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Filamentous Bacteriophage in Bio/Nano/Technology, Bacterial Pathogenesis and Ecology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450954 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-095-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Abstract

Filamentous phage (genus Inovirus) infect almost invariably Gram-negative bacteria. They are distinguished from all other bacteriophage not only by morphology, but also by the mode of their assembly, a secretion-like process that does not kill the host. “Classic” Escherichia coli filamentous phage Ff (f1, fd and M13) are used in display technology and bio/nano/technology, whereas filamentous phage in general have been put to use by their bacterial hosts for adaptation to environment, pathogenesis, biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer and modulating genome stability. Many filamentous phage have a “symbiotic” life style that is often manifested by inability to form plaques, preventing their identification by standard phage-hunting techniques; while the absence or very low sequence conservation between phage infecting different species often complicates their identification through bioinformatics. Nevertheless, the number of discovered filamentous phage is increasing rapidly, along with realization of their significance. “Temperate” filamentous phage whose genomes are integrated into the bacterial chromosome of pathogenic bacteria often modulate virulence of the host. The Vibrio cholerae phage CTXf genome encodes cholera toxin, whereas many filamentous prophage influence virulence without encoding virulence factors. The nature of their effect on the bacterial pathogenicity and overall physiology is the next frontier in understanding intricate relationship between the filamentous phage and their hosts. Phage display has been widely used as a combinatorial technology of choice for discovery of therapeutic antibodies and peptide leads that have been applied in the vaccine design, diagnostics and drug development or targeting over the past thirty years. Virion proteins of filamentous phage are integral membrane proteins prior to assembly; hence they are ideal for display of bacterial surface and secreted proteins. The use of this technology at the scale of microbial community has potential to identify host-interacting proteins of uncultivable or low-represented community members. Recent applications of Ff filamentous phage extend into protein evolution, synthetic biology and nanotechnology. In many applications, phage serves as a monodisperse long-aspect nano-scaffold of well-defined shape. Chemical or chenetic modifications of this scaffold are used to introduce the necessary functionalities, such as fluorescent labels, ligands that target specific proteins, or peptides that promote formation of inorganic or organic nanostructures. We anticipate that the future holds development of new strategies for particle assembly, site-specific multi-functional modifications and improvement of existing modification strategies. These improvements will render the production of filamentous-phage-templated materials safe and affordable, allowing their applications outside of the laboratory.

Drug Delivery Technology Development in Canada

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ISBN: 9783039280049 9783039280056 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-005-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:21:22
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Canada continues to have a rich history of ground-breaking research in drug delivery within academic institutions, pharmaceutical industry and the biotechnology community.

Keywords

doxorubicin --- MG63 --- Vitamin D --- DOX-Vit D --- hypoxia-induced chemoresistance --- cisplatin --- polymeric micelle --- EGFR-targeted therapy --- STAT3 --- HIF-1 --- GE11 peptide --- pharmacological Inhibitors of HIF-1 and STAT3 --- combination therapy --- pharmacokinetics --- antibodies --- radiolabeling --- biodistribution --- mouse models --- oral formulation --- amphotericin B --- fungal infections --- parasitic infections --- developing world --- drug delivery --- liposomes --- drug delivery systems --- innovation --- lipid nanoparticles --- Metaplex --- triggered drug release --- liposomes --- ultrasound --- magnetic fields --- radiation --- oral delivery --- biological barriers --- co-delivery --- throughput --- sustained delivery --- phospholipid complex --- rosmarinic acid --- bioaccessibility --- dissolution --- TNO gastrointestinal model --- gastrointestinal simulator --- phytosterols --- tocopherols --- liposomes --- canola oil deodorizer distillate --- model orange juice --- virus --- plant --- bacteriophage --- phage display --- drug discovery --- encapsulation --- drug delivery --- blood-brain barrier --- intra-arterial chemotherapy --- malignant gliomas --- primary central nervous system lymphomas --- transdermal drug delivery --- Canada --- skin --- permeation enhancers --- oral, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma --- targeted therapies --- drug delivery systems --- nanoparticles --- controlled drug delivery --- circadian clock --- chronotherapy --- precision medicine --- cationic gemini surfactant --- melphalan --- inclusion complex --- ROESY NMR spectroscopy --- 3D spheroid --- drug-resistant melanoma --- liposome --- water miscible solvents --- remote loading --- staurosporine --- cancer --- gambogic acid --- loading gradients --- mefloquine --- child friendly formulation --- blood-brain barrier (BBB) --- drug delivery --- transient modulation --- HAV6 cadherin peptide --- adenanthin --- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) --- medulloblastoma --- drug delivery --- pharmaceutics --- drug development --- formulation and dosage form development --- translational research --- biologicals --- small molecules --- clinical trials --- pharmacokinetics --- medical devices --- route of administration --- nifedipine --- emulsion --- flavonoids --- topical formulation --- quercetin --- photostabilizers

