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Influence of Emitter Surface Roughness and Emission Inhomogeneity on Efficiency and Stability of High Power Fusion Gyrotrons

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Book Series: Karlsruher Forschungsberichte aus dem Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls- und Mikrowellentechnik ISSN: 21922764 ISBN: 9783731505785 Year: Volume: 9 Pages: XV, 197 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000058566 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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The increasing demand for powerful, reliable, and efficient gyrotron oscillators for Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) in fusion plasma experiments requires a close look at the various factors in gyrotrons that determine gyrotron performance. In this frame, the influence of emitter surface roughness, emission inhomogeneity, and secondary electron generation on gyrotron operation is presented, with focus on Low Frequency Oscillations (LFOs) and Electron Beam Halo (EBH) generation.

Verfahren zur Charakterisierung des Niederfrequenzverhaltens von Lithium-Ionen Batterien

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Book Series: Schriften des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien - Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie / Institut für Angewandte Materialien - Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik ISSN: 23658029 ISBN: 9783731506850 Year: Volume: 32 Pages: V, 192 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000070943 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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In order to understand the current-voltage behaviour of a Lithium-Ion Battery, its impedance needs to be investigated in the low-frequency domain. This work deals with measurement, modelling and model validation in that low-frequency domain and introduces the Distribution-Function-of-Differential-Capacity (DDC) as a new tool for investigating capacity contributions of different particle sizes and particle types inside of a Lithium-Ion Battery.

Marine Structures

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ISBN: 9783039281824 9783039281831 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-183-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Structural mechanics is an important field of engineering. The main goal of structural mechanics is to ensure that structures are safe and durable so that catastrophic situations can be prevented, which can otherwise cause loss of life, environmental pollution and financial losses. Depending on the uses of the structure and the conditions that the structure is subjected to, special treatment may be required for the analysis. Specifically, marine structures are subjected to harsh environmental conditions due to the marine environment, which can cause several different damage mechanisms including fatigue and corrosion. This book on “Marine structures” considers a wide range of areas related to marine structures and provides a compilation of numerical and experimental studies related to “Marine structures” research.

Miniaturized Transistors

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ISBN: 9783039210107 9783039210114 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-011-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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What is the future of CMOS? Sustaining increased transistor densities along the path of Moore's Law has become increasingly challenging with limited power budgets, interconnect bandwidths, and fabrication capabilities. In the last decade alone, transistors have undergone significant design makeovers; from planar transistors of ten years ago, technological advancements have accelerated to today's FinFETs, which hardly resemble their bulky ancestors. FinFETs could potentially take us to the 5-nm node, but what comes after it? From gate-all-around devices to single electron transistors and two-dimensional semiconductors, a torrent of research is being carried out in order to design the next transistor generation, engineer the optimal materials, improve the fabrication technology, and properly model future devices. We invite insight from investigators and scientists in the field to showcase their work in this Special Issue with research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on trends in micro- and nanotechnology from fundamental research to applications.

Keywords

flux calculation --- etching simulation --- process simulation --- topography simulation --- CMOS --- field-effect transistor --- ferroelectrics --- MOS devices --- negative-capacitance --- piezoelectrics --- power consumption --- thin-film transistors (TFTs) --- compact model --- surface potential --- technology computer-aided design (TCAD) --- metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) --- topography simulation --- metal gate stack --- level set --- high-k --- fin field effect transistor (FinFET) --- line edge roughness --- metal gate granularity --- nanowire --- non-equilibrium Green’s function --- random discrete dopants --- SiGe --- variability --- band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) --- electrostatic discharge (ESD) --- tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) --- Silicon-Germanium source/drain (SiGe S/D) --- technology computer aided design (TCAD) --- bulk NMOS devices --- radiation hardened by design (RHBD) --- total ionizing dose (TID) --- Sentaurus TCAD --- layout --- two-dimensional material --- field effect transistor --- indium selenide --- phonon scattering --- mobility --- high-? dielectric --- low-frequency noise --- silicon-on-insulator --- MOSFET --- inversion channel --- buried channel --- subthreshold bias range --- low voltage --- low energy --- theoretical model --- process simulation --- device simulation --- compact models --- process variations --- systematic variations --- statistical variations --- FinFETs --- nanowires --- nanosheets --- semi-floating gate --- synaptic transistor --- neuromorphic system --- spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) --- highly miniaturized transistor structure --- low power consumption --- drain engineered --- tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) --- polarization --- ambipolar --- subthreshold --- ON-state --- doping incorporation --- plasma-aided molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) --- segregation --- silicon nanowire --- n/a

