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Viral Interactions with Host RNA Decay Pathways

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ISBN: 9783038425021 9783038425038 Year: Pages: VIII, 98 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-25 13:10:10
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Eukaryotes have evolved a wide variety of RNA decay pathways to maintain cellular homeostasis, carry out programs of gene expression, and respond to changing environmental conditions. Individual RNA turnover mechanisms can operate constitutively or under only particular cellular conditions; similarly, some target many RNAs, while others act with great specificity. It has become increasingly clear that there are extensive interactions between viruses and the host RNA decay machinery. Often, the cellular RNA decay machinery poses a threat to viral gene expression, but viruses can also manipulate RNA decay pathways to promote viral replication. This special issue focuses on how cellular RNA decay factors recognize and degrade viral RNAs and viral strategies to subvert or evade these pathways.

Relevance of Translational Regulation on Plant Growth and Environmental Responses

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454136 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-413-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Plants, as sessile organisms, are exposed to a large array of challenging external and internal alterations that may restrict plant growth. These limiting growth conditions activate plant signalling responses which eventually target the protein synthesis machinery to rapidly reprogram plant metabolism to adapt to the new situation. Thus, the control of mRNA translation is one key regulatory step of gene expression and it is an essential molecular mechanism used by plants to bring about impressive growth plasticity. Compared to the vast number of studies aimed to identify plant transcriptional changes upon hormonal or environmental cues, the subsequent steps of mRNA transport, stability, storage, and eventually translational regulation, have been less studied in plants. This lack of knowledge concerns not only the fate of protein-coding transcripts in plants, but also the biogenesis and maturation of rRNAs, tRNAs and the plant translation factors involved. In this eBook we have focused on how internal cues and external signals of either biotic or abiotic origin impact translation to adjust plant growth and development. We have collected altogether ten scientific contributions to extend the knowledge on plant post-transcriptional and translational events that regulate the production of proteins that execute the required cellular functions. We hope that this compilation of original research articles and reviews will provide the readers with a detailed update on the state of knowledge in this field, and also with additional motivation to improve plant growth adaptation to future environmental challenges.

Plants as alternative hosts for human and animal pathogens

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195787 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-578-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Many of the most prevalent and devastating human and animal pathogens have part of their lifecycle out-with the animal host. These pathogens have a remarkably wide capacity to adapt to a range of quite different environments: physical, chemical and biological, which is part of the key to their success. Many of the well-known pathogens that are able to jump between hosts in different biological kingdoms are transmitted through the faecal-oral and direct transmission pathways, and as such have become important food-borne pathogens. Some high-profile examples include fresh produce-associated outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica. Other pathogens may be transmitted via direct contact or aerosols are include important zoonotic pathogens. It is possible to make a broad division between those pathogens that are passively transmitted via vectors and need the animal host for replication (e.g. virus and parasites), and those that are able to actively interact with alternative hosts, where they can proliferate (e.g. the enteric bacteria). This research topic will focus on plants as alternative hosts for human pathogens, and the role of plants in their transmission back to humans. The area is particularly exciting because it opens up new aspects to the biology of some microbes already considered to be very well characterised. One aspect of cross-kingdom host colonisation is in the comparison between the hosts and how the microbes are able to use both common and specific adaptations for each situation. The area is still in relative infancy and there are far more questions than answers at present. We aim to address important questions underlying the interactions for both the microbe and plant host in this research topic.

Mercury and Methylmercury Toxicology and Risk Assessment

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ISBN: 9783038979708 / 9783038979715 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-971-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Mercury is a global pollutant that affects the health of both humans and ecosystems. This Special Issue collects three review papers and six research articles that report on the latest findings on the mechanisms of mercury toxicology and its impacts on environmental health. This collection of papers provides useful, new information on the mechanisms of mercury toxicity and methods of improving the risk assessment of mercury exposure.

G-quadruplex and Microorganisms

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ISBN: 9783039212439 / 9783039212446 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-244-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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G-quadruplexes (G4s) are nucleic acids secondary structures that form in DNA or RNA guanine (G)-rich strands. In recent years, the presence of G4s in microorganisms has attracted increasing interest. In prokaryotes, G4 sequences have been reported in several human pathogens. Bacterial enzymes able to process G4s have been identified. In viruses, G4s have been suggested to be involved in key steps of the viral life cycle: They have been associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), human papilloma virus, swine pseudorabies virus, and other viruses’ genomes. New evidence shows the presence of G4s in parasitic protozoa, such as the causative agent of malaria. G4 binding proteins and mRNA G4s have been implicated in the regulation of microorganisms’ genome replication and translation. G4 ligands have been developed and tested both as tools to study the complexity of G4-mediated mechanisms in the viral life cycle and as therapeutic agents. Moreover, new techniques to study G4 folding and their interactions with proteins have been developed. This Special Issue will focus on G4s present in microorganisms, addressing all the above aspects.

