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Metal Organic Frameworks: Synthesis and Application

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ISBN: 9783039284863 9783039284870 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-487-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Metal–organic frameworks are among the most promising novel materials. The concept of MOFs was first introduced in 1990. They were actually initially used in catalysis, gas separation, membranes, electrochemical sensors. Later on, they were introduced as SPE sorbents for PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) in environmental water samples, then the range expanded to the field of analytical chemistry, both in chromatographic separation and sample preparation, with great success in, e.g., SPE and SPME (Solid Phase Mico-extraction). Since then, the number of analytical applications implementing MOFs as sorbents in sorptive sample preparation approaches is increasing. ?his is reinforced by the fact that, at least theoretically, an infinite number of structures can be designed and synthesized, thus making tuneability one of the most unique characteristics of MOF materials. Moreover, they have been designed in various shapes, such as columns, fibers, and films, so that they can meet more analytical challenges with improved analytical features.Their exceptional properties attracted the interest of analytical chemists who have taken advantage of the unique structures and properties and have already introduced them in several sample pretreatment techniques, such as solid phase extraction, dispersive SPE, magnetic solid phase extraction, solid phase microextraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, etc.

Nanoporous Materials and Their Applications

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ISBN: 9783038979685 9783038979692 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-969-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This book is a special collection of articles dedicated to the preparation and characterization of nanoporous materials, such as zeolitic-type materials, mesoporous silica (SBA-15, MCM-41, and KIT-6), mesoporous metallic oxides, metal–organic framework structures (MOFs), and pillared clays, and their applications in adsorption, catalysis, and separation processes. This book presents a global vision of researchers from international universities, research centers, and industries working with nanoporous materials and shares the latest results on the synthesis and characterization of such materials, which have given rise to the special interest in their applications in basic and industrial processes.

Novel Non-Precious Metal Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Electrode Reactions

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ISBN: 9783039215409 9783039215416 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-541-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Research on alternative energy harvesting technologies, conversion and storage systems with high efficiency, cost-effective and environmentally friendly systems, such as fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, unitized regenerative cells, and water electrolyzers has been stimulated by the global demand on energy. The conversion between oxygen and water plays a key step in the development of oxygen electrodes: oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), processes activated mostly by precious metals, like platinum. Their scarcity, their prohibitive cost, and declining activity greatly hamper large-scale applications. This issue reports on novel non-precious metal electrocatalysts based on the innovative design in chemical compositions, structure, and morphology, and supports for the oxygen reaction.

Possible Scenarios for Homochirality on Earth

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ISBN: 9783039217229 9783039217236 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-723-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In 1978, Fred Hoyle proposed that interstellar comets carrying several viruses landed on Earth as part of the panspermia hypotheses. With respect to life, the origin of homochirality on Earth has been the greatest mystery because life cannot exist without molecular asymmetry. Many scientists have proposed several possible hypotheses to answer this long-standing L-D question. Previously, Martin Gardner raised the question about mirror symmetry and broken mirror symmetry in terms of the homochirality question in his monographs (1964 and 1990). Possible scenarios for the L-D issue can be categorized into (i) Earth and exoterrestrial origins, (ii) by-chance and necessity mechanisms, and (iii) mirror-symmetrical and non-mirror-symmetrical forces as physical and chemical origins. These scenarios should involve further great amplification mechanisms, enabling a pure L- or D-world.

Keywords

chirogenesis --- enantiomorphism --- nepheline --- magmatic flow --- etch figures --- origin of life --- biological homochirality --- deracemization --- super-high-velocity impact --- plasma reactor --- absolute asymmetric synthesis --- amino acids --- origin of life --- amino acid handedness --- nucleus–molecular coupling --- chirality --- circularly polarized luminescence --- circular dichroism --- symmetry breaking --- parity violation --- weak neutral current --- tunneling --- Z0 boson --- homochirality --- precision measurement --- homochirality --- circularly polarized light --- asymmetric reaction --- polymer --- ?-strand --- hidden chirality --- two-fold helix --- multi-point approximation --- tilt-chirality --- high dimensional chirality --- spin polarized electrons --- homochirality --- magnetism --- prebiotic --- environmental chirality --- C1- and C2-symmetric catalysts --- chiral field (memory) --- racemic field --- Viedma ripening effect --- Wallach’s rule --- heat capacity --- metal-organic framework --- triethylenediamine (DABCO) molecules --- racemate --- Salam hypothesis --- homochirality --- parity violation --- neutrinos --- gravitation --- enantiomer self-disproportionation --- SDE --- achiral stationary phase --- homochiral and heterochiral aggregates --- chiral separation --- chirality --- genesis of life chirality --- asymmetric autocatalysis --- homochirality --- chirality --- asymmetric synthesis --- Soai reaction --- biological homochirality --- enantioselective reaction --- autocatalysis --- origin of life --- replicators --- bioorganic homochirality --- circularly polarized photon --- spin-polarized lepton --- parity violation in the weak interaction --- symmetry breaking --- assemblies --- supramolecular chirality --- homochirality --- self-assembly --- vortex --- lipid --- supramolecular assembly --- symmetry breaking --- homochirality

