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Environmental and Management Factor Contributions to Maize Yield

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ISBN: 9783038976127 9783038976134 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-613-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-12 11:50:48
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Agricultural production must increase substantially to meet the increasing per capita demand for food, feed, fuel, and fiber of a rising human census. The amount of arable land is limited due to soil type, weather, and ecosystem considerations; therefore, it is necessary to increase yields on current fields. To obtain the greatest maize (Zea mays L.) yield, a farmer needs to nurture the crop as much as possible. Weather and nitrogen availability are well- known as two factors that normally have the greatest influence on maize yields and grain quality. Some management factors a producer may need to consider while growing a maize crop are mineral fertilization, genotype, plant population, and protection from insects and diseases. Additionally, there are numerous biological and chemical compounds that can stimulate plant growth, such as in-furrow mixes and foliar fungicides. Field management also plays a role in final grain yield, including crop rotation, tillage, soil pH and nutrient levels, weed control, and drainage.This Special Issue Book focuses on weather, soil, and other maize crop management factors and their relative independent and/or interactive influence on maize growth and yield.]

Viruses threatening stable production of cereal crops

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196128 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-612-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Cereal crops such as maize, wheat, and rice account for a majority of biomass produced globally in agriculture. Continuous economic and population growth especially in developing countries accompanied more intensive production of cereal crops to meet increasing demands for them as main staple foods and livestock feeds. However, imbalance between production and consumption of cereal crops, which is inevitably reflected as their higher market prices, is becoming palpable in recent years. Stable production of cereal crops has been threatened by various abiotic and biotic stresses. One of the most threatening constraints is virus diseases. Especially, intensification of cereal crop production is often achieved by monoculture of a popular crop variety in a wide area. Such agroecosystems with low biodiversity is usually more conducive to biotic stresses, and may result in the outbreaks of existing and emerging cereal viruses. Numerous reports on incidences of various virus diseases of cereal crops attested that viruses have been a long-standing obstacle eroding yields of cereal crops worldwide. Despite of the evident economic losses incurred by virus disease of cereal crops, the progress in basic research on virus species causing major diseases of cereal crops lagged behind compared to that carried out for viruses that can infect dicotyledonous plants. This was partially due to the lack of ideal experimental systems to investigate the interaction between viruses and monocotyledonous crops. For example, inoculation of many viruses to cereal plants still requires tedious manipulation of vector organisms, and reverse genetic systems are not available for many cereal viruses. However, application of latest molecular biology technologies has led to significant advance in cereal virology recently; transient gene expression systems through particle bombardment and agroinfiltration have been exploited to examine the functions of cereal virus proteins. Cell culture systems of vector insects enabled to investigate the molecular interactions between cereal viruses and insect vectors. Furthermore, RNAi technologies for vector insects and monocotyledonous plants facilitated identification of specific host and viral factors involved in viral replication and transmission cycles. Also, accumulating information on the genome sequences of cereal crop species has been simplifying the roadmap to pinpoint resistance genes against cereal viruses. The objective of this research topic is to provide and share the information which can contribute to advances in cereal virology by covering recent progresses in areas such as: 1) characterization of emerging viruses, 2) analyses of genetic and biological diversities within particular viruses, 3) development of experimental systems applicable to cereal viruses, 4) elucidation of the molecular interactions among viruses, vector organisms, and host plants, 5) identification of traits and genes linked to virus resistance in cereal crops, 6) development of novel genetic approaches for virus resistance, and 7) assessment of epidemiological factors affecting the incidences of cereal virus diseases. Synergistic integration of ideas from such areas under this research topic should help to formulate practical alternatives to the current management options for virus diseases in cereal crops.

Current Strategies to Improve the Nutritional and Physical Quality of Baked Goods