Advances in Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing

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ISBN: 9783039217007 / 9783039217014 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-701-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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PacBio’s single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology offers important advantages over the short-read DNA sequencing technologies that currently dominate the market. This includes exceptionally long read lengths (20 kb or more), unparalleled consensus accuracy, and the ability to sequence native, non-amplified DNA molecules. From fungi to insects to humans, long reads are now used to create highly accurate reference genomes by de novo assembly of genomic DNA and to obtain a comprehensive view of transcriptomes through the sequencing of full-length cDNAs. Besides reducing biases, sequencing native DNA also permits the direct measurement of DNA base modifications. Therefore, SMRT sequencing has become an attractive technology in many fields, such as agriculture, basic science, and medical research. The boundaries of SMRT sequencing are continuously being pushed by developments in bioinformatics and sample preparation. This book contains a collection of articles showcasing the latest developments and the breadth of applications enabled by SMRT sequencing technology.

Tea in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038979869 / 9783038979876 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-987-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Tea, made from the leaves of the Camellia senenisis plant, is the second most consumed beverage worldwide after water. Accumulating evidence from cellular, animal, epidemiological and clinical studies have linked tea consumption to various health benefits, such as chemoprevention of cancers, chronic inflammation, heart and liver diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. Although such health benefits have not been consistently observed in some intervention trials, positive results from clinical trials have provided direct evidence supporting the cancer-protective effect of green tea. In addition, numerous mechanisms of action have been suggested to contribute to tea’s disease-preventive effects. Furthermore, effects of the processing and storage of tea, as well as additives on tea’s properties have been investigated.

Regulatory microRNA

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ISBN: 9783038977681 9783038977698 Year: Pages: 348 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-769-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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This book includes updated information about microRNA regulation, for example, in the fields of circular RNAs, multiomics analysis, biomarkers and oncogenes. The variety of topics included in this book reaffirms the extent to which microRNA regulation affects biological processes. Although microRNAs are not translated to proteins, their importance for biological processes is not less than proteins. An understanding of their roles in various biological processes is critical to understanding gene function in these biological processes. Although non-coding RNAs other than microRNAs have recently come under investigation, microRNA still remains the front runner as the subject of genetic and biological studies. In reading the collection of papers, readers can grasp the most updated information regarding microRNA regulation, which will continue to be an important topic in genetics and biology.

Keywords

tensor decomposition --- miRNA transfection --- sequence-nonspecific off-target regulation --- extracellular vesicles --- cancer --- therapeutics --- miRNA --- virus --- host --- Cross-Kingdom --- target prediction --- microRNAs --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- cardiac diseases --- biomarker --- calf --- Ileum --- miRNA-mRNA integration --- miRNA sequencing --- growth --- development --- microRNA --- myelodysplastic syndromes --- acute myeloid leukemia --- azacitidine --- 14q32 --- MEG3 --- autophagy regulator --- transcriptional factor --- non-coding RNA --- regulatory network --- RWR algorithm --- circular RNA --- circFGFR2 --- FGFR2 --- miR-133a-5p --- miR-29b-1-5p --- skeletal muscle --- proliferation --- differentiation --- breast cancer --- CAFs --- estrogens --- GPER --- miR-338-3p --- c-Fos --- Cyclin D1 --- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) --- biomarker --- microRNA --- cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) --- muscle biopsy --- circulating miRNAs --- RNA interference --- small interfering RNA --- microRNA --- oncolytic virotherapy --- conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAd) --- biomarker --- gene --- microRNA --- parkinson’s disease --- miRNA --- bioinformatic analysis --- ischemic stroke --- miRNA-gene target interaction --- network --- biomarker --- diagnosis --- prognosis --- microRNAs --- epigenetic biomarker --- sepsis --- inflammation --- Teleostei --- embryogenesis --- tissue-enriched miRNAs --- post-transcriptional gene regulation --- miRNA expression and regulation --- passenger miRNA --- biomarker --- vascular injury --- smooth muscle cells --- porcine vein graft and stent models --- bone angiogenesis --- osteogenesis --- angiogenic-osteogenic coupling --- microRNAs --- bone regeneration --- bone formation --- bone tissue-engineering --- angiomiRs --- osteomiRs --- hypoxamiRs --- circular RNA --- circHIPK3 --- microRNA --- miR-30a-3p --- skeletal muscle --- proliferation --- differentiation

The Origin and Early Evolution of Life: Prebiotic Chemistry of Biomolecules

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ISBN: 9783039216062 / 9783039216079 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-607-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Studying the origin of life is one of man’s greatest achievements over the last sixty years. The fields of interest encompassed by this quest are multiple and interdisciplinary: chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry, mathematics, geology but also statistics, atmospheric science, meteorology, oceanography, and astrophysics. Recent scientific discoveries, such as water on Mars and the existence of super-Earths with atmospheres similar to primordial Earth, have pushed researchers to simulate prebiotic conditions in explaining the abiotic formation of molecules essential to life. This collection of articles offers an overview of recent discoveries in the field of prebiotic chemistry of biomolecules, their formation and selection, and the evolution of complex chemical systems.