Design and Development of Nanostructured Thin Films

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ISBN: 9783039287383 / 9783039287390 Year: Pages: 386 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-739-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Due to their unique size-dependent physicochemical properties, nanostructured thin films are used in a wide range of applications from smart coating and drug delivery to electrocatalysis and highly-sensitive sensors. Depending on the targeted application and the deposition technique, these materials have been designed and developed by tuning their atomic-molecular 2D- and/or 3D-aggregation, thickness, crystallinity, and porosity, having effects on their optical, mechanical, catalytic, and conductive properties. Several open questions remain about the impact of nanomaterial production and use on environment and health. Many efforts are currently being made not only to prevent nanotechnologies and nanomaterials from contributing to environmental pollution but also to design nanomaterials to support, control, and protect the environment. This Special Issue aims to cover the recent advances in designing nanostructured films focusing on environmental issues related to their fabrication processes (e.g., low power and low cost technologies, the use of environmentally friendly solvents), their precursors (e.g., waste-recycled, bio-based, biodegradable, and natural materials), their applications (e.g., controlled release of chemicals, mimicking of natural processes, and clean energy conversion and storage), and their use in monitoring environment pollution (e.g., sensors optically- or electrically-sensitive to pollutants)

Keywords

InAlN --- nanospiral --- metamaterial --- sputtering --- chirality --- microparticle deposition --- self-assembly --- homogeneity --- monomer synthesis --- mask --- hazardous organic solvents --- photonic nanostructures --- self-assembly --- polymer nanoparticles --- biomimetic solvent sensors --- iridescence --- mesoporous --- Al2O3 --- MgO --- poly(dimethylacrylamide) --- hydrogel --- thin film --- spin coating --- SEM --- FIB --- Kr physisorption --- hydrogenated amorphous carbon films --- metallic nanoparticles --- hybrid deposition system --- nanoscratch --- nanocomposites --- aqueous dispersion --- carbon nanotube --- graphene oxide --- ink --- rod coating --- electrical conductivity --- optical transmittance --- mechanical flexibility --- silk sericin --- agarose --- lysozyme --- composite gel --- wound dressing --- nanofiber --- lamination --- water filtration --- CdTe --- self-catalysed --- wires --- Mg alloy --- LDH --- corrosion --- deposition --- coating --- ReB2/TaN multilayers --- modulation structure --- first-principles calculation --- interfacial model --- adsorption energy --- interfacial energy --- biomaterial --- biomedical --- nanofibers --- scaffolds --- reinforced --- hybrid material --- thermal analysis --- nanofibrous membranes --- light trapping --- silicon thin film --- photovoltaics --- polystyrene sphere assisted lithography --- nanostructured back reflectors --- Raman scattering --- quantum confinement --- electron–phonon coupling --- polar semiconductors --- zinc oxide --- metal-organic framework --- microscopy --- thin films --- powders --- electrodeposition --- platinum --- highly oriented pyrolytic graphite --- 2D growth --- barrier material --- nanocoating of SiOx --- polymeric matrix --- plasma deposition --- PVD --- PA-PVD --- PECVD --- permeation --- CERAMIS® --- SorpTest --- iron oxides --- FeO --- Fe3O4 --- ultrathin films --- epitaxial growth --- platinum --- ruthenium --- symmetry --- LEEM --- LEED --- XPEEM --- electrodeposition --- platinum --- highly oriented pyrolytic graphite --- 2D growth --- thin films --- TiO2NPs --- AuNPs --- photocatalysis --- mercury vapors adsorbing layer --- PAS device --- iron oxides --- ultrathin films --- silver --- epitaxial growth --- structural characterization --- STM --- LEED --- XPS --- DFT --- model system --- Pt thin deposits --- galvanic displacement --- UPD --- SLRR --- electrocatalysis --- nanostructured films --- birefringence --- nanocrystalline cellulose --- Mueller matrix --- vanadium dioxide --- post-treatment --- plasma irradiation --- luminous transmittance --- phase transition performance --- electrospinning deposition --- chemosensor --- nanocomposite conductive polymers --- polyhydroxibutyrate --- polystyrene --- H2TPP --- VOCs selectivity --- mesoporous graphene --- thin film --- nanostructure --- CaxCoO2 --- sputtering --- phase transformation --- Ge surface engineering --- La2O3 passivation layer --- atomic layer deposition --- electrical properties

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