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Biofilm-Based Nosocomial Infections

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ISBN: 9783038421351 9783038421368 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-136-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-12 12:14:31
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Microbial biofilms have been implicated in a large number of acute and chronic infections, as well as in the failure of antibiotic treatment, particularly in hospitalized patients. In fact, the well-known persistence in the nosocomial environment of multidrug resistant microorganisms is believed to be highly promoted by the ability of the great majority of the involved bacterial and fungal species to adhere on living or abiotic surfaces, and to grow in sessile mode, to form single- or multi-species biofilms. In these communities, microbes grow encased in a hydrated matrix of extracellular polymeric substances produced by themselves and are well protected from the host immune response and the attack of antimicrobial molecules. Thus, the establishment of microbial biofilm communities on the mucosal and soft tissues of hospitalized patients, as well as on the surfaces of indwelling devices and medical instruments, is expected to have a great influence on the success of the antibiotic therapies against most of the bugs involved in nosocomial infections, being biofilm-growing bacteria and fungi much less susceptible to antibiotics.

Polymeric Systems as Antimicrobial or Antifouling Agents

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ISBN: 9783039284566 / 9783039284573 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-457-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The rapid increase in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, combined with a dwindling rate of discovery of novel antibiotic molecules, has created an alarming issue worldwide. Although the occurrence of resistance in microbes is a natural process, the overuse of antibiotics is known to increase the rate of resistance evolution. Under antibiotic treatment, susceptible bacteria inevitably die, while resistant microorganisms proliferate under reduced competition. Therefore, the out-of-control use of antibiotics eliminates drug-susceptible species that would naturally limit the expansion of resistant species. In addition, the ability of many microbial species to grow as a biofilm has further complicated the treatment of infections with conventional antibiotics. A number of corrective measures are currently being explored to reverse or slow antibiotic resistance evolution, Among which one of the most promising solutions is the development of polymer-based antimicrobial compounds. In this Special Issue, different polymer systems able to prevent or treat biofilm formation, including cationic polymers, antibacterial peptide-mimetic polymers, polymers or composites able to load and release bioactive molecules, and antifouling polymers able to repel microbes by physical or chemical mechanisms are reported. Their applications in the design and fabrication of medical devices, in food packaging, and as drug carriers is investigated.

Keywords

cationic polymers --- imidization --- quaternization --- antimicrobial properties --- hemolytic activity --- coatings from nanoparticles --- biocompatible polymer --- antimicrobial polymer --- dynamic light scattering --- coatings wettability --- microbicidal coatings --- bacteria viability --- bactericidal coatings --- Escherichia coli --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Acinetobacter baumannii --- multidrug-resistant --- antimicrobial peptide --- antibiofilm activity --- physiological salt --- biofilm --- anti-biofilm surface --- surface functionalization --- ?-chymotrypsin --- proteinase --- antimicrobial polymers --- quaternary ammonium --- 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate --- thermal stability --- polymers --- antibacterial --- drug delivery --- periodontitis --- periodontal biofilms --- polyamide 11 --- antibacterial --- polymeric biocide --- thermal stability --- biofilm --- antifouling --- copper paint --- additives --- biofilm --- lipopeptides --- biofilm --- persister cells --- ocular infections --- biofilm on contact lenses --- cuprous oxide nanoparticles --- linear low-density polyethylene --- composites --- adhesives --- antibacterial activity --- water disinfection --- active packaging --- antimicrobial peptides --- food shelf-life --- foodborne pathogens --- plastic materials --- antibacterial peptides --- halictine --- circular dichroism --- fluorescence --- infrared spectroscopy --- segmented polyurethanes --- polyethylene glycol --- microbial biofilm --- antifouling materials --- medical device-related infections --- wound dressings --- additive manufacturing --- antibacterial polymers --- biocompatible systems --- drug delivery systems --- 3D printing --- amorphous materials --- ordered mesoporous silica --- sol-gel preparation --- drug carrier --- multifunctional hybrid systems --- olive mill wastewater --- antibacterial properties --- layered double hydroxides --- bionanocomposites --- acrylates --- antibacterial activity --- copolymerization --- polymeric films --- polymerizable quaternary ammonium salts --- quaternary ammonium salts --- UV-induced polymerization --- antimicrobial resistance --- antimicrobial polymers --- ESKAPE pathogens --- anti-biofilm surfaces --- polymeric surfaces --- biofilm methods --- biofilm analysis --- biofilm devices --- n/a

Biomedical Applications of Nanoparticles

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ISBN: 9783039285426 / 9783039285433 Year: Pages: 366 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-543-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book provides an overview of the design and physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles developed for biomedical applications such as targeting and detection of pathologies, nanovectorization of drugs, radiosensitization, metal detection, and nanocomposite implants. The considerations necessary when developing a new nanomedicine are also developed, including toxicological investigation, biodistribution, and efficacy. This book provides an accurate and current representation of the field by addressing the promises and hurdles of nanomedicine via 20 different pertinent studies. Covering a wide range of areas, this book is an excellent partner for physico-chemists, doctors, pharmacologists, and biochemists working on nanosciences dedicated to medicine, both in industry and in academia.