Transmucosal Absorption Enhancers in the Drug Delivery Field

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218486 9783039218493 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-849-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Abstract

Development of strategies to assist the movement of poorly permeable molecules across biological barriers has long been the goal of drug delivery science. In the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in advanced drug delivery systems that aim to address this issue. However, most proprietary delivery technologies that have progressed to clinical development are based on permeation enhancers (PEs) that have a history of safe use in man. This Special Issue entitled “Transmucosal Absorption Enhancers in the Drug Delivery Field” aims to present the current state-of-the-art in the application of PEs to improve drug absorption. Emphasis is placed on identification of novel permeation enhancers, mechanisms of barrier alteration, physicochemical properties of PEs that contribute to optimal enhancement action, new delivery models to assess PEs, studies assessing safety of PEs, approaches to assist translation of PEs into effective oral, nasal, ocular and vaginal dosage forms and combining PEs with other delivery strategies.

Keywords

absorption enhancers --- sugar-based surfactants --- biocompatibility studies --- transmucosal drug delivery --- intestinal permeation enhancers --- sodium cholate (NaC) --- N-dodecyl-?-D-maltoside (DDM) --- small intestine --- enterocyte --- brush border --- tryptophan --- oral delivery --- insulin --- GLP-1 --- intestinal absorption --- amino acid --- cell-penetrating peptide --- combined microsphere --- chitosan --- cyclodextrin --- nasal delivery --- nose to brain transport --- penetration enhancer --- nasal formulation --- in vivo studies --- nose to brain delivery --- antiepileptic drug --- drug delivery --- block copolymers --- thermogel system --- chitosan derivatives --- amphiphilic polymers --- polymeric micelles --- quaternization --- curcumin --- intestinal delivery --- mucoadhesiveness --- cervicovaginal tumors --- cationic functionalization --- imatinib --- nanocrystals --- in situ hydrogel --- bioenhancer --- cytochrome P450 --- drug absorption enhancer --- efflux --- metabolism --- P-glycoprotein --- pharmacokinetic interaction --- tight junction --- Aloe vera --- gel --- whole leaf --- absorption enhancement --- Caco-2 --- confocal laser scanning microscopy --- F-actin --- FITC-dextran --- tight junctions --- transepithelial electrical resistance --- permeation enhancer --- oral delivery --- formulation --- permeability --- safety --- simulated intestinal fluid --- hydrophobization --- epithelium --- compound 48/80 --- chitosan --- nanoparticles --- mast cell activator --- vaccine adjuvant --- nasal vaccination --- absorption enhancer --- antimicrobial peptide --- Caco-2 --- claudin --- cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) --- drug delivery --- intestinal epithelial cells --- KLAL --- PN159 --- tight junction modulator --- oral macromolecule delivery --- oral peptides --- sodium caprate --- salcaprozate sodium --- epithelial permeability --- epithelial transport --- nasal permeability --- nose-to-brain --- simvastatin --- nanocapsules --- mucoadhesion --- CNS disorders --- chitosan --- nasal --- pulmonary --- drug administration --- absorption enhancers --- nanoparticle --- and liposome --- absorption enhancer --- gemini surfactant --- intestinal absorption --- poorly absorbed drug --- Caco-2 cells --- PTH 1-34 --- teriparatide --- nasal delivery --- pharmacokinetics --- osteoporosis --- man --- sheep --- clinical trial --- preclinical --- Caco-2 --- intestinal absorption --- nanomedicine --- nanoparticle --- oral delivery --- transferrin --- ocular drug delivery --- cornea --- penetration enhancers --- ocular conditions --- ophthalmology --- permeation enhancers --- absorption modifying excipients --- oral delivery --- nasal delivery --- ocular delivery --- vaginal delivery --- transmucosal permeation

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