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How nature shaped echolocation in animals

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193479 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-347-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Echolocation has evolved in different groups of animals, from bats and cetaceans to birds and humans, and enables localization and tracking of objects in a dynamic environment, where light levels may be very low or absent. Nature has shaped echolocation, an active sense that engages audiomotor feedback systems, which operates in diverse environments and situations. Echolocation production and perception vary across species, and signals are often adapted to the environment and task. In the last several decades, researchers have been studying the echolocation behavior of animals, both in the air and underwater, using different methodologies and perspectives. The result of these studies has led to rich knowledge on sound production mechanisms, directionality of the sound beam, signal design, echo reception and perception. Active control over echolocation signal production and the mechanisms for echo processing ultimately provide animals with an echoic scene or image of their surroundings. Sonar signal features directly influence the information available for the echolocating animal to perceive images of its environment. In many echolocating animals, the information processed through echoes elicits a reaction in motor systems, including adjustments in subsequent echolocation signals. We are interested in understanding how echolocating animals deal with different environments (e.g. clutter, light levels), tasks, distance to targets or objects, different prey types or other food sources, presence of conspecifics or certain predators, ambient and anthropogenic noise. In recent years, some researchers have presented new data on the origins of echolocation, which can provide a hint of its evolution. Theoreticians have addressed several issues that bear on echolocation systems, such as frequency or time resolution, target localization and beam-forming mechanisms. In this Research Topic we compiled recent work that elucidates how echolocation – from sound production, through echolocation signals to perception- has been shaped by nature functioning in different environments and situations. We strongly encouraged comparative approaches that would deepen our understanding of the processes comprising this active sense.

Climate change and marine top predators

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197361 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-736-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Ecology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Climate change affects all components of marine ecosystems. For endothermic top predators, i.e. seabirds and marine mammals, these impacts are often complex and mediated through trophic relationships. In this Research Topic, leading researchers attempt to identify patterns of change among seabirds and marine mammals, and the mechanisms through which climate change drives these changes.

The Evolution of Endothermy - From Patterns to Mechanisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455690 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-569-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Metabolic rate is a key ecophysiological factor determining fitness, distribution, survival and reproductive strategies of organisms. The ability to endogenously produce heat and elevate body temperature beyond ambient, has far reaching ecological implications. The diversity of thermogenic mechanisms and strategies employed throughout the animal kingdom is truly phenomenal and one of the greatest biological mysteries. Interestingly, even heat producing plants have been characterised.


Over the last several decades, the oversimplified distinction between warm- and cold blooded animals has well and truly been put to rest and the terms “endo- and ectotherm” have been established. Birds and mammals are regarded as endotherms, capable of maintaining high body temperatures within highly precise boundaries. On contrary, in ectothermic organisms ambient temperature governs body temperature and metabolism, encompassing the majority of present day species. However, it has recently become very clear that this distinction is still not accurate enough to describe the vastness of heat generating mechanisms within endo- but also ectotherms. Indeed, a plethora of ectothermic animals display endogenous as well as behavioural means of temperature control and mechanisms for heat generation. There is large diversity in regards to thermoregulatory ability and strategy within endotherms as well, with some groups being classified by separate categories such as basoendotherms and mesotherms.


Considerable interest and efforts has been put into the quest to understand the underlying physiological mechanisms leading and facilitating high metabolic rates and body temperatures of endotherms. These mechanisms are far from being exhaustively studied and the evolutionary trajectory leading to high metabolic rates and stable body temperatures is equally, vividly debated. This discussion includes an array of questions and theories surrounding the presence of endothermy in extinct dinosaurs. In addition, a lively debate surrounds the evolutionary drivers promoting the establishment of endothermy with clear support of direct or indirect selective benefits.


Within this Research Topic we plan to compile the latest ideas, knowledge and experimental work to elucidate the patterns of the evolution of endothermy and its transition/distinction from ectothermy. The focus is on key physiological mechanisms supporting this transition and contributing to the maintenance of high metabolic rates and body temperature in endotherms, as well as mechanisms for local heterothermy and heat dissipation in ectotherms. These mechanisms and conclusions may be derived from different levels of organisation such as population, taxon, species as well as tissue, cellular or molecular levels. It may also encompass novel experimental or theoretical models testing evolutionary theories of endothermy. A comparative approach is encouraged but not fundamental.

