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Ethylene: A Key Regulatory Molecule in Plants

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453412 Year: Pages: 310 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-341-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-22 11:28:10
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Ethylene is a simple gaseous phytohormone with multiple roles in regulation of metabolism at cellular, molecular, and whole plant level. It influences performance of plants under optimal and stressful environments by interacting with other signaling molecules. Understanding the ethylene biosynthesis and action through the plant’s life can contribute to improve the knowledge of plant functionality and use of this plant hormone may drive adaptation and defense of plants from the adverse environmental conditions. The action of ethylene depends on its concentration in cell and the sensitivity of plants to the hormone. In recent years, research on ethylene has been focused, due to its dual action, on the regulation of plant processes at physiological and molecular level. The involvement of ethylene in the regulation of transcription needs to be widely explored involving the interaction with other key molecular regulators. The aim of the current research topic was to explore and update our understanding on its regulatory role in plant developmental mechanisms at cellular or whole plant level under optimal and changing environmental conditions. The present edited volume includes original research papers and review articles describing ethylene’s regulatory role in plant development during plant ontogeny and also explains how it interacts with biotic and abiotic stress factors. This comprehensive collection of researches provide evidence that ethylene is essential in different physiological processes and does not always work alone, but in coordinated manner with other plant hormones. This research topic is also a source of tips for further works that should be addressed for the biology and molecular effects on plants.

Mechanisms of Neural Circuit Formation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194032 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-403-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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The formation of the proper pattern of neuronal circuits during development is critical for the normal function of the vertebrate brain and for the survival of the organism. Circuit tracing studies spanning the past 100 years have revealed the beauty and exquisite intricacy of this pattern, which represents the most complex biological system known. In humans, aberrant circuit formation is a likely underlying cause of a wide variety of birth defects and neurological disorders, including autism, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, future therapeutic approaches to restoring the function of damaged neural circuits will require a better understanding of the developmental constraints under which those circuits were originally assembled. For these reasons, elucidating the molecular mechanisms of neural circuit formation is a major goal of neurobiology today.

Neuroplasticity and Extracellular Proteolysis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198511 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-851-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the Central Nervous System (CNS) to alter its structure and function in response to a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as development, cognition, injury or neurological diseases. Since more than four decades, studies on synaptic plasticity in the context of memory and learning attracted a remarkable interest. Soon after first seminal works on synaptic plasticity were published, research in this field was extended by studies on non-synaptic as wells as structural plasticity towards a goal to understand cellular and molecular determinants of cognition. Over the past two decades, yet two additional crucial players in neuroplastic phenomena started to be intensely investigated – glial cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Growing awareness that glial cells, especially astrocytes, are important regulators of synaptic functions gave rise to a novel concept of a tri-partite synapse. Also, over the last two decades, a growing body of evidence has accumulated that the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the brain is strongly involved in regulation of neurons, in particular, in synaptic plasticity. Thus, a concept of tetra-partite synapse was put forward by some neuroscientists. The cross-talk between neuron-glia-ECM system involves enzymatic degradation of proteins or peptides and amino acids occurring in each of these brain constituents by means of a variety of proteases. Importantly, it has been realized that proteases such as serine proteases and matrix metalloproteinases, not only accompany “robust” phenomena such as cell division, or development or neurodegnerative conditions but may play a very subtle signaling functions, particularly important in memory acquisition. Indeed, the repertoire of substrates for these enzymes covers a wide variety of proteins known to play important role in the neuroplastic phenomena (e.g. BDNF, TNF-a, ephrin systems, various cell adhesion molecules, etc.). In result, the role of metalloproteinases and such serine proteases as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), neuropsin or neurotrypsin in synaptic plasticity as well as in learning and memory has been particularly well demonstrated. It needs to be emphasized, however, that in spite of a remarkable progress in this field, several basic questions regarding molecular and cellular mechanisms remain unanswered. Potential involvement of so many important players (various proteases and their substrates in neurons, glia and in ECM) points to an enormous potential for plasticity phenomena but makes also studies into underlying mechanisms particularly difficult. In the proposed Research Topic we provide both review of the current state of the art and present some original reports on specific aspects of the role of proteolysis in neuroplasticity phenomena. The present ebook starts with extensive reviews describing involvement of proteolysis not only in synaptic plasticity but also in regulating endogenous excitability and structural changes at the network, cellular and subcellular levels. Cross-talk between neuroplasticity and proteolysis is also emphasized in the context of development and in relation to various pathologies. Whereas in the first part of the present ebook, the major focus is on metalloproteinases, the successive articles address the role of neuropsin and thrombin. The Research Topic is concluded with a series of articles describing the components of extracellular matrix and adhesion proteins and their elaboration by mechanisms dependent directly or indirectly on proteolysis. We do hope that the present ebook will further stimulate the interest in the fascinating investigations into neuroplasticity-proteolysis cross-talk.

