --- ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) --- microcellular injection molding --- supercritical fluid --- supercritical N2 --- supercritical CO2 --- tissue engineering and regenerative medicine --- bioresorbable polymers --- 3D printing/additive manufacturing --- fused filament fabrication/fused deposition modelling --- degradation --- physicochemical characterization --- polycaprolactone --- layered double hydroxides --- ionic liquids --- PLA --- reactive blending --- biobased films --- graphene --- nanoreinforcement --- curing rate --- epoxy microstructure --- fatigue --- composites --- critical gel --- poly(lactic acid) --- carbon black --- graphite --- polymer blend --- poly(ethylene terephthalate) --- intrinsic viscosity --- polyolefin --- compatibilizer --- isotactic polypropylene --- stress-induced phase transitions --- structural analysis --- X-ray diffraction --- polyoxymethylene (POM) --- octakis[(3-glycidoxypropyl)dimethylsiloxy]octasilsesquioxane (GPOSS) --- composites --- morphology --- mechanical properties --- conductive filler --- orientation --- conductive polymer composites --- foam --- model --- PLLA --- bioresorbable vascular scaffolds --- stretch blow molding --- biaxial elongation --- SAXS --- WAXS --- microfibrillar composites --- crystalline morphology --- crystallinity --- mechanical properties --- crystallisation --- morphology --- nanoparticles --- shear --- flow --- orientation --- poly(?-caprolactone) --- polyvinyl butyral --- hydrophobicity --- contact angle --- polypropylene --- atomic force microscopy --- injection molding --- mold temperature evolution --- polycaprolactone --- ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene --- incremental forming --- SPIF --- XRD --- chain orientation --- temperature sensitive --- gel --- controllable gas permeability --- breathable film --- polymer composite --- processing --- polyamide 6 --- compression molding --- polymorphism --- polyamide 6 --- injection molding --- polymorphism --- humidity --- mechanical properties

Electrochemical Surface Science: Basics and Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216420 / 9783039216437 Year: Pages: 398 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-643-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Electrochemical surface science (EC-SS) is the natural advancement of traditional surface science (where gas–vacuum/solid interfaces are studied) to liquid (solution)/electrified solid interfaces. Such a merging between two different disciplines—i.e., surface science (SS) and electrochemistry—officially advanced ca. three decades ago. The main characteristic of EC-SS versus electrochemistry is the reductionist approach undertaken, inherited from SS and aiming to understand the microscopic processes occurring at electrodes on the atomic level. A few of the exemplary keystone tools of EC-SS include EC-scanning probe microscopies, operando and in situ spectroscopies and electron microscopies, and differential EC mass spectrometry (DEMS). EC-SS indirectly (and often unconsciously) receives a great boost from the requirement for rational design of energy conversion and storage devices for the next generation of energetic landscapes. As a matter of fact, the number of material science groups deeply involved in such a challenging field has tremendously expanded and, within such a panorama, EC and SS investigations are intimately combined in a huge number of papers. The aim of this Special Issue is to offer an open access forum where researchers in the field of electrochemistry, surface science, and materials science could outline the great advances that can be reached by exploiting EC-SS approaches. Papers addressing both the basic science and more applied issues in the field of EC-SS and energy conversion and storage materials have been published in this Special Issue.

Keywords

electrosynthesis --- switchable surfaces --- alkoxyamine surfaces --- redox monolayers --- porphyrins --- self-assembly --- surface nanostructures --- in situ EC-STM --- metal-electrolyte interface --- potential-dependent structures --- combined non-covalent control --- ECALE --- CdS --- silver single crystals --- alkanthiols --- SAMs --- EQCM --- AES --- polypyrrole --- diazonium salts --- flexible ITO --- adhesion --- redox properties --- X-ray absorption spectroscopy --- energy dispersive --- quick-XAS --- FEXRAV --- free electron laser --- electrochemistry --- photoelectrochemistry --- photochemistry --- pump &amp --- probe --- oxygen evolution reaction --- water splitting --- iridium --- thin-films --- spin-coating --- model systems --- electrocatalysts --- oxygen evolution reaction --- iridium --- nickel --- electrodeposition --- model catalyst --- water oxidation --- CO oxidation --- DFT --- hydrogen adsorption --- Pt–Ru catalysts --- ordered mesoporous carbons --- graphitization --- CO oxidation --- methanol oxidation --- direct methanol fuel cells --- electrocatalysis --- catalysts --- methanol oxidation reaction --- graphene --- DMFC --- Pt --- SOFC --- cathode --- XAFS --- in situ --- cobalt oxide --- water oxidation --- photo-electrochemistry --- hydroxyl radical --- electro-oxidation --- Lead OPD --- surface alloy --- XPS --- UPS --- EF-PEEM --- ORR --- Platinum --- PVDF --- PEMFC --- in situ ambient pressure XPS --- hard X rays --- photoelectron simulations --- solid/liquid interface --- TiO2 --- APTES --- Cu(111) --- electrochemical interface --- in-situ X-ray diffraction --- carbon nanofiber --- porous fiber --- electrospinning --- mesopore --- micropore --- porogen --- ammonia activation --- surface area --- methanol oxidation --- platinum single crystals --- pH and concentration effects --- adsorbed OH --- reduced graphene oxide --- electrophoretic deposition --- surface chemistry --- click chemistry --- gold --- palladium --- bimetallic alloy --- carbon nanofibers (CNFs) --- cyclic voltammetry (CV) --- Surface Modification --- Blackening of Steel --- Magnetite --- Corrosion Protection --- Auger-Electron Spectroscopy --- Ordered mesoporous carbon --- nitrogen doping --- cobalt-based electrocatalyst --- bifunctional oxygen electrode --- solvothermal method --- underpotential deposition (upd) --- Au --- Pt --- Pd --- nanoparticles --- cyclic voltammetry --- electrocatalysis --- operando --- near ambient pressure XPS --- scanning photoelectron microscopy --- solid oxide fuel cells --- surface science --- electrodeposited alloys --- CO electro-oxidation --- Pt single-crystal electrodes --- potential cycling --- potential stepping --- surface reconstruction --- electrocatalysis --- oxygen reduction --- ORR --- gas diffusion electrode --- platinum --- fuel cells --- thin-films --- benchmarking --- mass transport --- formic acid oxidation --- Au nanocrystals --- Pd thin films --- electrocatalysis --- d-band theory --- polymer --- silicon nanoparticles --- EPR spectroscopy --- photoconversion --- n/a

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