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Smelly Fumes: Volatile-Mediated Communication between Bacteria and Other Organisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452224 Year: Pages: 227 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-222-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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This e-book summarizes recent advances in the young and rapidly developing field of microbial volatiles. Articles included here reveal novel information about the chemical diversity of bacterial and fungal volatiles, their functions, their roles in inter-specific and inter-kingdom interactions and the metabolic and physiological changes their exposure causes in the target organisms. The e-book is divided in three chapters: (1) Natural Functions of Microbial Volatiles; (2) Volatile Production and Ecosystem Functioning and (3) Volatile Detection and Identification.

Cell Signaling in Host-Pathogen Interactions: The Host Point of View

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454556 Year: Pages: 414 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-455-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The ability of pathogens, such as parasites, bacteria, fungi and viruses to invade, persist and adapt in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts is multifactorial and depends on both pathogen and host fitness. Communication between a pathogen and its host relies on a wide and dynamic array of molecular interactions. Through this constant communication most pathogens evolved to be relatively benign, whereas killing of its host by a pathogen represents a failure to adapt. Pathogens are lethal to their host when their interaction has not been long enough for adaptation. Evolution has selected conserved immune receptors that recognize signature patterns of pathogens as non-self elements and initiate host innate responses aimed at eradicating infection. Conversely, pathogens evolved mechanisms to evade immune recognition and subvert cytokine secretion in order to survive, replicate and cause disease. The cell signaling machinery is a critical component of the immune system that relays information from the receptors to the nucleus where transcription of key immune genes is activated. Host cells have developed signal transduction systems to maintain homeostasis with pathogens. Most cellular processes and cell signaling pathways are tightly regulated by protein phosphorylation in which protein kinases are key protagonists. Pathogens have developed multiple mechanisms to subvert important signal transduction pathways such as the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) pathways. Pathogens also secrete effectors that manipulate actin cytoskeleton and its regulators, hijack cell cycle machinery and alter vesicular trafficking. This research topic focuses on the cellular signaling mechanisms that are essential for host immunity and their subversion by pathogens.

Electrochemically Active Microorganisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456512 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-651-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Microbial electrochemical systems (MESs, also known as bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are promising technologies for energy and products recovery coupled with wastewater treatment, and have attracted increasing attention. Many studies have been conducted to expand the application of MESs for contaminants degradation and bioremediation, and increase the efficiency of electricity production by optimizing architectural structure of MESs, developing new electrode materials, etc. However, one of the big challenges for researchers to overcome, before MESs can be used commercially, is to improve the performance of the biofilm on electrodes so that ‘electron transfer’ can be enhanced. This would lead to greater production of electricity, energy or other products. Electrochemically active microorganisms (EAMs) are a group of microorganisms which are able to release electrons from inside their cells to an electrode or accept electrons from an electron donor. The way in which EAMs do this is called ‘extracellular electron transfer’ (EET). So far, two EET mechanisms have been identified: direct electron transfer from microorganisms physically attached to an electrode, and indirect electron transfer from microorganisms that are not physically attached to an electrode. 1) Direct electron transfer between microorganisms and electrode can occur in two ways: a) when there is physical contact between outer membrane structures of the microbial cell and the surface of the electrode, b) when electrons are transferred between the microorganism and the electrode through tiny projections (called pili or nanowires) that extend from the outer membrane of the microorganism and attach themselves to the electrode. 2) Indirect transfer of electrons from the microorganisms to an electrode occurs via long-range electron shuttle compounds that may be naturally present (in wastewater, for example), or may be produced by the microorganisms themselves. The electrochemically active biofilm, which degrades contaminants and produces electricity in MESs, consists of diverse community of EAMs and other microorganisms. However, up to date only a few EAMs have been identified, and most studies on EET have focused on the two model species of Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens.

Application of Molecular Methods and Raman Microscopy

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ISBN: 9781911529538 9781911529521 Year: Pages: 219 DOI: 10.5334/bbj Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press
Subject: Chemical Technology --- Botany --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-15 11:21:03
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"This book has been prepared with the aim to present the application of these two state-of-the art technologies in agricultural sciences and food technology, and to explain the protocols for analyses of different plant, animal, microbiological and food samples as well as for different biotechnology procedures.
Selected methods and protocols which are used in plant stress physiology, weed science, fruit breeding research, microbial ecology, plant virus and fungus diagnostics, phytobacteriology, fishery, food biochemistry, food materials and food technology are described. Special adaptation of certain protocols is required for application in each of these sciences, for every type of GMO organism, food technology raw material, and food technology product, as well as for every type of bacteria, virus, fungus or fungus-like organism, for each type of raw material in terms of plant host species, plant organs, year period and conditions in the laboratory.
Application of molecular methods, primarily qPCR, and Raman microscopy/ spectroscopy in agricultural and food sciences provides substantial opportunity for increased production efficiency, food safety, better product quality and improvement of plant and animal health.
This book is aimed for students, scientists and professionals working in the field of agriculture and food technology."