Structural Prognostics and Health Management in Power & Energy Systems

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039217663 9783039217670 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-767-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The idea of preparing an Energies Special Issue on “Structural Prognostics and Health Management in Power & Energy Systems” is to compile information on the recent advances in structural prognostics and health management (SPHM). Continued improvements on SPHM have been made possible through advanced signature analysis, performance degradation assessment, as well as accurate modeling of failure mechanisms by introducing advanced mathematical approaches/tools. Through combining deterministic and probabilistic modeling techniques, research on SPHM can provide assurance for new structures at a design stage and ensure construction integrity at a fabrication phase. Specifically, power and energy system failures occur under multiple sources of uncertainty/variability resulting from load variations in usage, material properties, geometry variations within tolerances, and other uncontrolled variations. Thus, advanced methods and applications for theoretical, numerical, and experimental contributions that address these issues on SPHM are desired and expected, which attempt to prevent overdesign and unnecessary inspection and provide tools to enable a balance between safety and economy to be achieved. This Special Issue has attracted submissions from China, USA, Portugal, and Italy. A total of 26 submissions were received and 11 articles finally published.

Keywords

prognostics --- residual useful life --- similarity-based approach --- supporting vector machine (SVM) --- reliability --- non-probabilistic reliability index --- sensitivity analysis --- techno-economic assessments --- life cycle cost --- vibration transmission mechanism --- underground powerhouse --- lateral-river vibration --- low frequency tail fluctuation --- rotation of hydraulic generator --- vertical axis wind turbine --- structural health monitoring --- operational modal analysis --- stochastic subspace identification --- vibration test --- offshore structures --- oil and gas platforms --- offshore wind turbines --- retrofitting activities --- renewable energy --- dynamic analysis --- wind and wave analysis --- dynamic analysis of the structure --- wave–structure interaction (WSI) --- probabilistic analyses of stochastic processes and frequency --- data-driven --- machine learning --- deep learning --- DNN --- prognostic and Health Management --- lithium-ion battery --- wind turbines --- health monitoring --- fault detection --- optimized deep belief networks --- supervisory control and data acquisition system --- multioperation condition --- wind turbine blade --- full-scale static test --- neural networks --- strain prediction --- dynamic fuzzy reliability analysis --- extremum surface response method --- weighted regression --- turbine blisk --- fuzzy safety criterion --- lithium-ion battery --- remaining useful life --- regeneration phenomenon --- wavelet decomposition --- NAR neural network --- empirical mode decomposition --- analysis mode decomposition --- analysis-empirical mode decomposition --- mode mixing --- sifting stop criterion

Ultrasonic Guided Waves

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ISBN: 9783039282982 9783039282999 Year: Pages: 376 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-299-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in solids is an important area of scientific inquiry, primarily due to their practical applications for nondestructive characterization of materials, such as nondestructive inspection, quality assurance testing, structural health monitoring, and providing a material state awareness. This Special Issue of Applied Sciences covers all aspects of ultrasonic guided waves (e.g., phased array transducers, meta-materials to control wave propagation characteristics, scattering, attenuation, and signal processing techniques) from the perspective of modeling, simulation, laboratory experiments, or field testing. In order to fully utilize ultrasonic guided waves for these applications, it is necessary to have a firm grasp of their requisite characteristics, which include that they are multimodal, dispersive, and are comprised of unique displacement profiles through the thickness of the waveguide.

Keywords

electromagnetic wave --- group velocity --- time-frequency domain reflectometry --- dispersive medium --- ultrasonic guided wave --- nondestructive testing --- square steel bar --- non-detection zone --- surface flaw --- Rayleigh wave --- scattering --- modified BEM --- reconstruction --- adhesive joint --- single lap joint --- non-destructive testing --- damage identification --- Lamb waves --- scanning laser vibrometry --- signal processing --- ultrasonic guided waves --- axial transmission --- ultrasonic guided waves --- fiber optics --- fiber Bragg grating --- nondestructive testing --- structural health monitoring --- pipe inspection --- partial wave method --- slowness curves --- lamb wave --- stoneley wave --- mode sorting --- acoustic leakage --- rayleigh wave --- surface waves --- elastodynamics --- guided waves --- lamb wave --- dispersion curves --- phase velocity --- group velocity --- signal processing --- SH0 mode --- circumferential scanning --- synthetic aperture focusing --- exploding reflector model --- Lamb wave --- local wavenumber --- air-coupled transducer --- wavenumber domain filtering --- hybrid and non-contact system --- signal processing --- SNR --- split-spectrum processing --- ultrasonic guided waves --- signal processing --- defect detection --- spatial domain --- array analysis --- pipeline inspection --- ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs) --- metamaterial --- resonator --- low-frequency --- lamb wave --- adaptive filtering --- leaky normalized mean square --- ultrasonic guided waves --- pipeline inspection --- SNR enhancement --- signal processing --- guided wave --- multi-wire cable --- wave structure --- contact acoustic nonlinearity --- energy transfer --- rail --- ultrasonic guided wave --- semi-analytical finite element --- single mode extraction algorithm --- defect location --- signal processing --- defect detection --- torsional wave --- power spectrum --- sliding window --- pipeline inspection --- ultrasonic guided-waves (UGWs) --- magnetostrictive patch transducer --- shear mode --- soft magnetic patch --- dynamic magnetic field optimization --- signal strength enhancement --- acoustic emission --- nondestructive testing --- leakage location --- fault diagnosis --- n/a --- lamb waves --- composite --- ultrasonic testing --- numerical modelling --- pressure vessels

