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Wind Turbine Aerodynamics

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ISBN: 9783039215249 9783039215256 Year: Pages: 410 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-525-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

Wind turbine aerodynamics is one of the central subjects of wind turbine technology. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), the size of a single wind turbine has been increased to 12 MW at present, with further increases expected in the near future. Big wind turbines and their associated wind farms have many advantages but also challenges. The typical effects are mainly related to the increase in Reynolds number and blade flexibility. This Special Issue is a collection of 21 important research works addressing the aerodynamic challenges appearing in such developments. The 21 research papers cover a wide range of problems related to wind turbine aerodynamics, which includes atmospheric turbulent flow modeling, wind turbine flow modeling, wind turbine design, wind turbine control, wind farm flow modeling in complex terrain, wind turbine noise modeling, vertical axis wind turbine, and offshore wind energy. Readers from all over the globe are expected to greatly benefit from this Special Issue collection regarding their own work and the goal of enabling the technological development of new environmentally friendly and cost-effective wind energy systems in order to reach the target of 100% energy use from renewable sources, worldwide, by 2050

Keywords

H-type floating VAWT --- truss Spar floating foundation --- coupling of aerodynamics and hydrodynamics --- computational fluid dynamics --- wind farm --- complex terrain --- SCADA --- met mast measurements --- wind turbine --- simplified free vortex wake --- vortex ring --- aerodynamics --- axial steady condition --- variable pitch --- H-type VAWT --- straight blade --- DMST model --- NACA0012 --- wind energy --- power coefficient --- tip speed ratio --- wind turbine blade optimization --- computational fluid dynamic --- actuator disc --- wake effect --- Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) --- wind turbine airfoil --- dynamic stall --- boundary layer separation --- aerodynamic characteristics --- rotor blade optimization --- blade parametrization --- computational fluid dynamics --- OpenFOAM --- gradient-based --- adjoint approach --- wind turbine optimization --- low wind speed areas --- cost of energy --- particle swarm optimization --- dynamic stall --- pitch oscillation --- oscillating freestream --- rotational augmentation --- wind turbine --- turbulence --- super-statistics --- piezo-electric flow sensor --- ABL stability --- laminar-turbulent transition --- wind speed extrapolation --- atmospheric stability --- wind shear --- wind resource assessment --- wind turbine --- stall --- NREL Phase VI --- S809 airfoil --- MEXICO --- RANS --- wind turbine wakes --- turbulence --- actuator disk --- LES --- wind tunnel --- OpenFOAM --- wind turbine --- wind turbine design --- optimization --- blade length --- economic analysis --- typhoon --- wind turbine --- meso/microscale --- aerodynamic force --- mechanical performance --- thermography --- wind turbine blades --- defects --- image processing --- condition monitoring --- wind farm --- layout optimization --- design --- random search --- complex terrain --- airfoil design --- aerodynamic --- wind tunnel experiment --- VAWTs (Vertical axis wind turbines) --- computational fluid dynamics --- floating offshore wind turbine --- dynamic fluid body interaction --- semi-submersible platform --- OC5 DeepCWind --- wind turbine --- aerodynamics --- turbulent inflow --- Computational Fluid Dynamics --- blade element momentum theory --- actuator line method --- Fatigue Loads --- wind turbine noise source --- wind turbine noise propagation --- wind turbine wake --- n/a

Processing-Structure-Properties Relationships in Polymers

Author:
ISBN: 9783039218806 9783039218813 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-881-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This collection of research and review papers is aimed at depicting the state of the art on the possible correlations between processing variables, obtained structure and special properties which this structure induces on the plastic part. The extraordinary capacity of plastics to modify their properties according to a particular structure is evidenced for several transformation processes and for many applications. The final common goal is to take profit of this peculiar capacity of plastics by inducing, through a suitable processing, a specific spatial organization.