The Proceedings from Halophiles 2013, the International Congress on Halophilic Microorganisms

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195701 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-570-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The Halophiles 2013 meeting is a multidisciplinary international congress, with a strong history of regular triennial meetings since 1978. Our mission is to bring researchers from a wide diversity of investigation interests (e.g., protein and species evolution; niche adaptation, ecology, taxonomy, genomics, metagenomics, horizontal gene transfer, gene regulation; DNA replication, repair and recombination; signal transduction; community assembly and species distribution; astrobiology; biotechnological applications; adaptation to radiation, desiccation, osmotic stress) into a single forum for the integration and synthesis of ideas and data from all three domains of life, and their viruses, yet from a single environment; salt concentrations greater than seawater. This cross-section of research informs our understanding of the microbiological world in many ways. The halophilic environment is extreme, especially above 10% NaCl, restricting life solely to microbes. The microorganisms that live there are adapted to extreme conditions, and are notable for their ability to survive high doses of radiation and desiccation. Therefore, the hypersaline environment is a model system (both the abiotic, and biologic factors) for insightful understanding regarding conditions and life in the absence of plant and animals (e.g., life on the early earth, and other solar system bodies like Mars and Europa). Lower salinity conditions (e.g., 6-10% NaCl) form luxuriant microbial mats considered modern analogues of fossilized stromatolites, which are enormous microbially produced structures fashioned during the Precambrian (and still seen today in places like Shark’s Bay, Australia). Hypersaline systems are island-like habitats spread patchily across the earth’s surface, and similar to the Galapagos Islands represent unique systems excellent for studying the evolutionary pressures that shape microbial community assembly, adaptation, and speciation. The unique adaptations to this extreme environment produce valuable proteins, enzymes and other molecules capable of remediating harsh human instigated environments, and are useful for the production of biofuels, vitamins, and retinal implants, for example. This research topic is intended to capture the breadth and depth of these topics.

Microbial Role in the Carbon Cycle in Tropical Inland Aquatic Ecosystems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451272 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-127-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Aquatic microorganisms are tidily related to the carbon cycle in aquatic systems, especially in respect to its accumulation and emission to atmosphere. In one hand, the autotrophs are responsible for the carbon input to the ecosystems and trophic chain. On the other hand, the heterotrophs traditionally play a role in the carbon mineralization and, since microbial loop theory, may play a role to carbon flow through the organisms. However, it is not yet clear how the heterotrophs contribute to carbon retention and emission especially from tropical aquatic ecosystems. Most of the studies evaluating the role of microbes to carbon cycle in inland waters were performed in high latitudes and only a few studies in the tropical area. In the prospective of global changes where the warm tropical lakes and rivers become even warmer, it is important to understand how microorganisms behave and interact with carbon cycle in the Earth region with highest temperature and light availability. This research topic documented microbial responses to natural latitudinal gradients, spatial within and between ecosystems gradients, temporal approaches and temperature and nutrient manipulations in the water and in the sediment.

Biofilm-Based Nosocomial Infections

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ISBN: 9783038421351 9783038421368 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-136-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-12 12:14:31
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Microbial biofilms have been implicated in a large number of acute and chronic infections, as well as in the failure of antibiotic treatment, particularly in hospitalized patients. In fact, the well-known persistence in the nosocomial environment of multidrug resistant microorganisms is believed to be highly promoted by the ability of the great majority of the involved bacterial and fungal species to adhere on living or abiotic surfaces, and to grow in sessile mode, to form single- or multi-species biofilms. In these communities, microbes grow encased in a hydrated matrix of extracellular polymeric substances produced by themselves and are well protected from the host immune response and the attack of antimicrobial molecules. Thus, the establishment of microbial biofilm communities on the mucosal and soft tissues of hospitalized patients, as well as on the surfaces of indwelling devices and medical instruments, is expected to have a great influence on the success of the antibiotic therapies against most of the bugs involved in nosocomial infections, being biofilm-growing bacteria and fungi much less susceptible to antibiotics.

