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Early and late selection: Effects of load, dilution and salience

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192557 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-255-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Our visual system is constantly bombarded by a variety of stimuli, of which only a small part is relevant to the task at hand. As a result, goal-directed behavior requires a high degree of selectivity at some point in the processing stream. The precise point at which selection takes place has been the focus of much debate. Early selection advocates argue that the locus of selection is at early stages of processing and that therefore, unattended stimuli are not fully processed. In contrast, late selection theorists argue that attention operates only after stimuli have been fully processed. Evidence supporting both sides has been accumulated over the years and the debate played a central role in the attention literature for decades. Perceptual load theory was put forward as an intermediate solution: the locus of selective attention depends on task requirements. When load is high, selection is early. When load is low, selection is late. This solution has been widely accepted and the early/late debate has been, for the most part, set aside. However, recently, perceptual load theory has been challenged on both theoretical and methodological grounds. It has been argued that it is not load, but rather perceptual dilution salience and other perceptual factors that determine the efficacy of attentional selection, which would call for a reevaluation of the current status of both perceptual load theory and its proposed alternatives, and more broadly, the early/late selection debate. The goal of this Research Topic is to provide an up-to-date overview of both empirical evidence and theoretical views on these key questions.

Reduction of Environmental Distraction to Facilitate Cognitive Performance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194476 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-447-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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When faced with a difficult task, people often look at the sky or close their eyes. This behavior is functional: the reduction of distractions in the environment can improve performance on cognitive tasks, including memory retrieval. Reduction of visual distractions can be operationalized through eye-closure, gaze aversion, or by comparing exposure to simple and complex visual displays, respectively. Reduction of auditory distractions is typically examined by comparing performance under quiet and noisy conditions. Theoretical reasoning regarding this phenomenon draws on various psychological principles, including embodied cognition, cognitive load, and modality-specific interference. Practical applications of the research topic are diverse. For example, the findings could be used to improve performance in forensic settings (e.g., eyewitness testimony), educational settings (e.g., exam performance), occupational settings (e.g., employee productivity), or medical settings (e.g., medical history reporting). This Research Topic welcomes articles from all areas of psychology relating to the reduction of distractions to improve task performance. Articles can address (but are not limited to) new empirical findings, comprehensive reviews, theoretical frameworks, opinion pieces, or discussions of practical applications.

Economics of Distributed Storage Systems : an economic analysis of arbitrage-maximizing storage systems at the end consumer level

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ISBN: 9783866445611 Year: Pages: XVIII, 163 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000019719 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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Increasing the shares of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and Distributed Energy Resources (DER) is one of the most important levers in many countries to cope with the environmental, political, and economic challenges of future energy supply. The underlying research question of this thesis is whether Distributed Storage Systems (DSS) at the end consumer level can economically foster the integration of intermittent and non-dispatchable resources by providing demand-side flexibility.

Schädigungsverhalten von in CFK-Laminaten eingebetteten Inserts unter bauteilnahen Beanspruchungen

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731507192 Year: Volume: 72 Pages: XXXII, 264 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000073687 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Mechanical fasteners, so-called insert, offer the opportunity to allow for an inexpensive, detachable connection of thin-walled carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) parts to metal- or other plastic-based structures in the context of multi-material design. The present work is comprised of a systematic comparison of both insert types under near-application load conditions, whereby the strength as well as the damage behavior were evaluated.

Flexible Application-Layer Multicast in Heterogeneous Networks

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ISBN: 9783731500216 Year: Pages: XXIII, 268 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000034623 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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This work develops a set of peer-to-peer-based protocols and extensions in order to provide Internet-wide group communication. The focus is put to the question how different access technologies can be integrated in order to face the growing traffic load problem. Thereby, protocols are developed that allow autonomous adaptation to the current network situation on the one hand and the integration of WiFi domains where applicable on the other hand.

Bedarf und Verteilung elektrischer Tagesspeicher im zukünftigen deutschen Energiesystem

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Book Series: Produktion und Energie / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Industriebetriebslehre und industrielle Produktion u. Deutsch-Französisches Institut für Umweltforschung ISSN: 21942404 ISBN: 9783731503064 Year: Volume: 7 Pages: XVI, 239 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000044722 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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The power system model PERSEUS-NET-ESS is used to assess the need for daily electricity storage systems in Germany until 2040 under consideration of alternative technologies such as gas turbines or load shift potentials. This investment and dispatch model includes a DC approach of the German transmission grid and, thus, calculates not only the installed storage capacities, but also their optimal allocation.

Fahrplanbasiertes Energiemanagement in Smart Grids

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ISBN: 9783731505518 Year: Pages: XII, 204 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000056497 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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The increase in decentralized, volatile electricity generation as result of the German energy system transformation causes congestions in electricity grids. IT networking and coordination of producers and consumers in smart grids promises a solution to these problems. In this context, this work presents an energy management approach that approximates specified, aggregated power profiles. The approach uses power forecasts and flexibilities and takes network restrictions into account.

Reduzierung der Magnetbelastung permanentmagneterregter Synchronmaschinen im dreiphasigen Stoßkurzschluss

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ISBN: 9783731508946 Year: Pages: XIX, 162 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000090490 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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This work is about the reduction of the magnetic load of a permanent magnet synchronous machine in case of a three phase short circuit. A new method is investigated in theory and tested in reality. It is applied to a permanent magnet synchronous machine with surface mounted magnets.

Evolution, Monitoring and Predicting Models of Rockburst: Precursor Information for Rock Failure

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ISBN: 9789811075476 9789811075483 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7548-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: National Natural Science Foundation of China
Subject: Mechanical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 16:34:23
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This open access book focuses on investigating predicting precursor information and key points of rockburst in mining engineering through laboratory experiment, theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and case studies. Understanding the evolution patterns for the microstructure instability of rock is a prerequisite for rockburst prediction. The book provides a guide for readers seeking to understand the evolution patterns for the microstrucure of rock failure, the predicting key point of rock failure and the rockburst predicting model. It will be an essential reference to understand mechanism of rockburst and sheds new light on dynamic disasters prediction. Chapters are carefully developed to cover (1) The evolution patterns for the microstructure instability of rock; (2) Rockburst hazard monitoring and predicting criterion and predicting models. The book addresses the issue with a holistic and systematic approach that investigates the occurrence mechanism of rockburst based on the evolution patterns for the microstructure of rock failure and establishes the predicting model of rockburst.This book will be of interest to researchers of mining engineering, rock mechanics engineering and safety engineering.

Entwicklung eines druckgetriebenen dynamischen Kolonnenmodells zur Erhöhung der Flexibilität von kryogenen Luftzerlegungsanlagen

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ISBN: 9783731507604 Year: Pages: VIII, 175 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000080378 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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Driven by market signals, energy consumers are motivated to adapt their grid load. Due to their cryogenic storage capacity, air separation units can efficiently be used for load shifting. Such an operation leads to new challenges for plant operation and control. The developed pressure-driven dynamic column model is used to investigate load-flexible operation.

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