Keywords

carbon nanotube --- homogeneous dispersion --- ethylene vinyl acetate --- mechanical performance --- electrical conductivity --- microencapsulation --- melamine polyphosphate --- polyurethane --- composite --- flame retardant --- biodegradable nanofibers --- PLGA --- collagen --- epinephrine --- lidocaine --- polyimide film --- linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) --- copper clad laminate --- structure and properties --- polymorphism --- isotactic polypropylene --- deformation --- phase transitions --- uniaxial compression --- uniaxial tensile deformation --- temperature --- in situ X-ray --- cavitation --- indentation --- Harmonix AFM --- polymer morphology --- mechanical properties --- ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) --- microcellular injection molding --- supercritical fluid --- supercritical N2 --- supercritical CO2 --- tissue engineering and regenerative medicine --- bioresorbable polymers --- 3D printing/additive manufacturing --- fused filament fabrication/fused deposition modelling --- degradation --- physicochemical characterization --- polycaprolactone --- layered double hydroxides --- ionic liquids --- PLA --- reactive blending --- biobased films --- graphene --- nanoreinforcement --- curing rate --- epoxy microstructure --- fatigue --- composites --- critical gel --- poly(lactic acid) --- carbon black --- graphite --- polymer blend --- poly(ethylene terephthalate) --- intrinsic viscosity --- polyolefin --- compatibilizer --- isotactic polypropylene --- stress-induced phase transitions --- structural analysis --- X-ray diffraction --- polyoxymethylene (POM) --- octakis[(3-glycidoxypropyl)dimethylsiloxy]octasilsesquioxane (GPOSS) --- composites --- morphology --- mechanical properties --- conductive filler --- orientation --- conductive polymer composites --- foam --- model --- PLLA --- bioresorbable vascular scaffolds --- stretch blow molding --- biaxial elongation --- SAXS --- WAXS --- microfibrillar composites --- crystalline morphology --- crystallinity --- mechanical properties --- crystallisation --- morphology --- nanoparticles --- shear --- flow --- orientation --- poly(?-caprolactone) --- polyvinyl butyral --- hydrophobicity --- contact angle --- polypropylene --- atomic force microscopy --- injection molding --- mold temperature evolution --- polycaprolactone --- ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene --- incremental forming --- SPIF --- XRD --- chain orientation --- temperature sensitive --- gel --- controllable gas permeability --- breathable film --- polymer composite --- processing --- polyamide 6 --- compression molding --- polymorphism --- polyamide 6 --- injection molding --- polymorphism --- humidity --- mechanical properties

POSS-Based Polymers

Author:
ISBN: 9783039219940 9783039219957 Year: Pages: 310 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-995-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The combination of functional polymers with inorganic nanostructured compounds has become a major area of research and technological development owing to the remarkable properties and multifunctionalities deriving from their nano and hybrid structures. In this context, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSSs) have increasing importance and a dominant position with respect to the reinforcement of polymeric materials. Although POSSs were first described in 1946 by Scott, these materials, however, have not immediately been successful if we consider that, starting from 1946 and up to 1995, we find in the literature 85 manuscripts regarding POSSs; which means that less than two papers per year were published over 50 years. Since 1995, we observe an exponential growth of scientific manuscripts concerning POSSs. It is changing from an annual average of 20 manuscripts for the period 1995–2000 to an annual average of about 400 manuscripts, with an increase of 2800%. The introduction of POSSs inorganic nanostructures into polymers gives rise to polymer nanostructured materials (PNMs) with interesting mechanical and physical properties, thus representing a radical alternative to the traditional filled polymers or polymer compositions.

Keywords

direct synthesis --- grafting synthesis --- mercapto-modified --- bridged silsesquioxane --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes --- POSS --- composites --- thermal stability --- fluorescent sensors --- nitroaromatic explosives --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-based ionic liquids --- self-assembly behaviors --- thiol-ene ‘click’ reaction --- siloxane-silsesquioxane resins --- polypropylene --- thermogravimetry --- cone calorimeter tests --- flame-retardant mechanism --- POSS --- filler --- low refractive material --- thermal stability --- fluoropolymer --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) --- double-decker-shaped silsesquioxane (DDSQ) --- polyimide --- thermal stability --- dielectric constant --- poly(?-caprolactone) nanocomposite --- POSS nanoparticles --- dispersion --- morphology --- thermal properties --- mechanical properties --- surface properties --- phthalonitrile polymers --- phthalonitrile-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane copolymers --- cyanate ester --- blends --- thermal properties --- POSS-based copolymer --- graphene oxide --- flame retardant --- epoxy resin --- giant surfactant --- thiol–ene “click” reaction --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) --- poly(?-caprolactone) --- aqueous self-assembly --- POSS --- ridgid polyurethane foams --- mechanical properties --- cellular structure --- bi-functional POSS --- hydrophobic modification --- thermoplastic polyurethane --- mechanical performance --- silsesquioxanes --- optoelectronics --- OLEDs --- Monomethacryloxy POSS --- lauryl methacrylate --- polymerization kinetics --- anchor effect --- octa-ammonium POSS --- sodium alginate --- hydrogels --- temperature responsiveness --- Octavinyl-POSS --- organic-inorganic crosslinking --- Si@C anode --- lithium ion battery --- mechanism analysis --- monodisperse --- nanocomposites --- damping --- POSS --- liquefied --- benzoxazine --- POSS --- organic-inorganic hybrids --- epoxy resin --- thermal properties --- flame retardancy --- n/a

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MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (3)


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english (3)


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2019 (3)