L’innovation thérapeutique : évolution et tendances

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ISBN: 9782213686912 9782722604247 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Collège de France
Added to DOAB on : 2016-11-14 17:16:04
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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L’innovation thérapeutique n’est pas à la hauteur des espoirs qu’ont laissé entrevoir, ces vingt dernières années, les progrès fulgurants de la biologie moléculaire, de la génétique ou encore de la bio-informatique. Si certains domaines, comme la cancérologie, ont largement bénéficié de ces avancées, pour d’autres, l’innovation est au point mort. Nous avons trop peu d’exemples de réussite dans l’innovation thérapeutique en France pour nous abstenir d’une profonde réflexion sur la création des...

Danger Signals Triggering Immune Response and Inflammation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452842 Year: Pages: 205 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-284-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The immune system detects "danger" through a series of what we call pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), working in concert with both positive and negative signals derived from other tissues. PAMPs are molecules associated with groups of pathogens that are small molecular motifs conserved within a class of microbes. They are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and other pattern recognition receptors. A vast array of different types of molecules can serve as PAMPs, including glycans and glycoconjugates. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), endotoxins found on the cell membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, are considered to be the prototypical class of PAMPs. LPSs are specifically recognized by TLR4, a recognition receptor of the innate immune system. Other PAMPs include bacterial flagellin (recognized by TLR5), lipoteichoic acid from Gram-positive bacteria, peptidoglycan, and nucleic acid variants normally associated with viruses, such as double-stranded RNA, recognized by TLR3 or unmethylated CpG motifs, recognized by TLR9. DAMPs, also known as alarmins, are molecules released by stressed cells undergoing necrosis that act as endogenous danger signals to promote and exacerbate the immune and inflammatory response. DAMPs vary greatly depending on the type of cell (epithelial, mesenchymal, etc.) and injured tissue. Some endogenous danger signals include heat-shock proteins, HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1), reactive oxygen intermediates, extracellular matrix breakdown products such as hyaluronan fragments, neuromediators, and cytokines like the interferons (IFNs). Non-protein DAMPs include ATP, uric acid, heparin sulfate, and DNA. Furthermore, accumulating evidence supports correlation between alarmins and changes in the microbiome. Increased serum or plasma levels of these DAMPs have been associated with many inflammatory diseases, including gastric and intestinal inflammatory diseases, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), sepsis and multiple organ failure, allergies particularly in the lungs, atherosclerosis, age-associated insulin resistance, arthritis, lupus, neuro-inflammation/degeneration and more recently in tumors, which is particularly interesting with the emergence of immunotherapies. Therapeutic strategies are being developed to modulate the expression of these DAMPs for the treatment of these diseases.A vast number of reviews have already been published in this area; thus, in an effort to not duplicate what has already been written, we will focus on recent discoveries particularly in disease models that are epidemic in Western society: intestinal chronic inflammatory diseases including GVHD and its relationship with the microbiome, chronic infectious diseases, allergies, autoimmune diseases, neuroinflammation and cancers. We will also focus on the basic cellular roles of macrophages, T cells and B cells. This research topic brings together sixteen articles that provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of DAMPS/alarmins and their regulation and subsequent immunologically driven responses.

Fluorescence Probes for Sensing

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ISBN: 9783038429272 9783038429289 Year: Pages: VIII, 306 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-08 13:04:30
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The rapid progress in sensor science in recent years has resulted in the development of fluorescence probes with enhanced analytical capabilities. Because of the vast evolution of this research field, therefore, we have decided to combine all the research articles published in "Fluorescence Probes and Sensors" for a Special Issue (SI) book of Sensors which was focusing on the important role sensors play in “Fluorescent Probes and Sensors”. Fluorescence novel Probes make an ideal candidate for promising applications in biological analytes and environmental monitoring. Fluorescent probes along with metal complexes have been developed as a new class of fluorophores with excellent properties. This book illustrating the suitability of newly developed sensors for fluorescent analysis applications, as well as describing novel applications of established sensors in solving real life analytical problems.