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ISBN: 9783039283460 9783039283477 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-347-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The lifestyle of humans is rapidly changing, and, correspondingly, their needs and the current and future megatrends of the food market. It is worth mentioning (1) the preference for natural, simple, and flexible diets that drive the further expansion of plant-focused formulations, (2) the focus on food sustainability (food waste reduction), and (3) the interest in healthy eating as the basis for good health. The hectic routine and rapid urbanization in developed and developing regions, respectively, have shifted consumer preferences toward bread and baked foods, which, interestingly, are often high in sugars and are categorized as having a high glycemic index. Therefore, it is of major importance to address the technological challenges of manufacturing baked goods with high physical and sensory quality that result in positive metabolic responses. This Special Issue seeks to provide fundamental understanding in this area and novel strategies to improve the nutritional properties of baked goods, including a decrease in starch bioaccessibility, sugar reduction, increase in fiber and/or protein content, and the improvement of phytochemical bioactivity. This Special Issue will also cover studies on the physical and sensory improvements of baked goods that may provide a mechanistic understanding to minimize the loss of quality after the incorporation of nutritional-improving ingredients, such as edible byproducts, proteins, or fibers. Last but not least, studies focused on the reduction of additives (clean label) or fat and on the use of sourdough to improve the sensory properties of baked goods will also be included.

Fertilizer Application on Crop Yield

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ISBN: 9783038976547 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-655-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Fertilizer Application on Crop Yield that was published in Agronomy

Keywords

soil organic matter --- soil biota --- soil acidity --- soil erosion --- fertilizer management --- site-specific nutrient management --- balanced use of fertilizers --- integrated nutrient management --- agronomic response --- calcium --- Copper --- NPK amendments --- Value Cost Ratio --- Zinc --- nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) --- nitrate assimilation --- nitrate reductase activity --- maize --- nitrate --- ammonia --- NADH --- NADH-dehydrogenase --- Complex I --- site-specific K management --- soil K supply --- maize yield response to K --- maize crop manager --- nutrient expert for maize --- durum wheat --- mineral N --- organic N --- S fertilization --- grain quality --- grain yield --- phosphorous --- potassium --- corn–soybean rotation --- management --- production system --- organic farming --- conventional farming --- organic nutrients --- chemical fertilizers --- global food demand --- agroforestry system --- evergreen agriculture --- biofertilizer --- Bacillus pumilus --- growth promotion --- N fertilizer --- rice --- yield --- green manure --- nitrogen uptake --- Orychophragmus violaceus L. --- soil nitrogen pools --- grain yield --- Zea mays L. --- hybrid rice --- K use efficiency --- potassium --- saline tract --- soil N supply --- soil N mineralization --- N fertilization --- potentially mineralizable N --- humid Mediterranean climate --- conservation agriculture --- NUE --- nitrogen recovery efficiency --- nitrogen physiological recovery --- wheat yields --- Agrotain® urea --- rice-wheat system --- organic farming --- forage legume --- long-term productivity --- soil health --- economics --- integrated nutrient management --- rice --- wheat --- yield --- net returns --- soil health --- sustainability

Sustainable Cropping Systems

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ISBN: 9783039289073 / 9783039289080 Year: Pages: 326 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-908-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Global crop production must substantially increase to meet the needs of a rapidly growing population. This is constrained by the availability of nutrients, water, and land. There is also an urgent need to reduce the negative environmental impacts of crop production. Collectively, these issues represent one of the greatest challenges of the twenty-first century. Sustainable cropping systems based on ecological principles are the core of integrated approaches to solve this critical challenge. This special issue provides an international basis for revealing the underlying mechanisms of sustainable cropping systems to drive agronomic innovations. It includes review and original research articles that report novel scientific findings on improvement in cropping systems related to crop yields and their resistance to biotic and abiotic stressors, resource use efficiency, environmental impact, sustainability, and ecosystem services.

Keywords

organic cropping system --- maize --- soybean --- wheat --- partial returns --- Zea mais L. --- Triticum aestivum L. --- Helianthus annuus L. --- organic fertilization --- mineral N fertilization --- protein crops --- systematic review --- Europe --- multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) --- potato (Solanum tuberosum) --- shade --- light --- yield --- growth --- quality --- cover crops --- agrobiodiversity --- conventionalization --- system approach --- harvesting strategies --- forage yield and quality --- forage sorghum --- pearl millet --- Texas High Plains --- kura clover --- living mulch --- cover crop --- perennial --- conservation --- nitrogen --- forage --- economics --- farmer’s perception --- maize --- push-pull technology --- stemborer --- no-tillage --- conservation agriculture --- durum wheat --- gluten fractions --- SDS-PAGE analysis --- leguminous cover crop --- vetch --- double cropping --- grain yield --- N uptake --- N use efficiency --- rice --- hierarchical patch dynamics --- cropping system design --- up-scaling --- vineyard system --- complexity --- organization --- cropping systems --- water --- nitrogen --- WHCNS --- scenario analyses --- maize production --- nitrogen use efficiency --- nitrogen nutrition --- Acidic soil --- crop rotation --- enzyme activities --- green manure --- sustainable yield index --- nutrient balance --- crop residue incorporation --- straw decomposition --- residue C and N release --- SOC and STN stocks --- cover crop --- manure --- nitrate --- nitrogen --- cereal rye --- maize --- no-tillage --- cover crop --- irrigation --- weed suppression --- gross margin --- faba bean --- forage pea --- fall grazing --- cover crop --- catch crop --- nutrient cycling --- cropping systems --- sustainable crop production --- agroecology --- nutrient use efficiency --- water use efficiency --- environmental quality

Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039289370 / 9783039289387 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-938-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Contamination of foods and agricultural commodities by various types of toxigenic fungi is a concerning issue for human and animal health. Moulds naturally present in foods can produce mycotoxins and contaminate foodstuffs under favourable conditions of temperature, relative humidity, pH, and nutrient availability. Mycotoxins are, in general, stable molecules that are difficult to remove from foods once they have been produced. Therefore, the prevention of mycotoxin contamination is one of the main goals of the agriculture and food industries. Chemical control or decontamination techniques may be quite efficient; however, the more sustainable and restricted use of fungicides, the lack of efficiency in some foods, and the consumer demand for chemical-residue-free foods require new approaches to control this hazard. Therefore, food safety demands continued research efforts for exploring new strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. This Special Issue contains original contributions and reviews that advance the knowledge about the most current promising approaches to minimize mycotoxin contamination, including biological control agents, phytochemical antifungal compounds, enzyme detoxification, and the use of novel technologies.

Keywords

deoxynivalenol --- degradation --- photocatalysis --- ?-Fe2O3 --- degradation products --- Aspergillus flavus --- Penicillium verrucosum --- AITC --- fungal growth reduction --- mycotoxin reduction --- decontamination --- mycotoxins --- Aflatoxin M1 --- milk --- binding --- stability --- zearalenone --- biological detoxification --- Bacillus --- fermentation --- roasted coffee --- mycotoxigenic fungi --- ochratoxin A --- cold plasma --- detoxification --- brine shrimp bioassay --- mycotoxins --- Fusarium sp., Botrytis sp., apple pomace --- phloridzin --- quercetin glycosides --- pinnatifidanoside D --- deoxynivalenol --- wheat --- superheated steam --- wheat quality --- crisp biscuit --- biological control --- post-harvest phytopathogen --- Penicillium digitatum --- Penicillium italicum --- Geothrichum citri-aurantii --- zearalenone --- estrogen response element --- gene expression --- cell proliferation --- estrogen receptor --- biotransformation --- Fusarium --- mycotoxins --- garlic-derived extracts --- green chemistry --- fungi --- EU limits --- abiotic factors --- storage --- wheat --- maize --- oats --- fumonisin --- enzymatic detoxification --- fumonisin esterase FumD --- enzyme kinetics --- maize --- Zearalenone --- biodegradation --- probiotics --- cell-free extracts of Aspergillus oryzae --- pig production performance --- Bacillus --- Fusarium graminearum --- antagonism --- mode of action --- essential oils --- Satureja montana --- Origanum virens --- Aspergillus flavus --- aflatoxin --- corn --- nanoparticles --- Penicillium nordicum --- biocontrol agents --- dry-cured ham --- ochratoxin A (OTA) --- n/a

Advances in Food and Non-Food Biomass Production, Processing and Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: Towards a Basis for a Regional Bioeconomy

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039286683 / 9783039286690 Year: Pages: 446 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-669-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The bioeconomy concept aims to add sustainability to the production, transformation, and trade of biological goods. Though implemented around the world, the development of national bioeconomies is uneven, especially in the global South, where major challenges exist in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this context, the international BiomassWeb project aimed to underpin the bioeconomy concept by applying the value web approach, which seeks to uncover complex interlinked value webs instead of linear value chains. The project also aimed to develop intervention options to strengthen and optimize the synergies and trade-offs among different value chains. The Special Issue “Advances in Food and Non-Food Biomass Production, Processing and Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: Toward a Basis for a Regional Bioeconomy"" compiles 23 articles produced in this framework. The articles are grouped in four sections: the value web approach; the production side; processing, transformation and trade; and global views.