Keywords

origin of life --- systems chemistry --- Chemomimesis --- Molecular Darwinism --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- thiol-rich peptides --- cysteine --- aminonitriles --- imidazoles --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- nucleotide and nucleoside synthesis --- protein design --- novel metalloproteins --- binary patterned amino acid sequences --- prebiotic chemistry --- population growth --- replication --- growth order --- Darwinian evolution --- selection --- origin of life --- abiogenesis --- carbon fixation --- hydrothermal vents --- electrochemistry --- reduction --- digit multiplicity --- information --- transmission --- encoding --- translation --- diversity --- function --- origin of life --- layered double hydroxide (LDH) clay --- pentose diphosphate --- pentopyranose nucleic acid --- arabinopyranose nucleic acid --- RNA --- base pairing --- purine precursor --- inosine --- AICAR --- peptide/RNA world --- prebiotic information system --- translation and the genetic code --- bridge peptide and aaRS --- ribozyme and tRNA --- tRNA and mRNA --- coevolution of translation machine and the genetic code --- MVC architecture pattern and biological information --- numerical codons --- AnyLogic software for computer simulation of translation machine --- phosphoryl transfer --- metabolism --- energy currency --- mixed anhydride --- origin of life --- hypercycle --- Monte Carlo --- prebiotic chemistry --- carbamic acid --- carbon dioxide-ammonia ices --- infrared spectra --- anharmonicity --- origin of life --- metabolism --- phosphates --- network expansion simulation --- thermodynamic bottleneck --- molecular clocks --- ab initio molecular dynamics --- catalysis --- prebiotic soup --- origins of life --- aldol reaction --- mechanochemistry --- minerals --- monosaccharides --- prebiotic chemistry --- prebiotic polymerization --- nucleotide oligomerization --- abasic oligomers --- nucleotide stability --- stability as a selection pressure --- dry-wet cycles --- genetic code origin --- tRNA accretion model --- tRNA-synthetase --- metabolism --- thioester --- nucleotidyltransferases --- early peptides --- ribosome --- n/a

Synthetic DNA and RNA Programming

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ISBN: 9783039217342 / 9783039217359 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-735-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Dear Colleagues, Synthetic biology is a broad and emerging discipline that capitalizes on recent advances in molecular biology, genetics, protein and RNA engineering and omics technologies. These technologies have transformed our ability to reveal the biology of the cell and the molecular basis of disease.

Keywords

fluorescent reporter --- live cell imaging --- microRNA quantification --- optogenetics --- small molecule drug screening --- Escherichia coli --- recombinant protein production --- gene overexpression --- growth effect --- ASKA collection --- codon bias --- branched-chain amino acids --- gene ontology --- genetic code expansion --- protein kinase B --- phosphoinositide dependent kinase 1 --- phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase --- tRNASep --- alanyl-tRNA synthetase --- class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase --- expanded genetic code --- lysine acetylation --- posttranslational modification --- genetic code expansion --- transfer RNA --- synthetic biology --- non-canonical amino acids --- selenocysteine --- genetic code expansion --- release factor 1 --- amber stop codon suppression --- M. jannaschii orthogonal pair --- fluorescence-based screen --- cyclic peptides --- biopharmaceuticals --- mRNA display --- yeast two hybrid --- tRNASer --- mistranslation --- anticodon --- functional conservation --- alternative amino acid and nucleotide repertoires --- alternative core cellular chemistries --- biocontainment --- genetic firewall --- genetic isolation --- orthogonal central dogma of molecular biology --- synthetic life --- xenobiology --- genome engineering --- synthetic biology --- yeasts --- Metschnikowia --- genetic tools --- DNA delivery --- CUG-Ser --- reverse polymerization --- tRNA editing --- tRNA repair --- protein engineering --- synthetic biology --- tRNA --- misacylation --- indirect tRNA aminoacylation --- AspRS --- GluRS-like --- genetic code expansion --- genome synthesis --- genome editing --- microRNA --- protein modification --- RNA metabolism --- tRNA --- synthetic biology --- unnatural amino acids --- unnatural nucleotides

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