Electroluminescence from Plasmonic Excitations in a Scanning Tunnelling Microscope

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Book Series: Experimental Condensed Matter Physics / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Physikalisches Institut ISSN: 21919925 ISBN: 9783731509233 Year: Volume: 24 Pages: III, 136 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000093148 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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This work presents the design and commissioning of a new low-temperature Scanning Tunnelling Microscope equipped with an innovative light collection setup using an integrated, micro-fabricated mirror tip. Commissioning experiments demonstrate the capabilities of this new instrument and reproduce known effects regarding gap plasmons on noble-metal surfaces. Furthermore, different contrasts in the plasmon-mediated light emission from Cobalt nano-islands on a Copper (111) substrate are reported.

Host-Guest Polymer Complexes

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ISBN: 9783038971948 9783038971955 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-195-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-02 11:29:02
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I enthusiastically invite you to contribute to a Special Issue of the open-access journal Polymers, focusing on “Host–Guest Polymer Complexes”, which I and two of my former PhD students, Drs. Alper Gurarslan and Ganesh Narayanan, are editing. We hope to include papers describing the syntheses, characterization, and use of host–guest polymer complexes, as well as factors that are important to their formation. Submissions that describe unusual and unique applications of host–guest polymer complexes using hosts other than traditional ones: cyclodextrins, cucurbiturils, urea, thiourea, cyclotriphosphazines, etc., are particularly encouraged.I hope that you accept our invitation to make this Special Issue one that will introduce, effectively summarize, and increase interest in this important area of polymer science.

Immune Checkpoint Molecules and Cancer Immunotherapy

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457328 Year: Pages: 197 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-732-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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For the faultless function of the immune system, tight regulation of immune cell activation, immuno-suppression and the strength and efficiency of the immune response is essential. Immune checkpoint (ICP) molecules can amplify or dampen signals that lead to the modulation of specific immune activities. Under physiological conditions, immune checkpoints are essential to prevent autoimmune manifestations and to preserve self-tolerance. They help modulate immune responses by either promoting or inhibiting T-cell activation. However, in the context of cancer, malignant cells can dysregulate the expression of immune checkpoint proteins on immune cells in order to suppress anti-tumor immune responses and to gain immune resistance. Moreover, tumor cells themselves can also express some checkpoints proteins, thereby enabling these cells to externally orchestrate immune regulatory mechanisms. Several recent studies have confirmed that the expression of immune checkpoints could be an important prognostic parameter for cancer development and for patient outcome. Therefore, cancer immunotherapy based on the modulation of immune checkpoint molecules alone, or in combination with conventional tumor therapy (chemo- or/and radiotherapy), is now in focus as a means of developing new therapeutic strategies for different types of cancer. The two well-known molecules – CTLA4 and PD-1 - serve as important examples of such checkpoint proteins of important therapeutic potential. Thus far, inhibitors of CTLA4 and PD-1 have been approved to treat only a limited number of malignancies (e.g. malignant Melanoma, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer). Many others are currently under investigation and the list of immune checkpoint molecules for potential therapeutic targeting is still growing. However, the clinical response to inhibitors of checkpoint molecules is not sufficient in all cases. Therefore, further studies are needed to improve our knowledge of such immunomodulatory proteins and their associated signaling pathways. Several key signaling pathways which are involved in the regulation of expression of checkpoint molecules in immune cells and in cancer cells have already been identified including MAPK, PI3K, NF-kB, JAKs and STATs. These (and future discovered) signaling pathways could give rise to the development of new strategies for modulating the expression of ICPs and thereby, improving anti-cancer immune responses. The main aim of the Research Topic is to collect novel findings from scientists involved in basic research on immune checkpoints as well as in translational studies investigating the use of checkpoint inhibtors in immunotherapy in experimental settings. We welcome the submission of Review, Mini-Review and Original Research articles that cover the following topics: 1. Molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of ICP expression in immune and/or cancer cells.2. Characterization of signaling pathways downstream ICP molecules.3. Cellular responses to ICP blockade.4. Identification of new compounds interfering with ICP expression and/or signaling.5. ICP-mediated interactions between cancer cells and immune cells. 6. Functional links between ICP and cytokines/chemokines.7. Molecular mechanisms of ICP inhibition in the context of experimental cancer immunotherapy.

Flüssigprozessierung von Multischicht-OLEDs aus kleinen Molekülen

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ISBN: 9783731504696 Year: Pages: XV, 237 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000051513 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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Organic light-emitting diodes consist of several layers of organic molecules just a few nanometers thick. In future, it may become possible to change the manufacturing process from vacuum deposition to a cost-effective liquid processing. This theoretical and practical investigation focuses on the underlying processes, in particular coating and drying, as well as the factors influencing the separation of individual layers in multilayer systems consisting of small molecules.

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