Keywords

contract farming --- contract design --- cassava --- bioeconomy --- Ghana --- adoption --- land-use --- deforestation --- food security --- renewable energy --- collaboration --- leadership --- push–pull technology --- sustainability --- transdisciplinary research --- Ethiopia --- demand-driven research --- Biomass --- innovation --- Ghana --- husk --- pulp --- parchment --- mucilage --- methane --- renewable energy --- bioeconomy --- green economy --- sustainable development --- bioproductivity --- high-tech bioeconomy --- knowledge-based bioeconomy --- primary sector --- typology --- cluster analysis --- food and non-food benefit --- homegarden --- multipurpose tree on farmland --- multistorey coffee system --- multi-functionality --- traditional agroforestry --- Yayu Biosphere Reserve --- yellow cassava --- sustainability --- cassava variants --- cassava processing --- carotenoids retention --- amylose --- bioeconomy --- governance --- development policy --- innovation --- technology --- bio-based --- mixed methods --- richness --- edible --- food bearing --- neighborhoods --- maize --- Policy Analysis Matrix --- comparative advantage --- probit --- Ghana --- cassava farmers --- value addition --- productivity differentials --- impact --- endogenous switching regression --- plantain residues --- fiber --- value web --- bioeconomy --- Ghana --- biochar --- crop residue --- corncob --- germination --- phytotoxicity --- self-purging pyrolysis --- soil amendment --- biomass --- value web --- bioeconomy --- bamboo --- Ethiopia --- sustainability --- intensification options --- maize --- groundnut --- crop residue --- crop model --- cassava processors --- smallholders --- solid waste --- pollution --- value-added --- willingness to pay --- biomass utilization --- intensity --- cassava smallholders --- Nigeria --- availability --- access --- Ghana --- Nigeria --- Ethiopia --- value chain --- CGE --- fertilizer-yield-response --- productivity --- welfare --- Ethiopia --- family farming --- farmland --- food security --- rural development --- biomass scenarios --- global biomass --- bioenergy --- sustainability --- food security --- basic needs --- intragenerational justice --- equity --- fairness --- development --- Biomass-based value web --- biological goods --- bio-based economy --- food and non-food --- circular economy

Progress in Water Footprint Assessment

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039210381 9783039210398 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-039-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Water Footprint Assessment is a young research field that considers how freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution relate to consumption, production, and trade patterns. This book presents a wide range of studies within this new field. It is argued that collective and coordinated action - at different scale levels and along all stages of commodity supply chains - is necessary to bring about more sustainable, efficient, and equitable water use. The presented studies range from farm to catchment and country level, and show how different actors along the supply chain of final commodities can contribute to more sustainable water use in the chain.

Dietary Trace Minerals

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ISBN: 9783039283248 9783039283255 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-325-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Dietary trace minerals are pivotal and hold a key role in numerous metabolic processes. Trace mineral deficiencies (except for iodine, iron, and zinc) do not often develop spontaneously in adults on ordinary diets; infants are more vulnerable because their growth is rapid and their intake varies. Trace mineral imbalances can result from hereditary disorders (e.g., hemochromatosis, Wilson disease), kidney dialysis, parenteral nutrition, restrictive diets prescribed for people with inborn errors of metabolism, or various popular diet plans. The Special Issue “Dietary Trace Minerals” comprised 13 peer-reviewed papers on the most recent evidence regarding the dietary intake of trace minerals, as well as their effect on the prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases. Original contributions and literature reviews further demonstrated the crucial and central part that dietary trace minerals play in human health and development. This editorial provides a brief and concise overview of the content of the Dietary Trace Minerals Special Issue.

Modelling and Management of Irrigation System

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039287901 / 9783039287918 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-791-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Hydraulic Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Irrigation is becoming an activity of precision, where combining information collected from various sources is necessary to optimally manage resources. New management strategies, such as big data techniques, sensors, artificial intelligence, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and new technologies in general, are becoming more relevant every day. As such, modeling techniques, both at the water distribution network and the farm levels, will be essential to gather information from various sources and offer useful recommendations for decision-making processes. In this book, 10 high quality papers were selected that cover a wide range of issues that are relevant to the different aspects related to irrigation management: water source and distribution network, plot irrigation systems, and crop water management.

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