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Minding Glial Cells in the Novel Understandings of Mental Illness

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451579 Year: Pages: 275 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-157-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Abstract

Traditionally, abnormalities of neurons and neuronal networks including synaptic abnormalities and disturbance of neurotransmitters have dominantly been believed to be the main causes of psychiatric disorders. Recent cellular neuroscience has revealed various unknown roles of glial cells such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. These glial cells have proved to continuously contact with neurons /synapses, and have been shown to play important roles in brain development, homeostasis and various brain functions. Beyond the classic neuronal doctrine, accumulating evidence has suggested that abnormalities and disturbances of neuron-glia crosstalk may induce psychiatric disorders, while these mechanisms have not been well understood. This Research Topic of the Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience will focus on the most recent developments and ideas in the study of glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia) focusing on psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mood disorders and autism. Not only molecular, cellular and pharmacological approaches using in vitro / in vivo experimental methods but also translational research approaches are welcome. Novel translational research approaches, for example, using novel techniques such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, may lead to novel solutions. We believe that investigations to clarify the correlation between glial cells and psychiatric disorders contribute to a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders and the development of effective treatment strategies.

Neuroglia Molecular Mechanisms in Psychiatric Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456987 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-698-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Abstract

Neuropsychiatric disorders have long been considered as specific dysfunctions of neuronal functions. Studies of the recent decade, however, have challenged this simplistic view, highlighting the important role played by neuroglial cells in the onset and/or progression of neuropsychiatric diseases. In the central nervous system (CNS) non-excitable neuroglia are represented by cells of ectodermal origin (astrocytes, mainly responsible for CNS homeostasis and oligodendrocytes that provide myelination and support for axons) and mesodermal origin (microglial cells that are scions of foetal macrophages entering the neural tube early in development; these cells provide for CNS defence and contribute to shaping neuronal networks). Pathological changes of neuroglia are complex; these changes are classified into reactive gliosis (astrogliosis, activation of microglia and hypertrophy of oligodendroglial precursors), gliodegeneration with loss of function and glial pathological remodelling. Combination of these processes defines the evolution of neurological diseases in general and neuropsychiatric disorders in particular.In this research topic we addressed the contribution of neuroglia to major neuropsychiatric pathologies including major depression, schizophrenia, and addictive disorders.

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