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Parlamenti di guerra (1914-1945): Caso italiano e contesto europeo

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Book Series: Clio: Saggi di scienze storiche, archeologiche e storico-artistiche ISSN: 2532-4608 ISBN: 9788868870195 Year: Volume: 17 Pages: 244 DOI: 10.6093/978-88-6887-019-5 Language: Italian
Publisher: FedOA - Federico II University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-05 17:11:13
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Abstract

During the First World War, the parliaments of the states involved in the conflict were, in most cases, forced to drastically limit their activity and were often precluded the possibility of fully exercising their prerogatives. More generally the spaces of freedom granted to the citizens, of which the parliamentary institution was the brightest symbol, shrank dramatically. At the same time, the power of military commands expanded, not only in trenches and on battlefields, but also in many areas of civilian life. However, in the final years of the war, the Parliaments succeeded not only in gradually regaining control, but also in pushing for an extension of their functions, initiating a process that in many states coincided with the transition from a liberal order to a full democratic order. The years of the "long" postwar period were however dense with contradictions. Legislative and executive law often grew together, while in some cases the imperative logic imposed for a long time in wartime re-emerged and consolidated. This volume, which examines several national cases, illustrates some of the ambivalent features of this dramatic phase of European history.

The "Democratic Soldier"

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Book Series: SSR Papers ISBN: 9781911529361 Year: Pages: 64 DOI: 10.5334/bbt Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press
Subject: Sociology --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 11:21:04
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Since the end of the Cold War almost all European countries have reformed their armed forces, focusing on downsizing, internationalization and professionalization. This paper examines how these changes in security sector governance have affected the normative model underlying the military’s relationship to democracy, using the image of the “democratic soldier”. Drawing on a comparative analysis of 12 post-socialist, traditional and consolidated democracies in Europe, the different dimensions of the national conception of soldiering are analysed based on the official norms that define a country’s military and the ways in which individual members of the armed forces see their role. Cases converge around the new idea of professional soldiering as a merging of civilian skills with military virtues in the context of the military’s new post-Cold War missions. Yet despite this convergence, research also shows that specific aspects of national traditions and context continue to influence the actual practice of soldiering in each case. The contradictions that result between these old and new visions of the role of the military and the soldier illustrate the tensions that exist between political goals and defence reform dynamics.

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