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Challenges to Mean-Based Analysis in Psychology: The Contrast Between Individual People and General Science

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450435 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-043-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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In a recent paper we (Speelman & McGann, 2013) argued that psychology’s reliance on data analysis methods that are based on group averages has resulted in a science of group phenomena that may be misleading about the nature of and reasons for individual behaviour. The paper highlighted a tension between a science in search of general laws on the one hand, and the individual, variable, and diverse nature of human behaviour on the other. This Research Topic explored this concern about the pitfalls of using the mean for the basis of psychological science. The problem is universal in its applicability to psychology, and opinion papers, reviews, and original empirical research from all areas of the discipline were invited. A total of 16 authors contributed 9 articles to the Topic. The range of issues that the authors viewed through the lens provided is impressive. The papers in this collection include a range of perspectives that provide concrete examples of how to approach research design, data collection, and analysis differently. No one contribution will provide a solution to our multifarious challenges, but nor should it. Our subject matter is complex and subtle, our investigations and methodological techniques will need to be equally so.

Keywords

mean --- Average --- variability --- inference --- groups --- Individuals

Homogenization of the Linear and Non-linear Mechanical Behavior of Polycrystals

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Kontinuumsmechanik im Maschinenbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technische Mechanik - Bereich Kontinuumsmechanik ISSN: 2192693X ISBN: 9783866449718 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: IX, 192 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000032289 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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This work is dedicated to the numerically efficient simulation of the material response of polycrystalline aggregates. Therefore, crystal plasticity is combined with a new non-linear homogenization scheme, which is based on piecewise constant stress polarizations with respect to a homogeneous reference medium and corresponds to a generalization of the Hashin-Shtrikman scheme. This mean field approach accounts for the one- and two-point statistics of the microstructure.

Thermomechanical Mean-Field Modeling and Experimental Characterization of Long Fiber-Reinforced Sheet Molding Compound Composites

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Kontinuumsmechanik im Maschinenbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technische Mechanik - Bereich Kontinuumsmechanik ISSN: 2192693X ISBN: 9783731509240 Year: Volume: 15 Pages: IX, 178 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000093328 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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A discontinuous fiber-reinforced thermoset material produced by the Sheet Molding Compound process is investigated. Due to the process-related fiber orientation distribution, a composite with an anisotropic microstructure is created which crucially affects the mechanical properties. The central objectives are the modeling of the thermoelastic behavior of the composite accounting for the underlying microstructure, and the experimental characterization of the pure resin and the composite material.

Coastal Sea Levels, Impacts and Adaptation

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038428473 9783038428480 Year: Pages: VI, 334 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-17 11:05:40
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Extreme sea levels can lead to hazardous events, such as coastal flooding, erosion, or salt water intrusion, with-wide ranging environmental, societal, and economic consequences. In combination with climate-driven sea-level rise, and, potentially, additional changes in storminess, dynamic wave contributions, and tidal dynamics, the adverse consequences of extreme oceanographic events are expected to escalate in many regions. Integrated coastal zone impact assessments can guide the decisions on the adaptive responses to these changes in the physical environment and for the socioeconomic development of the local communities.

Nutrition and Liver Disease

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ISBN: 9783038429234 9783038429241 Year: Pages: X, 148 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:47:05
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Malnutrition in people with liver disease is a challenging issue due to its multifactorial nature, which includes hypermetabolism, increased energy needs, malabsorption, and anorexia. Despite advances in both assessment and management, correct nutritional support is still an often-unanswered need in the care of these patients to avoid poor outcomes. One of the central issues remains how to improve muscolar mass of sarcopenic chronically malnourished individuals with end stage liver diseases and cirrhosis, as only a correct nutritional assessment and subsequent nutritional handling may enhance quality of life and disease outcome. Nutritional management is mandatory in certain inherited metabolic/genetic defects: in these patients specific dietary restrictions/supplementations represent a challenge to guarantee optimal growth and liver health.A nutraceutical approach dealing with hepatoprotective effects of specific nutrients, has been proposed for several chronic liver disease, mainly in obesity related liver disease and alcoholic liver disease. Finally, other challenges are represented by tailored nutritional intervention in improving gut–liver axis dysfunction also in parenteral nutrition/intestinal failure associated liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease.The purpose of this Special Issue, “Nutrition and Liver Disease”, is to provide novel information and perspectives in the field of nutrition in liver disease and its management.

An Invitation to Statistics in Wasserstein Space

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Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Probability and Mathematical Statistics ISBN: 9783030384388 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-38438-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-14 09:30:34
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This open access book presents the key aspects of statistics in Wasserstein spaces, i.e. statistics in the space of probability measures when endowed with the geometry of optimal transportation. Further to reviewing state-of-the-art aspects, it also provides an accessible introduction to the fundamentals of this current topic, as well as an overview that will serve as an invitation and catalyst for further research. Statistics in Wasserstein spaces represents an emerging topic in mathematical statistics, situated at the interface between functional data analysis (where the data are functions, thus lying in infinite dimensional Hilbert space) and non-Euclidean statistics (where the data satisfy nonlinear constraints, thus lying on non-Euclidean manifolds). The Wasserstein space provides the natural mathematical formalism to describe data collections that are best modeled as random measures on Euclidean space (e.g. images and point processes). Such random measures carry the infinite dimensional traits of functional data, but are intrinsically nonlinear due to positivity and integrability restrictions. Indeed, their dominating statistical variation arises through random deformations of an underlying template, a theme that is pursued in depth in this monograph. ; Gives a succinct introduction to necessary mathematical background, focusing on the results useful for statistics from an otherwise vast mathematical literature. Presents an up to date overview of the state of the art, including some original results, and discusses open problems. Suitable for self-study or to be used as a graduate level course text. Open access.