Scents that matter - from olfactory stimuli to genes, behaviors and beyond

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198139 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-813-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Scents can carry a lot of important information about the environment, conspecifics and other species. While some of these scents are positively related, as the odor of food, mating partners, or familiar conspecifics, other scents are associated with negative situations and events, e.g. the occurrence of a predator, an aggressive territorial conspecific or spoiled food. The present research topic is focused on such “scents that matter”, i.e., scents that are crucial for the survival of an organism. Since many years, the importance of scents always attracts scientists to investigate how scents affect the behavior of mammals, via which mechanisms scents are perceived and how scents modulate neural circuitries responsible for behavior. We believe that this research topic gives a nice overview on current ‘olfactory research.’ Many of the contributions are focused on scents with aversive effects, i.e. kairomones or pheromones that warn about potential threats. These studies range from research articles identifying new active odor components of predator odors, describing the induced behavioral changes and the underlying neuroanatomical and neurochemical mechanisms, to review articles summarizing the findings of the last decades on this field. Other articles are focused on the effects of scents in social behaviors or on associative learning. This research topic also represents nicely the current combination of methodological approaches in ‘olfactory research’: cell biologists, geneticists, behavioral pharmacologists, neuroanatomists, and computational modelers work effectively together to unravel the mechanisms of how scents matters in humans and animals.

Evolution, Composition and Regulation of Supernumerary B Chromosomes

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977865 9783038977872 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-787-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) are dispensable genetic elements found in thousands of species of plants and animals, and some fungi. Since their discovery more than a century ago, they have been a source of puzzlement, as they only occur in some members of a population and are absent from others. When they do occur, they are often harmful, and in the absence of “selfishness”, based on mechanisms of mitotic and meiotic drive, there appears to be no obvious reason for their existence. Cytogeneticists have long wrestled with questions about the biological existence of these enigmatic elements, including their lack of any adaptive properties, apparent absence of functional genes, their origin, sequence organization, and co-evolution as nuclear parasites. Emerging new technologies are now enabling researchers to step up a gear, to look enthusiastically beyond the previous limits of the horizon, and to uncover the secrets of these “silent” chromosomes. This book provides a comprehensive guide to theoretical advancements in the field of B chromosome research in both animal and plant systems.

Keywords

repetitive elements --- RNA-Seq --- genomics --- evolution --- cytogenetics --- supernumerary elements --- extra chromosomes --- B chromosomes --- transmission --- drive --- host/parasite interaction --- supernumerary chromosomes --- karyotype evolution --- genome instability --- supernumerary chromosomes --- heterochromatin --- parent-of-origin effects --- paternal X chromosome --- maternal X chromosome --- controlling element --- teleost --- population analysis --- whole genome resequencing --- DNA copy number variation --- ribosomal DNA --- B chromosomes --- FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridisation) --- GISH (genomic in situ hybridisation) --- Prospero autumnale complex --- supernumerary chromosomal segments (SCS) evolution --- tandem repeats --- Drosophila --- supernumerary --- satellite DNA --- sSMC --- B chromosomes --- dot-like (micro) Bs --- karyotypic characteristics --- ?s --- B morphotypes --- Apodemus peninsulae --- maize B chromosome --- centromere --- inactivation --- reactivation --- de novo centromere formation --- epigenetics --- supernumerary chromosomes --- additional chromosomes --- chromosome polymorphism --- evolution --- B chromosomes --- karyotypes --- genome evolution --- interphase nucleus --- mammals --- genes --- repetitive DNA --- transcription of heterochromatin --- B chromosomes --- grasshoppers --- DNA composition --- repeat clusters --- euchromatin degradation --- microdissected DNA probes --- B chromosome --- satellite DNA --- mobile element --- organelle DNA --- chromosome evolution --- fluorescent in situ hybridization --- Orthoptera --- satellite DNA --- supernumerary chromosome --- RepeatExplorer --- supernumerary chromosomes --- B chromosomes --- next-generation sequencing --- coverage ratio analysis --- n/a --- B chromosome --- transmission --- origin --- drive --- n/a

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