Planning, Development and Management of Sustainable Cities

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038979067 9783038979074 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-907-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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The concept of ‘sustainable urban development’ has been pushed to the forefront of policymaking and politics as the world wakes up to the impacts of climate change and the destructive effects of the Anthropocene. Climate change has emerged to be one of the biggest challenges faced by our planet today, threatening both built and natural systems with long-term consequences, which may be irreversible. While there is a vast body of literature on sustainability and sustainable urban development, there is currently limited focus on how to cohesively bring together the vital issues of the planning, development, and management of sustainable cities. Moreover, it has been widely stated that current practices and lifestyles cannot continue if we are to leave a healthy living planet to not only the next generation, but also to the generations beyond. The current global school strikes for climate action (known as Fridays for Future) evidences this. The book advocates the view that the focus needs to rest on ways in which our cities and industries can become green enough to avoid urban ecocide. This book fills a gap in the literature by bringing together issues related to the planning, development, and management of cities and focusing on a triple-bottom-line approach to sustainability.

Keywords

spatial decision support systems --- urban planning --- sustainability indicators --- urban metabolism --- sustainable regional development --- land use governance --- regional stakeholder involvement --- precision farming (PF) --- wood fuel --- technology roadmapping (TRM) --- open innovation (OI) --- Germany --- sustainability assessment --- sustainable urban development --- neighborhood sustainability --- neighborhood sustainability assessment index --- sustainable city --- Ipoh --- Malaysia --- scaling-up strategy --- sustainable development --- local new town --- neoliberal capitalism --- Wujin --- China --- low-energy transport --- carbon --- energy consumption --- sociotechnical transition --- innovation --- cities --- United Kingdom --- sustainability --- tree --- urban forest --- forest values --- urban transport --- sustainable transport --- developing cities --- medium-sized cities --- infrastructure --- transport projects --- sustainability --- knowledge management --- practitioner perceptions --- frames --- framing processes --- low carbon cities --- visioning --- urban resilience --- sustainability --- sustainability literacy --- urban development --- public participation --- urban planning --- civic engagement --- green economy --- built environment sector --- eco-cities --- sustainable urban development --- green innovation --- low carbon economy --- socio-technical transition --- urban fire --- spatio-temporal features --- SDM, humidity --- GDP --- the fire assimilation effect --- fire inertia effect --- fire caution effect --- urban land development --- natural environmental impact --- driving forces-pressure-state-impact-policy and pattern (DPSIP) --- water supply --- demand --- time-series forecasting --- ARIMA --- urban water sustainability --- Istanbul --- ecosystem approach --- urban ecology --- eco-cities --- process-function ecology --- heat island mitigation --- urban forestry --- green infrastructure --- ecological landscape management --- sustainability index --- mixed land-use --- neighbourhood --- travel behaviour --- perception --- indicator --- stakeholder --- megacity --- co-design --- co-production --- bottom-up --- anthropogenic impact --- environmental threshold --- road grades --- heavy-duty vehicles --- emissions --- sustainable transportation --- China --- water asset management --- Gap analysis --- LOS (level of service) --- PIs (performance indicators) --- customer value --- noise pollution --- low-frequency noise --- DEFRA --- human well-being --- sustainability --- power poles --- City Biodiversity Index --- Satoyama Index --- land use mixture --- land cover --- GIS --- sustainability --- sustainable development --- sustainable urban development --- sustainable city --- sustainable urban ecosystems --- sustainability assessment --- smart cities

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