Solution Models based on Symmetric and Asymmetric Information

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039210060 9783039210077 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-007-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This Special Issue covers symmetry and asymmetry phenomena occurring in real-life problems. We invited authors to submit their theoretical or experimental research presenting engineering and economic problem solution models dealing with the symmetry or asymmetry of different types of information. The issue gained interest in the research community and received many submissions. After rigorous scientific evaluation by editors and reviewers, nine papers were accepted and published. The authors proposed different MADM and MODM solution models as integrated tools to find a balance between the components of sustainable global development, to find a symmetry axis concerning goals, risks, and constraints to cope with the complicated problems. Most approaches suggested decision models under uncertainty, combining the usual decision-making methods with interval-valued fuzzy or rough sets theory, also Z numbers. The application fields of the proposed models involved both problems of technological sciences and social sciences. The papers cover three essential areas: engineering, economy, and management. We hope that a summary of the Special Issue as provided here will encourage a detailed analysis of the papers included in the Printed Edition.

Keywords

multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) --- group decision-making --- interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2FS) --- subjective weights --- criteria weights --- Step-wise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis (SWARA) --- multiple attribute decision making (MADM) --- neutrosophic numbers --- 2-tuple linguistic neutrosophic numbers set (2TLNNSs) --- Bonferroni mean (BM) operator --- generalized Bonferroni mean (GBM) operator --- dual generalized Bonferroni mean (DGBM) operator --- dual generalized geometric Bonferroni mean (DGGBM) operator --- green supplier selection --- green supply chain management --- Pythagorean fuzzy set --- normal cloud --- MCGDM --- backward cloud transformation --- MCDM --- the criteria of the weights --- Bayes’ theorem --- combining the weights --- symmetry of the method --- IDOCRIW --- FAHP --- evaluating the quality of distant courses --- optimal dividend --- capital injection --- salvage value --- transaction cost --- excess-of-loss reinsurance --- thrust --- data logger --- sensor --- quadcopter --- measurement --- control system --- stability --- data envelopment analysis --- Z-numbers --- full fuzzy environment --- fuzzy efficiency --- rough ARAS --- transport --- performance --- logistics --- MCDM --- probabilistic systems analysis --- nonlinear dynamics --- public management --- pattern formation --- resources distribution --- population sizes --- information theory --- oscillations --- hybrid problem solution models --- multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) --- hybrid MCDM --- criteria weight assessment --- fuzzy sets --- rough sets --- Z-numbers --- neutrosophic numbers --- Bonferroni mean (BM) operator --- engineering problems --- economic decisions

Ice Crystals

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ISBN: 9783039218905 9783039218912 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-891-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Ice crystals are the most ubiquitous material found in the cryosphere environment of the Earth, in the planetary system, and also in our daily lives. In recent years, ice crystals have increased in importance as one of the key materials for finding solutions to settle various environmental concerns at a global scale. Furthermore, ice crystals are unique materials which are potentially extremely useful in various applications, for example, within the food sciences, medical sciences, and other fields. In dealing with these interesting subjects, research on ice crystals has been more actively pursued in recent years. The Special Issue “Ice Crystals” presents a wide varieties of topics related to ice crystals. It can be considered as a status report reviewing the recent research on ice crystals and serves to provide readers with information on the latest developments concerning ice crystals.

Symmetry in Quantum Optics Models

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ISBN: 9783039218585 9783039218592 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-859-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:39:37
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Prototypical quantum optics models, such as the Jaynes–Cummings, Rabi, Tavis–Cummings, and Dicke models, are commonly analyzed with diverse techniques, including analytical exact solutions, mean-field theory, exact diagonalization, and so on. Analysis of these systems strongly depends on their symmetries, ranging, e.g., from a U(1) group in the Jaynes–Cummings model to a Z2 symmetry in the full-fledged quantum Rabi model. In recent years, novel regimes of light–matter interactions, namely, the ultrastrong and deep-strong coupling regimes, have been attracting an increasing amount of interest. The quantum Rabi and Dicke models in these exotic regimes present new features, such as collapses and revivals of the population, bounces of photon-number wave packets, as well as the breakdown of the rotating-wave approximation. Symmetries also play an important role in these regimes and will additionally change depending on whether the few- or many-qubit systems considered have associated inhomogeneous or equal couplings to the bosonic mode. Moreover, there is a growing interest in proposing and carrying out quantum simulations of these models in quantum platforms such as trapped ions, superconducting circuits, and quantum photonics. In this Special Issue Reprint, we have gathered a series of articles related to symmetry in quantum optics models, including the quantum Rabi model and its symmetries, Floquet topological quantum states in optically driven semiconductors, the spin–boson model as a simulator of non-Markovian multiphoton Jaynes–Cummings models, parity-assisted generation of nonclassical states of light in circuit quantum electrodynamics, and quasiprobability distribution functions from fractional Fourier transforms.

Optimisation Models and Methods in Energy Systems

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ISBN: 9783039211180 9783039211197 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-119-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Challenging problems arise in all segments of energy industries—generation, transmission, distribution and consumption. Optimization models and methods play a key role in offering decision/policy makers better information to assist them in making sounder decisions at different levels, ranging from operational to strategic planning.

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