Keywords

curcumin --- mitoxantrone --- synergism --- PEG --- chitosan nanoparticles --- hybrid Fe-Si nanoparticles --- laser pyrolysis --- Caco2 cells --- cytotoxicity --- oxidative stress --- upconversion nanoparticles --- nanocarriers --- drug delivery --- gene delivery --- photolysis --- cancer imaging --- cytoreduction surgery --- fluorescent nanoparticle --- near-infrared --- short-wave infrared --- Candida glabrata --- extracellular --- mycosynthesis --- MIC --- MBC --- MFC --- membrane integrity --- TEM --- FTIR --- surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) --- Ag-film --- Hg2+ ions detection --- SERS sensor --- nanocomposites --- medical devices --- middle ear prosthesis --- silver nanoparticles --- biocompatibility --- thermoplastic polymer --- dihydroartemisinin --- liposomes --- autophagy --- apoptosis --- breast cancer --- surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) --- metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) --- dual functional imaging nanoprobe --- UiO-66 --- nanoparticles --- glioblastoma --- biocompatibility --- drug delivery --- alginate --- chitosan --- layer-by-layer --- magnetic nanoparticles --- drug delivery --- cancer --- curcumin --- lignin --- nanoparticle --- protein --- nanocellulose --- fibril --- enzyme --- heat --- self-assembly --- cross-link --- antibiotics --- nanoparticles --- biogenic nanoparticles --- antimicrobial --- antibiotic resistance --- multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms --- plasma --- nanomaterials --- nanomaterial synthesis --- plasma liquid Interactions --- non-thermal plasma --- biomedical applications --- core-shell nanoparticles --- biocompatible --- drug delivery --- anticancer --- SERS --- histamine --- nanostars --- nanophotonics --- computational electromagnetism --- surface enhanced Raman scattering --- SERS --- finite element method --- density functional theory calculations --- cell labeling --- cancer --- iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles --- trans-resveratrol derivative --- drug delivery --- glioma --- gold nanoparticles --- radiosensitization --- thioredoxin reductase --- radiation --- prognosis --- biochemical mechanism --- nanodiamond --- targeted nanoparticles --- in vivo application --- cancer cell targeting --- antimiR --- nano-bio interaction

Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality

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ISBN: 9783039213917 9783039213924 Year: Pages: 484 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-392-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Alternative treatment modes for antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens have become a public health priority. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that infect and lyse bacterial cells. Since bacteriophages are frequently bacterial host species-specific and can often also infect antibiotic-resistant bacterial cells, they could represent ideal antimicrobials for fighting the antibiotic resistance crisis. The medical use of bacteriophages has become known as phage therapy. It is widely used in Russia, where phage cocktails are sold in pharmacies as an over-the-counter drug. However, no phage product has been registered for medical purposes outside of the former Soviet Union. The current Special Issue of Viruses contains a collection of papers from opinion leaders in the field who explore hurdles to the introduction of phage therapy in western countries. The articles cover diverse topics ranging from patent to regulatory issues, the targeting of suitable bacterial infections, and the selection and characterization of safe and efficient phage cocktails. Phage resistance is discussed, and gaps in our knowledge of phage–bacterium interactions in the mammalian body are revealed, while other articles explore the use of phages in food production and processing.

Keywords

Staphylococcus aureus --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- vB_SauM-fRuSau02 --- Twortlikevirus --- antibiotic --- antimicrobial resistance --- magistral preparation --- compounding pharmacy --- phage therapy --- regulatory framework --- personalized medicine --- bacteriophage --- phage --- horizontal gene transfer --- co-evolution --- phage therapy --- industrial phage application --- antimicrobial resistance (AMR) --- Germany --- pH stability --- phage-host interactions --- genomics --- antibiotic-resistance --- phage preparation --- lysins --- biofilms --- typhoid fever --- Salmonella Typhi --- extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) --- Democratic Republic of the Congo --- bacteriophages --- MALDI-MS --- Staphylococcus --- bacteriophages --- phage therapy --- Kayvirus --- Viral proteins --- bacteriophage --- therapy --- phage therapy --- bacterial disease --- infection --- target selection --- Bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- resistance --- adaptation --- prophage --- production --- regulation --- phage therapy --- viral genomes --- best practices --- IND --- high-throughput sequencing --- bacteriophages --- phages --- food safety --- foodborne illness --- phage therapy --- history of science --- science communication --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- sustainable agriculture --- zoonosis --- antibiotic resistance --- phage therapy --- experimental therapy --- phage cocktails --- anti-phage antibodies --- prophage --- immunomodulation --- phage therapy --- evolution --- bacterial resistance --- virulence --- Listeria ivanovii --- bacteriophages --- alginate --- production --- disinfection --- phagodisinfection --- virus–host interactions --- bacteriophage efficacy --- gastrointestinal tract --- phage therapy --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- antimicrobial resistance --- antibiotic --- global health --- developing countries --- infectious disease --- bacteriophage --- phage --- phage therapy --- phage-resistance --- phage therapy --- bacterial infection --- capsule depolymerase --- antibiotic --- animal model --- bacterial resistance --- bacteriophage --- immunology --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- human host --- phage-human host interaction --- bacterial infection --- antibiotic resistance --- bacteriophage --- antibiotic therapy --- phage therapy --- cases report --- abortive infection --- prophage --- adsorption --- Enterococcus --- rhamnopolysaccharide --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- Staphylococcus aureus --- biofilm --- antimicrobial --- frequency of resistance --- phage sensitivity --- resistance management --- nontraditional antibacterial --- bacteriophages --- phage therapy --- antibiotic resistance --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- Escherichia coli --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Brussels --- Belgium --- phage biocontrol --- patent landscape --- crop production --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- multidrug-resistant bacteria --- antimicrobial resistance --- bacteriophage therapy --- compassionate use --- antibiotic resistance --- phage therapy --- PTMP --- ATMP --- regulatory framework --- pharmaceutical paradigm shift --- clinical trial --- magistral formula --- personalized medicine --- phage therapy --- E. faecalis --- OrthoMCL --- antimicrobial resistance --- capsule --- Galleria mellonella --- Klebsiella pneumoniae --- phage therapy --- n/a --- antimicrobial resistance --- bacteriophage --- personalised medicines --- phage therapy --- pharmaceutical legislation --- regulatory framework

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