Novel Pharmacological Inhibitors for Bacterial Protein Toxins

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ISBN: 9783038424314 9783038424307 Year: Pages: VI, 118 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-13 09:39:34
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Many medically relevant bacteria cause severe human and animal diseases because they produce and release protein toxins that target mammalian cells. Because the toxin-induced cell damage is the reason for the clinical symptoms, the targeted pharmacological inhibition of the cytotoxic mode of action of bacterial toxins should prevent or cure the respective toxin-associated disease. Toxin inhibitors might be beneficial when the toxin acts in the absence of the producing bacteria (e.g., food poisoning), but also in combination with antibiotics in infectious diseases when the toxin-producing bacteria are present. The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins is on the development and characterization of novel inhibitors against bacterial toxins, e.g., toxin neutralizing antibodies, peptides or small compounds, as well as toxin pore blockers, which interfere with bacterial toxins and thereby protect cells from intoxication.

Genome Mining and Marine Microbial Natural Products

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ISBN: 9783039280902 / 9783039280919 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-091-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Microbiology --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Two review papers, eight research articles, and one brief report were published in this Special Issue. They showed the rich resources that are present within the genomes of marine microorganisms and discussed the use of recently developed tools and technologies to exploit this genetic richness. Examples include the rational supply of precursors according to the relevant biosynthetic pathway and stress driven discovery together with the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors to facilitate the discovery of new bioactive molecules with potential biopharmaceutical applications. We believe that the content of this Special Issue reflects the current state-of-the-art research in this area and highlights the interesting strategies that are being employed to uncover increasing numbers of exciting novel compounds for drug discovery from marine genetic resources.

Efficiency of Bank Filtration and Post-Treatment

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ISBN: 9783039213054 / 9783039213061 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-306-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Riverbank filtration (RBF) schemes for the production of drinking water are increasingly challenged by new constituents of concern, such as organic micropollutants and pathogens in the source water and hydrological flow variations due to weather extremes. RBF and new technology components are integrated and monitoring and operating regimes are adopted to further optimize water treatment in bank filtration schemes for these new requirements. This Special Issue presents results from the EU project AquaNES “Demonstrating synergies in combined natural and engineered processes for water treatment systems” (www.aquanes.eu). Additionally, papers from other research groups cover the efficiency of bank filtration and post-treatment, advantages and limitations of combining natural and engineered processes, parameter-specific assessment of removal rates during bank filtration, and the design and operation of RBF wells. The feasibility, design, and operation of RBF schemes under specific site conditions are highlighted for sites in the US, India, and South Korea

Keywords

riverbank filtration --- removal efficacy --- dissolved organic carbon (DOC) --- pesticides --- pharmaceutical residues --- riverbank filtration --- organic matter degradation --- manganese --- riverbed --- climate change --- floods --- droughts --- column experiments --- PHREEQC --- decentralized capillary nanofiltration --- anoxic --- suboxic --- organic micropollutants --- bank filtrate --- groundwater --- sulphate --- dissolved organic matter --- high temperature --- sub-oxic conditions --- organic matter composition --- PARAFAC-EEM --- LC-OCD --- redox sensitivity --- micropollutants --- oxypurinol --- gabapentin --- river bank filtration --- hydrological trends --- sustainable water production --- well structure remodeling --- point-bar alluvial setting --- riverbank filtration --- site investigation --- hydrochemistry --- subsurface geology --- riverbank filtration --- organic micropollutants --- water quality --- environmental monitoring --- riverbank filtration --- collector wells --- performance --- entrance velocity --- river bank filtration --- attenuation --- organic micropollutants --- pharmaceuticals --- riverbank filtration --- small communities --- disinfection by-products --- trihalomethanes --- riverbank filtration (RBF) --- Krishna River --- southern India --- water treatment --- water quality --- salinity --- river bank filtration --- ultrafiltration --- surface water treatment --- energy efficiency --- out/in membrane comparison --- inline electrolysis --- bank filtration --- biofilm --- clogging --- filter cake --- pathogen barrier --- pressure loss --- slow sand filtration --- electro-chlorination --- smart villages --- disinfection --- river bank filtration --- rural water supply, online monitoring --- dissolved organic matter --- fluorescence excitation-emission matrix --- LC-OCD --- Nakdong River --- riverbank filtration --- bank filtration --- drinking water treatment --- inorganic chemicals --- organic micropollutants --- Ganga --- Yamuna --- Damodar --- riverbank filtration --- water quality --- organic carbon --- nitrate --- heavy metals --- microorganisms --- riverbank filtration --- riverside water source --- analytical method --- mirror-image method --- optimization --- riverbank filtration --- water quality --- bank filtrate portion --- iron --- manganese --- microorganisms --- system costs --- water supply --- storage tank --- drinking water hydropower --- turbine --- energy generation --- renewable energy

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